Amelioration of Cerebral Ischemic Injury by a Synthetic Seco-nucleoside LMT497.
ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported that the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonist LJ529 (2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobnzyl)-5'-N-methylcarbamoyl-4'-thioadenosine) reduces cerebral ischemic injury via inhibition of recruitment of peripheral inflammatory cells into ischemic brain lesion. A3AR agonists, however, are known to possess anti-platelet activity, which may deter the combination therapy with tissue plasminogen activator for the therapy of cerebral ischemic stroke. Thus, the present study investigates the neuroprotective/anti-ischemic effect of a synthetic seco-nucleoside, LMT497 ((S)-2-((R)-1-(2-chloro-6-(3-iodobenzylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-hydroxy-N-methylpropanamide) with little anti-platelet activity. LMT497 neither showed A3AR binding activity nor anti-platelet activity. In our present study LMT497 significantly attenuated the injury/death of cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by re-oxygenation (R). LMT497 significantly reduced the ascending cellular level of reactive oxygen species under ischemic conditions by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. LMT497 also inhibited the migration of microglia which mediates inflammatory responses in ischemia. In rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 1.5 h) followed by reperfusion, LMT497 largely reduced brain infarction volume, and edema, and improved neurological score. Therapeutic efficacy of LMT497 was obtained by twice treatments even at 10 h and 18 h after the onset of ischemia. Collectively, LMT497 could be a therapeutic drug candidate with a wide therapeutic time window for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke.
Project description:A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is recognized as a novel therapeutic target for ischemic injury; however, the mechanism underlying anti-ischemic protection by the A3AR agonist remains unclear. Here, we report that 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarbamoyl-4'-thioadenosine (LJ529), a selective A3AR agonist, reduces inflammatory responses that may contribute to ischemic cerebral injury. Postischemic treatment with LJ529 markedly reduced cerebral ischemic injury caused by 1.5-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24-hour reperfusion in rats. This effect was abolished by the simultaneous administration of the A3AR antagonist MRS1523, but not the A2AAR antagonist SCH58261. LJ529 prevented the infiltration/migration of microglia and monocytes occurring after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, and also after injection of lipopolysaccharides into the corpus callosum. The reduced migration of microglia by LJ529 could be related with direct inhibition of chemotaxis and down-regulation of spatiotemporal expression of Rho GTPases (including Rac, Cdc42, and Rho), rather than by biologically relevant inhibition of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release (eg, IL-1?, TNF-?, and MCP-1) or by direct inhibition of excitotoxicity/oxidative stress (not affected by LJ529). The present findings indicate that postischemic activation of A3AR and the resultant reduction of inflammatory response should provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. In acute ischemic stroke, the rapid recanalization of occluded cranial vessels is the primary therapeutic aim. However, experimental data (obtained using mostly the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model) indicates that progressive stroke can still develop despite successful recanalization, a process termed "reperfusion injury." Mounting experimental evidence suggests that platelets and T cells contribute to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and ischemic stroke is increasingly considered a thrombo-inflammatory disease. The interaction of von Willebrand factor and its receptor on the platelet surface, glycoprotein Ib, as well as many activatory platelet receptors and platelet degranulation contribute to secondary infarct growth in this setting. In contrast, interference with GPIIb/IIIa-dependent platelet aggregation and thrombus formation does not improve the outcome of acute brain ischemia but dramatically increases the susceptibility to intracranial hemorrhage. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms and the potential translational impact of platelet contributions to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury is essential for hemostasis, but it is also a major pathomechanism underlying ischemic injury. Because anti-inflammatory therapies limit thrombosis and antithrombotic therapies reduce vascular inflammation, we tested the therapeutic potential of 2 proresolving endogenous mediators, annexin A1 N-terminal derived peptide (AnxA1Ac2-26) and aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 (15-epi-lipoxin A4), on the cerebral microcirculation after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, we tested whether the lipoxin A4 receptor formyl-peptide receptor 2/3 (Fpr2/3; ortholog to human FPR2/lipoxin A4 receptor) evoked neuroprotective functions after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using intravital microscopy, we found that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was accompanied by neutrophil and platelet activation and neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation within cerebral microvessels. Moreover, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 activation of neutrophil Fpr2/3 regulated neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation in the brain and inhibited the reactivity of the cerebral microvasculature. The same results were obtained with AnxA1Ac2-26 administration. Blocking Fpr2/lipoxin A4 receptor with the antagonist Boc2 reversed this effect, and treatments were ineffective in Fpr2/3 knockout mice, which displayed an exacerbated disease severity, evidenced by increased infarct area, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased neurological score, and elevated levels of