A comprehensive analysis of teleost MHC class I sequences.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:MHC class I (MHCI) molecules are the key presenters of peptides generated through the intracellular pathway to CD8-positive T-cells. In fish, MHCI genes were first identified in the early 1990's, but we still know little about their functional relevance. The expansion and presumed sub-functionalization of cod MHCI and access to many published fish genome sequences provide us with the incentive to undertake a comprehensive study of deduced teleost fish MHCI molecules. RESULTS:We expand the known MHCI lineages in teleosts to five with identification of a new lineage defined as P. The two lineages U and Z, which both include presumed peptide binding classical/typical molecules besides more derived molecules, are present in all teleosts analyzed. The U lineage displays two modes of evolution, most pronouncedly observed in classical-type alpha 1 domains; cod and stickleback have expanded on one of at least eight ancient alpha 1 domain lineages as opposed to many other teleosts that preserved a number of these ancient lineages. The Z lineage comes in a typical format present in all analyzed ray-finned fish species as well as lungfish. The typical Z format displays an unprecedented conservation of almost all 37 residues predicted to make up the peptide binding groove. However, also co-existing atypical Z sub-lineage molecules, which lost the presumed peptide binding motif, are found in some fish like carps and cavefish. The remaining three lineages, L, S and P, are not predicted to bind peptides and are lost in some species. CONCLUSIONS:Much like tetrapods, teleosts have polymorphic classical peptide binding MHCI molecules, a number of classical-similar non-classical MHCI molecules, and some members of more diverged MHCI lineages. Different from tetrapods, however, is that in some teleosts the classical MHCI polymorphism incorporates multiple ancient MHCI domain lineages. Also different from tetrapods is that teleosts have typical Z molecules, in which the residues that presumably form the peptide binding groove have been almost completely conserved for over 400 million years. The reasons for the uniquely teleost evolution modes of peptide binding MHCI molecules remain an enigma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play an essential role in presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes in the acquired immune system. The non-classical class II DM molecule, HLA-DM in the case of humans, possesses critical function in assisting the classical MHC class II molecules for proper peptide loading and is highly conserved in tetrapod species. Although the absence of DM-like genes in teleost fish has been speculated based on the results of homology searches, it has not been definitively clear whether the DM system is truly specific for tetrapods or not. To obtain a clear answer, we comprehensively searched class II genes in representative teleost fish genomes and analyzed those genes regarding the critical functional features required for the DM system. RESULTS: We discovered a novel ancient class II group (DE) in teleost fish and classified teleost fish class II genes into three major groups (DA, DB and DE). Based on several criteria, we investigated the classical/non-classical nature of various class II genes and showed that only one of three groups (DA) exhibits classical-type characteristics. Analyses of predicted class II molecules revealed that the critical tryptophan residue required for a classical class II molecule in the DM system could be found only in some non-classical but not in classical-type class II molecules of teleost fish. CONCLUSIONS: Teleost fish, a major group of vertebrates, do not possess the DM system for the classical class II peptide-loading and this sophisticated system has specially evolved in the tetrapod lineage.
Project description:Teleost fish are important models for human biology, health, and disease. Because genome duplication in a teleost ancestor (TGD) impacts the evolution of teleost genome structure and gene repertoires, we must discriminate gene functions that are shared and ancestral from those that are lineage-specific in teleosts or tetrapods to accurately apply inferences from teleost disease models to human health. Generalizations must account both for the TGD and for divergent evolution between teleosts and tetrapods after the likely two rounds of genome duplication shared by all vertebrates. Progress in sequencing techniques provides new opportunities to generate genomic and transcriptomic information from a broad range of phylogenetically informative taxa that facilitate detailed understanding of gene family and gene function evolution. We illustrate here the use of new sequence resources from spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), a rayfin fish that diverged from teleosts before the TGD, as well as RNA-Seq data from gar and multiple teleost lineages to reconstruct the evolution of the Paired-related homeobox (Prrx) transcription factor gene family, which is involved in the development of mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme. We show that for Prrx genes, the spotted gar genome and gene expression patterns mimic mammals better than teleosts do. Analyses force the seemingly paradoxical conclusion that regulatory mechanisms for the limb expression domains of Prrx genes existed before the evolution of paired appendages. Detailed evolutionary analyses like those reported here are required to identify fish species most similar to the human genome to optimally connect fish models to human gene functions in health and disease.
