GGCX and VKORC1 inhibit osteocalcin endocrine functions.
ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone favoring glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, male fertility, brain development, and cognition. Before being secreted by osteoblasts in the bone extracellular matrix, OCN is ?-carboxylated by the ?-carboxylase (GGCX) on three glutamic acid residues, a cellular process requiring reduction of vitamin K (VK) by a second enzyme, a reductase called VKORC1. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that ?-carboxylation may inhibit OCN endocrine functions, genetic evidence that it is the case is still lacking. Here we show using cell-specific gene inactivation models that ?-carboxylation of OCN by GGCX inhibits its endocrine function. We further show that VKORC1 is required for OCN ?-carboxylation in osteoblasts, whereas its paralogue, VKORC1L1, is dispensable for this function and cannot compensate for the absence of VKORC1 in osteoblasts. This study genetically and biochemically delineates the functions of the enzymes required for OCN modification and demonstrates that it is the uncarboxylated form of OCN that acts as a hormone.
Project description:Vertebrates possess 2 proteins with vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKOR) activity: VKORC1, whose vitamin K reduction supports vitamin K-dependent (VKD) protein carboxylation, and VKORC1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), whose function is unknown. VKD proteins include liver-derived coagulation factors, and hemorrhaging and lethality were previously observed in mice lacking either VKORC1 or the ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) that modifies VKD proteins. Vkorc1-/- mice survived longer (1 week) than Ggcx-/- mice (midembryogenesis or birth), and we assessed whether VKORC1L1 could account for this difference. We found that Vkorc1-/-;Vkorc1l1-/- mice died at birth with severe hemorrhaging, indicating that VKORC1L1 supports carboxylation during the pre- and perinatal periods. Additional studies showed that only VKORC1 sustains hemostasis beyond P7. VKORC1 expression and VKOR activity increased during late embryogenesis and following birth, while VKORC1L1 expression was unchanged. At P0, most (>99%) VKOR activity was due to VKORC1. Prothrombin mRNA, protein, and carboxylation also increased during this period, as did mRNA levels of coagulation factors encoding genes F7, F9, and F10. VKORC1L1 levels in Vkorc1-/- mouse liver may therefore be insufficient for supporting carboxylation beyond day 7. In support of this conclusion, VKORC1L1 overexpression in liver rescued carboxylation and hemostasis in adult Vkorc1-/- mice. These findings establish that VKORC1L1 supports VKD protein carboxylation in vivo.
Project description:Vitamin K serves as an essential co-factor in the ?-carboxylation of glutamate to ?-carboxyglutamate (GLA), a post-translational modification mediated by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K oxidoreductases (VKORC1 or VKORC1L1). While both phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) support the synthesis of GLA-modified proteins, studies assessing K1 and/or K2 effects in cancer cells have reported minimal effects of K1 and anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic effects of K2. qPCR results indicated highest expression of GGCX, VKORC1, and VKORC1L1 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, Hs578T, MDA-MB-231 and SUM159PT, and in advanced stage disease. To assess differential effects of vitamin K, TNBC cells were cultured in media supplemented with K1 or K2. K1 treatment increased cell growth, and enhanced stemness and GLA-modified protein expression in TNBC lysates. Alternatively, lysates from cells exposed to vehicle, K2, or the VKOR antagonist, warfarin, did not express GLA-modified proteins. Further, K2 exposure reduced stemness and elicited anti-proliferative effects. These studies show that TNBC cells express a functional vitamin K pathway and that K1 and K2 exert distinct phenotypic effects. Clarification of the mechanisms by which K1 and K2 induce these effects may lead to relevant therapeutic strategies for manipulating this pathway in TNBC patients.
Project description:Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues with primary manifestations in the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. The classic forms of PXE are due to mutations in the ABCC6 gene that encodes the ABCC6 protein, a putative transmembrane transporter expressed primarily in the liver and the kidneys. PXE-like clinical findings have been encountered in association with vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to mutations in either the GGCX or VKORC1 genes. In this study, we investigated a family with two siblings with characteristic features of PXE and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency. Mutation analysis identified two GGCX mutations in the affected individuals (p. R83W and p.Q374X); however, no mutations in either ABCC6 or VKORC1 could be found. GGCX encodes a gamma-glutamyl carboxylase necessary for activation of both coagulation factors in the liver and matrix gla protein, which, in fully carboxylated form, is able to prevent ectopic mineralization. Analysis of skin by specific antibodies demonstrated that matrix gla protein was found predominantly in undercarboxylated form and was associated with the mineralized areas in the patients' lesional skin. These observations pathomechanistically suggest that, in our patients, reduced carboxylase activity results in a reduction of matrix gla protein carboxylation, thus allowing peripheral mineralization to occur. Our findings also confirm GGCX as the second gene locus causing PXE.