cytokines. Furthermore, aspirin treatment significantly reduced cerebral leukocyte recruitment and increased endogenous levels of aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4, effects again mediated by Fpr2/3. CONCLUSION:Fpr2/lipoxin A4 receptor is a therapeutic target for initiating endogenous proresolving, anti-inflammatory pathways after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:Inflammation and thrombosis currently are recognized as critical contributors to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. CD147 (cluster of differentiation 147), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, can function as a key mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. CD147 expression is increased in the brain after cerebral ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains unknown. In this study, we show that CD147 acts as a key player in ischemic stroke by driving thrombotic and inflammatory responses.Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were treated with anti-CD147 function-blocking antibody (?CD147) or isotype control antibody. Blood-brain barrier permeability, thrombus formation, and microvascular patency were assessed 24 hours after ischemia. Infarct size, neurological deficits, and inflammatory cells invaded in the brain were assessed 72 hours after ischemia.CD147 expression was rapidly increased in ischemic brain endothelium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Inhibition of CD147 reduced infarct size and improved functional outcome on day 3 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neuroprotective effects were associated with (1) prevented blood-brain barrier damage, (2) decreased intravascular fibrin and platelet deposition, which in turn reduced thrombosis and increased cerebral perfusion, and (3) reduced brain inflammatory cell infiltration. The underlying mechanism may include reduced NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) activation, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity, and PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells.Inhibition of CD147 ameliorates acute ischemic stroke by reducing thromboinflammation. CD147 might represent a novel and promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke and possibly other thromboinflammatory disorders.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Panax notoginseng triol saponins (PTS) has been used clinically for ischemic stroke therapy (IST) in China for more than 17 years due to its anti-platelet aggregation and neuro-protective effects, but its mechanism of action is not fully understand. In this study, anti-platelet aggregation-related protein analysis and computer simulations of drug-protein binding interactions were performed to explore the mechanism of the effects of PTS against ischemic stroke in an ischemia reperfusion model.<h4>Methods</h4>Three oral doses of PTS were administered in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Panax notoginseng total saponins (PNS) and a combination of PTS and aspirin were chosen for comparison. To evaluate therapeutic effects and explore possible mechanisms of anti-platelet aggregation, we measured cerebral infarct size and water content in brain tissue, histomorphological changes, expression of related factors (such as arachidonic acid metabolites) and platelet receptors in serum, as well as the binding affinity of PTS for platelet adhesion receptors.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with PNS, PTS showed a stronger and more potent anti-platelet aggregation effect in MCAO model rats. The combination of PTS and aspirin could reduce adverse gastrointestinal effects by regulating the TXA<sub>2</sub>/PGI<sub>2</sub> ratio. We demonstrated for the first time that PTS was able to regulate Glycoprotein Ib-? (GP1BA) in a model animal. The binding of ginsenoside Rg<sub>1</sub> and GP1BA could form a stable structure. Moreover, PTS could reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF)-mediated platelet adhesion to damaged vascular endothelium, and thus enhance the probability of anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis under pathological conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results showed that GP1BA was closely related to the anti-platelet aggregation action of PTS, which provided new scientific and molecular evidence for its clinical application.
Project description:Leukocyte and platelet accumulation at sites of cerebral ischemia exacerbate cerebral damage. The ectoenzyme CD39 on the plasmalemma of endothelial cells metabolizes ADP to suppress platelet accumulation in the ischemic brain. However, the role of leukocyte surface CD39 in regulating monocyte and neutrophil trafficking in this setting is not known. Here we have demonstrated in mice what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which CD39 on monocytes and neutrophils regulates their own sequestration into ischemic cerebral tissue, by catabolizing nucleotides released by injured cells, thereby inhibiting their chemotaxis, adhesion, and transmigration. Bone marrow reconstitution and provision of an apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleoside tri- and diphosphates, each normalized ischemic leukosequestration and cerebral infarction in CD39-deficient mice. Leukocytes purified from Cd39-/- mice had a markedly diminished capacity to phosphohydrolyze adenine nucleotides and regulate platelet reactivity, suggesting that leukocyte ectoapyrases modulate the ambient vascular nucleotide milieu. Dissipation of ATP by CD39 reduced P2X7 receptor stimulation and thereby suppressed baseline leukocyte alphaMbeta2-integrin expression. As alphaMbeta2-integrin blockade reversed the postischemic, inflammatory phenotype of Cd39-/- mice, these data suggest that phosphohydrolytic activity on the leukocyte surface suppresses cell-cell interactions that would otherwise promote thrombosis or inflammation. These studies indicate that CD39 on both endothelial cells and leukocytes reduces inflammatory cell trafficking and platelet reactivity, with a consequent reduction in tissue injury following cerebral ischemic challenge.