Project description:Cartilaginous fish (chimaeras, rays and sharks) are the most basal extant jawed vertebrates with an adaptive immune system based on the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Despite being a key taxon in the evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity, no comprehensive characterization of MHC class II genes has been undertaken for the group. We performed extensive bioinformatic searches on a taxonomically diverse dataset of transcriptomes and genomes of cartilaginous fish targeting MHC class II sequences. Class IIα and IIβ sequences were retrieved from all taxa analyzed and showed typical features of classical class II genes. Phylogenetic trees of the immunoglobulin superfamily domain showed two divergent and remarkably ancient lineages of class II genes in Selachians (sharks), originating >350 million years ago. Close linkage of lineage-specific pairs of IIα and IIβ genes was found, confirming previous results, with genes from distinct lineages segregating as alleles. Nonclassical class II DM sequences were not retrieved from these data and classical class II sequences lacked the conserved residues shown to interact with DM molecules, supporting claims that the DM system arose only in the lobe-finned fish lineage leading to tetrapods. Based on our search methods, other divergent class II genes are unlikely in cartilaginous fish.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Salmonids are of major importance both as farmed and wild animals. With the changing environment comes changes in pathogenic pressures so understanding the immune system of all salmonid species is of essence. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are key players in the adaptive immune system signalling infection to responding T-cells populations. Classical MHC class I (MHCI) genes, defined by high polymorphism, broad expression patterns and peptide binding ability, have a key role in inducing immunity. In salmonids, the fourth whole genome duplication that occurred 94 million years ago has provided salmonids with duplicate MHCI regions, while Northern Pike, a basal sister clade to salmonids, represent a species which has not experienced this whole genome duplication.<h4>Results</h4>Comparing the gene organization and evolution of MHC class I gene sequences in Northern pike versus salmonids displays a complex picture of how many of these genes evolved. Regional salmonid Ia and Ib Z lineage gene duplicates are not orthologs to the Northern pike Z lineage sequences. Instead, salmonids have experienced unique gene duplications in both duplicate regions as well as in the Salmo and Oncorhynchus branch. Species-specific gene duplications are even more pronounced for some L lineage genes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although both Northern pike as well as salmonids have expanded their U and Z lineage genes, these gene duplications occurred separately in pike and in salmonids. However, the similarity between these duplications suggest the transposable machinery was present in a common ancestor. The salmonid MHCIa and MHCIb regions were formed during the 94 MYA since the split from pike and before the Oncorhynchus and Salmo branch separated. As seen in tetrapods, the non-classical U lineage genes are diversified duplicates of their classical counterpart. One MHCI lineage, the L lineage, experienced massive species-specific gene duplications after Oncorhynchus and Salmo split approximately 25 MYA. Based on what we currently know about L lineage genes, this large variation in number of L lineage genes also signals a large functional diversity in salmonids.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In sharks, chickens, rats, frogs, medaka and zebrafish there is haplotypic variation in MHC class I and closely linked genes involved in antigen processing, peptide translocation and peptide loading. At least in chicken, such MHCIa haplotypes of MHCIa, TAP2 and Tapasin are shown to influence the repertoire of pathogen epitopes being presented to CD8+ T-cells with subsequent effect on cell-mediated immune responses.<h4>Results</h4>Examining MHCI haplotype variation in Atlantic salmon using transcriptome and genome resources we found little evidence for polymorphism in antigen processing genes closely linked to the classical MHCIa genes. Looking at other genes involved in MHCI assembly and antigen processing we found retention of functional gene duplicates originating from the second vertebrate genome duplication event providing cyprinids, salmonids, and neoteleosts with the potential of several different peptide-loading complexes. One of these gene duplications has also been retained in the tetrapod lineage with orthologs in frogs, birds and opossum.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We postulate that the unique salmonid whole genome duplication (SGD) is responsible for eliminating haplotypic content in the paralog MHCIa regions possibly due to frequent recombination and reorganization events at early stages after the SGD. In return, multiple rounds of whole genome duplications has provided Atlantic salmon, other teleosts and even lower vertebrates with alternative peptide loading complexes. How this affects antigen presentation remains to be established.