Project description:Vitamin K reduction is catalyzed by 2 enzymes in vitro: the vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and its isozyme VKORC1-like1 (VKORC1L1). In vivo, VKORC1 reduces vitamin K to sustain ?-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors. Inhibition of VKORC1 by oral anticoagulants (OACs) is clinically used in therapy and in prevention of thrombosis. However, OACs also inhibit VKORC1L1, which was previously shown to play a role in intracellular redox homeostasis in vitro. Here, we report data for the first time on specific inhibition of both VKOR enzymes for various OACs and rodenticides examined in a cell-based assay. Effects on endogenous VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 were independently investigated in genetically engineered HEK 293T cells that were knocked out for the respective genes by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In general, dose-responses for 4-hydroxycoumarins and 1,3-indandiones were enzyme-dependent, with lower susceptibility for VKORC1L1 compared with VKORC1. In contrast, rodenticides exhibited nearly identical dose-responses for both enzymes. To explain the distinct inhibition pattern, we performed in silico modeling suggesting different warfarin binding sites for VKORC1 and VKORC1L1. We identified arginine residues at positions 38, 42, and 68 in the endoplasmatic reticulum luminal loop of VKORC1L1 responsible for charge-stabilized warfarin binding, resulting in a binding pocket that is diametrically opposite to that of VKORC1. In conclusion, our findings provide insight into structural and molecular drug binding on VKORC1, and especially on VKORC1L1.
Project description:Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. The cDNA sequence of OCN predicts that, like many other peptide hormones, OCN is first synthesized as a prohormone (pro-OCN). The importance of pro-OCN maturation in regulating OCN and the identity of the endopeptidase responsible for pro-OCN cleavage in osteoblasts are still unknown. Here, we show that the proprotein convertase furin is responsible for pro-OCN maturation in vitro and in vivo. Using pharmacological and genetic experiments, we also determined that furin-mediated pro-OCN cleavage occurred independently of its ?-carboxylation, a posttranslational modification that is known to hamper OCN endocrine action. However, because pro-OCN is not efficiently decarboxylated and activated during bone resorption, inactivation of furin in osteoblasts in mice resulted in decreased circulating levels of undercarboxylated OCN, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that Furin deletion in osteoblasts reduced appetite, a function not modulated by OCN, thus suggesting that osteoblasts may secrete additional hormones that regulate different aspects of energy metabolism. Accordingly, the metabolic defects of the mice lacking furin in osteoblasts became more apparent under pair-feeding conditions. These findings identify furin as an important regulator of bone endocrine function.
Project description:AIM:To determine if copy number variants contribute to warfarin dose requirements, we investigated CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU for deletions and duplications in a multiethnic patient population treated with therapeutic doses of warfarin. PATIENTS & METHODS:DNA samples from 178 patients were subjected to copy number analyses by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or quantitative PCR assays. Additionally, the CYP2C9 exon 8 insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs71668942) was examined among the patient cohort and 1750 additional multiethnic healthy individuals. RESULTS:All patients carried two copies of CYP2C9 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and no exon 8 deletion carriers were detected. Similarly, quantitative PCR assays for VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU identified two copies in all populations. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that copy number variants in the principal genes involved in warfarin dose variability (CYP2C9, VKORC1), including genes with lesser effect (CYP4F2, GGCX), and those that may be more relevant among certain racial groups (CALU), are rare in multiethnic populations, including African-Americans.