Project description:Potent and selective A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists were identified by the replacement of 4'-oxo- or 4'-thionucleosides with bioisosteric selenium. Unlike previous agonists, 4'-seleno analogues preferred a glycosidic syn conformation and South sugar puckering, as shown in the X-ray crystal structure of 5'-N-methylcarbamoyl derivative 3p. Among the compounds tested, N6-3-iodobenzyl analogue 3d was found to be the most potent A3AR full agonist (Ki = 0.57 nM), which was ?800- and 1900-fold selective for A1AR and A2AAR, respectively. In the N6-cycloalkyl series, 2-Cl analogues generally exhibited better hA3AR affinity than 2-H analogues, whereas 2-H > 2-Cl in the N6-3-halobenzyl series. N7 isomers 3t and 3u were much weaker in binding than corresponding N9 isomers, but compound 3t lacked A3AR activation, appearing to be a weak antagonist. 2-Cl-N6-3-iodobenzyl analogue 3p inhibited chemoattractant-induced migration of microglia/monocytes without inducing cell death at ?50 ?M. This suggests the potential for the development of 4'-selenonucleoside A3AR agonists as novel antistroke agents.
Project description:The cerebral ischemia injury can result in neuronal death and/or functional impairment, which leads to further damage and dysfunction after recovery of blood supply. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) often causes irreversible brain damage and neuronal injury and death, which involves many complex pathological processes including oxidative stress, amino acid toxicity, the release of endogenous substances, inflammation and apoptosis. Oxidative stress and inflammation are interactive and play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain. Oxidative stress is important in the pathological process of ischemic stroke and is critical for the cascade development of ischemic injury. Oxidative stress is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cerebral ischemia and is more likely to lead to cell death and ultimately brain death after reperfusion. During reperfusion especially, superoxide anion free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals, and nitric oxide (NO) are produced, which can cause lipid peroxidation, inflammation and cell apoptosis. Inflammation alters the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors in cerebral ischemic injury. Inflammatory factors can therefore stimulate or exacerbate inflammation and aggravate ischemic injury. Neuroprotective therapies for various stages of the cerebral ischemia cascade response have received widespread attention. At present, neuroprotective drugs mainly include free radical scavengers, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-apoptotic agents. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between oxidative stress and inflammation, and their interplay with different types of programmed cell death in ischemia/reperfusion injury are unclear. The development of a suitable method for combination therapy has become a hot topic.
Project description:The cerebral microvasculature is rendered more vulnerable to thrombus formation following a brief (5.0 min) period of focal ischemia. This study examined the contribution of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a neuroprotective and prothrombotic cytokine produced by the brain, to transient ischemia-induced thrombosis in cerebral arterioles.The middle cerebral artery of C57BL/6J mice was occluded for 5 min, followed by 24h of reperfusion (MCAo/R). Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor thrombus development in cerebral arterioles induced by light/dye photoactivation. Thrombosis was quantified as the time of onset of platelet aggregation on the vessel wall and the time for complete blood flow cessation. MCAo/R in wild type (WT) mice yielded an acceleration of thrombus formation that was accompanied by increased IL-6 levels in plasma and in post-ischemic brain tissue. The exaggerated thrombosis response to MCAo/R was blunted in WT mice receiving an IL-6 receptor-blocking antibody and in IL-6 deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Bone marrow chimeras, produced by transplanting IL-6(-/-) marrow into WT recipients, did not exhibit protection against MCAo/R-induced thrombosis.The increased vulnerability of the cerebral vasculature to thrombus development after MCAo/R is mediated by IL-6, which is likely derived from brain cells rather than circulating blood cells. These findings suggest that anti-IL-6 therapy may reduce the likelihood of cerebral thrombus development after a transient ischemic attack.
Project description:Dysregulated platelet functions contribute to the development and progression of ischemic stroke. Utilizing mice with a platelet-specific deletion of cyclophilin D (CypD), a mediator of necrosis, we found that platelet necrosis regulates tissue damage and outcomes during ischemic stroke in vivo. Mice with loss of CypD in platelets (CypDplt-/-mice) exhibited significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow, improved neurological and motor functions, and reduced ischemic stroke infarct volume after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. These effects were attributable, at least in part, to platelet-neutrophil interactions. Twenty-four hours after stroke, significantly more circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) were found in CypDplt+/+ mice. Underscoring the role of platelet necrosis in PNA formation, we observed a significant number of phosphatidylserine (PS)+ platelets in PNAs in CypDplt+/+ mice. In contrast, significantly fewer platelets in PNAs were PS+ in CypDplt-/- counterparts. Accordingly, mice with CypD-deficient platelets had fewer neutrophils and PNAs recruited to their brain following stroke relative to wild-type counterparts. Neutrophil depletion in wild-type mice conferred protection from ischemic stroke to a similar degree as observed in mice with CypD-deficient platelets. Neutrophil depletion in CypDplt-/- mice did not further reduce infarct size. Transmission electron microscopy of ex vivo-formed PNAs revealed a propensity of necrotic platelets to interact with neutrophils. These results suggest that necrotic platelets interact with neutrophils to exacerbate brain injury during ischemic stroke. Because inhibiting platelet necrosis does not compromise hemostasis, targeting platelet CypD may be a potential therapeutic strategy to limit brain damage following ischemic stroke.