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Coloration and color patterning belong to the most diverse phenotypic traits in animals. Particularly, teleost fishes possess more pigment cell types than any other group of vertebrates. As the result of an ancient fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD), teleost genomes might contain more copies of genes involved in pigment cell development than tetrapods. No systematic genomic inventory allowing to test this hypothesis has been drawn up so far for pigmentation genes in fish, and almost nothing is known about the evolution of these genes in different fish lineages. RESULTS: Using a comparative genomic approach including phylogenetic reconstructions and synteny analyses, we have studied two major pigment synthesis pathways in teleost fish, the melanin and the pteridine pathways, with respect to different types of gene duplication. Genes encoding three of the four enzymes involved in the synthesis of melanin from tyrosine have been retained as duplicates after the FSGD. In the pteridine pathway, two cases of duplicated genes originating from the FSGD as well as several lineage-specific gene duplications were observed. In both pathways, genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes, tyrosinase and GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GchI), have additional paralogs in teleosts compared to tetrapods, which have been generated by different modes of duplication. We have also observed a previously unrecognized diversity of gchI genes in vertebrates. In addition, we have found evidence for divergent resolution of duplicated pigmentation genes, i.e., differential gene loss in divergent teleost lineages, particularly in the tyrosinase gene family. CONCLUSION: Mainly due to the FSGD, teleost fishes apparently have a greater repertoire of pigment synthesis genes than any other vertebrate group. Our results support an important role of the FSGD and other types of duplication in the evolution of pigmentation in fish.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In teleosts, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules reside on different linkage groups as opposed to tetrapods and shark, where the class I and class II genes reside in one genomic region. Several teleost MHC class I regions have been sequenced and show varying number of class I genes. Salmonids have one major expressed MHC class I locus (UBA) in addition to varying numbers of non-classical genes. Two other more distant lineages are also identifyed denoted L and ZE. For class II, only one major expressed class II alpha (DAA) and beta (DAB) gene has been identified in salmonids so far. RESULTS: We sequenced a genomic region of 211 kb encompassing divergent MHC class II alpha (Sasa-DBA) and beta (Sasa-DBB) genes in addition to NRGN, TIPRL, TBCEL and TECTA. The region was not linked to the classical class II genes and had some synteny to genomic regions from other teleosts. Two additional divergent and expressed class II sequences denoted DCA and DDA were also identified in both salmon and trout. Expression patterns and lack of polymorphism make these genes non-classical class II analogues. Sasa-DBB, Sasa-DCA and Sasa-DDA had highest expression levels in liver, hindgut and spleen respectively, suggestive of distinctive functions in these tissues. Phylogenetic studies revealed more yet undescribed divergent expressed MHC class II molecules also in other teleosts. CONCLUSION: We have characterised one genomic region containing expressed non-classical MHC class II genes in addition to four other genes not involved in immune function. Salmonids contain at least two expressed MHC class II beta genes and four expressed MHC class II alpha genes with properties suggestive of new functions for MHC class II in vertebrates. Collectively, our data suggest that the class II is worthy of more elaborate studies also in other teleost species.
Project description:The vertebral column is a key component of the jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) body plan, but the primitive embryonic origin of this skeleton remains unclear. In tetrapods, all vertebral components (neural arches, haemal arches and centra) derive from paraxial mesoderm (somites). However, in teleost fishes, vertebrae have a dual embryonic origin, with arches derived from somites, but centra formed, in part, by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord. Here, we test the embryonic origin of the vertebral skeleton in a cartilaginous fish (the skate, Leucoraja erinacea) which serves as an outgroup to tetrapods and teleosts. We demonstrate, by cell lineage tracing, that both arches and centra are somite-derived. We find no evidence of cellular or matrix contribution from the notochord to the skate vertebral skeleton. These findings indicate that the earliest gnathostome vertebral skeleton was exclusively of somitic origin, with a notochord contribution arising secondarily in teleosts.
Project description:The Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus) is of commercial importance, conservation concern, and is a representative of one of the oldest lineages of ray-finned fish, the Osteoglossomorpha. To add to genomic knowledge of this species and the evolution of teleosts, the genome of a Malaysian specimen of arowana was sequenced. A draft genome is presented consisting of 42,110 scaffolds with a total size of 708 Mb (2.85% gaps) representing 93.95% of core eukaryotic genes. Using a k-mer-based method, a genome size of 900 Mb was also estimated. We present an update on the phylogenomics of fishes based on a total of 27 species (23 fish species and 4 tetrapods) using 177 orthologous proteins (71,360 amino acid sites), which supports established relationships except that arowana is placed as the sister lineage to all teleost clades (Bayesian posterior probability 1.00, bootstrap replicate 93%), that evolved after the teleost genome duplication event rather than the eels (Elopomorpha). Evolutionary rates are highly heterogeneous across the tree with fishes represented by both slowly and rapidly evolving lineages. A total of 94 putative pigment genes were identified, providing the impetus for development of molecular markers associated with the spectacular colored phenotypes found within this species.
Project description:The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.