Project description:Gamma-carboxylation, performed by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), is an enzymatic process essential for activating vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) with important functions in various biological processes. Mutations in the encoding GGCX gene are associated with multiple phenotypes, amongst which vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency (VKCFD1) is best known. Other patients have skin, eye, heart or bone manifestations. As genotype-phenotype correlations were never described, literature was systematically reviewed in search of patients with at least one GGCX mutation with a phenotypic description, resulting in a case series of 47 patients. Though this number was too low for statistically valid correlations-a frequent problem in orphan diseases-we demonstrate the crucial role of the horizontally transferred transmembrane domain in developing cardiac and bone manifestations. Moreover, natural history suggests ageing as the principal determinant to develop skin and eye symptoms. VKCFD1 symptoms seemed more severe in patients with both mutations in the same protein domain, though this could not be linked to a more perturbed coagulation factor function. Finally, distinct GGCX functional domains might be dedicated to carboxylation of very specific VKDP. In conclusion, this systematic review suggests that there indeed may be genotype-phenotype correlations for GGCX-related phenotypes, which can guide patient counseling and management.
Project description:Vitamin K (VK) is a key nutrient for several biological processes (e.g., blood clotting and bone metabolism). To fulfill VK nutritional requirements, VK action as an activator of pregnane X receptor (Pxr) signaling pathway, and as a co-factor of ?-glutamyl carboxylase enzyme, should be considered. In this regard, VK recycling through vitamin K epoxide reductases (Vkors) is essential and should be better understood. Here, the expression patterns of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (vkorc1) and vkorc1 like 1 (vkorc1l1) were determined during the larval ontogeny of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), and in early juveniles cultured under different physiological conditions. Full-length transcripts for ssvkorc1 and ssvkorc1l1 were determined and peptide sequences were found to be evolutionarily conserved. During larval development, expression of ssvkorc1 showed a slight increase during absence or low feed intake. Expression of ssvkorc1l1 continuously decreased until 24 h post-fertilization, and remained constant afterwards. Both ssvkors were ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, and highest expression was found in liver for ssvkorc1, and ovary and brain for ssvkorc1l1. Expression of ssvkorc1 and ssvkorc1l1 was differentially regulated under physiological conditions related to fasting and re-feeding, but also under VK dietary supplementation and induced deficiency. The present work provides new and basic molecular clues evidencing how VK metabolism in marine fish is sensitive to nutritional and environmental conditions.
Project description:Little is known about genetic contributors to higher than usual warfarin dose requirements, particularly for African Americans. This study tested the hypothesis that the ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) genotype contributes to warfarin dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day in an African American population.A total of 338 African Americans on a stable dose of warfarin were enrolled. The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)n, rs12714145 (G>A), and rs699664 (p.R325Q); VKORC1 c.-1639G>A and rs61162043; and CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *8, *11, and rs7089580 genotypes were tested for their association with dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day alone and in the context of other variables known to influence dose variability.The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)16 or 17 repeat occurred at a frequency of 2.6% in African Americans and was overrepresented among patients requiring greater than 7.5 mg/day versus those who required lower doses (12 vs. 3%, P=0.003; odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-10.5). The GGCX rs10654848 genotype remained associated with high dose requirements on regression analysis including age, body size, and VKORC1 genotype. On linear regression, the GGCX rs10654848 genotype explained 2% of the overall variability in warfarin dose in African Americans. An examination of the GGCX rs10654848 genotype in warfarin-treated Caucasians revealed a (CAA)16 repeat frequency of only 0.27% (P=0.008 compared with African Americans).These data support the GGCX rs10654848 genotype as a predictor of higher than usual warfarin doses in African Americans, who have a 10-fold higher frequency of the (CAA)16/17 repeat compared with Caucasians.
Project description:Genotype-based algorithms that include VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are less predictive of warfarin dose variability in Africans as opposed to Europeans. Polymorphisms in GGCX, FPGS, or STX1B are associated with warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. We sought to determine if they influenced warfarin dose in European-Americans, and another African population, specifically Egyptians. We genotyped 529 adults (n = 325 European-Americans, 204 Egyptians) on a stable warfarin dose for GGCX rs12714145 and rs10654848, FPGS rs7856096, and STX1B rs4889606. Rs12714145, rs10654848, and rs7856096 were not associated with warfarin dose, whereas STX1B rs4889606 was a significant determinant in univariate analysis (P < 0.0001) in both cohorts. However, STX1B rs4889606 was in high linkage disequilibrium with VKORC1-1639 G>A, and was no longer significant after including VKORC1-1639 G>A in the regression model. Based on these data, the polymorphisms do not appear to influence, in a clinically important way, warfarin dose requirements in European-Americans and Egyptians.