Characteristics of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with double primary cancers in endometrium and colorectum.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is inherited syndrome characterized by the development of cancers in various organ system; these includes colorectum, endometrium, and less frequently, small bowel, stomach, urinary tract, ovaries, and brain. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients who had both endometrial and colorectal cancers. METHODS:Between January 2004 and December 2013, 12 women diagnosed with endometrial and colorectal cancers in a single institution were included in this analysis. For these patients, clinical and molecular findings were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS:All 12 women undertook microsatellite instability analysis, and 9 (75%) were confirmed of having microsatellite instability-high. Among 9 cases with immunohistochemical staining for MLH1 and MSH2, 6 were positive for the loss of mismatch repair protein. Mutational analyses for MLH1 and MSH2 were performed in 3 out of 12 patients; all of them showed germline mutation. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that there is a genetic background in patients with double primary malignancies in their endometrium and colorectum when analyzed with microsatellite instability studies, immunohistochemistry staining, and mutation studies. This finding supports the necessity of re-defining the high-risk groups in endometrial cancers clinically. This will also help diagnose malignancies in such patients in early stages, as well as counsel other family members.
Project description:Inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) is the cause of the common cancer predisposition disorder Lynch syndrome (LS), also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), as well as 10-40% of sporadic colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, gastric, and urothelial cancers. Elevated mutation rates (mutator phenotype), including simple repeat instability [microsatellite instability (MSI)] are a signature of MMR defects. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the control of critical cellular pathways involved in development and cancer. Here we show that overexpression of miR-155 significantly down-regulates the core MMR proteins, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hMLH1, inducing a mutator phenotype and MSI. An inverse correlation between the expression of miR-155 and the expression of MLH1 or MSH2 proteins was found in human colorectal cancer. Finally, a number of MSI tumors with unknown cause of MMR inactivation displayed miR-155 overexpression. These data provide support for miR-155 modulation of MMR as a mechanism of cancer pathogenesis.
Project description:The MSH6 gene is one of the mismatch-repair genes involved in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Three hundred sixteen individuals who were known or suspected to have HNPCC were analyzed for MSH6 germline mutations. For 25 index patients and 8 relatives with MSH6 variants, molecular and clinical features are described. For analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI), the five consensus markers were used. Immunohistochemical analysis of the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 proteins was performed. Five truncating MSH6 mutations, of which one was detected seven times, were found in 12 index patients, and 10 MSH6 variants with unknown pathogenicity were found in 13 index patients. Fourteen (54%) of 26 colorectal cancers (CRCs) and endometrial cancers showed no, or only weak, MSI. Twelve of 18 tumors of truncating-mutation carriers and 3 of 17 tumors of missense-mutation carriers showed loss of MSH6 staining. Six of the families that we studied fulfilled the original Amsterdam criteria; most families with MSH6, however, were only suspected to have HNPCC. In families that did not fulfill the revised Amsterdam criteria, the prevalence of MSH6 variants is about the same as the prevalence of those in MLH1/MSH2. Endometrial cancer and/or atypical hyperplasia were diagnosed in 8 of 12 female carriers of MSH6 truncating mutations. Most CRCs were localized distally in the colon. Although, molecularly, missense variants are labeled as doubtfully pathogenic, clinical data disclose a great resemblance between missense-variant carriers and truncating-mutation carriers. We conclude that, in all patients suspected to have HNPCC, MSH6-mutation analysis should be considered. Neither MSI nor immunohistochemistry should be a definitive selection criterion for MSH6-mutation analysis.
Project description:Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by inherited mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes, most commonly MLH1 or MSH2. The role MSH6 plays in inherited cancer susceptibility is less well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the penetrance and expressivity of MSH6 mutations in kindreds ascertained through endometrial cancer probands unselected for family history. Detailed pedigrees were constructed for six MSH6 mutation carriers. All reported cancers and precancers were confirmed, and tissues were obtained when available. Tumors were analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI) and for expression of MSH2, MLH1, and MSH6. MSH6 mutation status was determined for 59 family members. Of these 59 individuals, 19 (32%) had confirmed cancers and precancers. There was an excess of mutation carriers among the 19 affected family members (11 [58%] of 19) compared with those among the 40 unaffecteds (8 [20%] of 40, P=.0065, odds ratio = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.66-18.19). In four of the seven tumors analyzed from mutation carriers other than the probands, MSI and/or MMR protein expression was consistent with the involvement of MSH6. Overall estimated penetrance of the MHS6 mutations was 57.7%. Of the tumors in mutation carriers, 78% were part of the extended HNPCC spectrum. This study demonstrates that MSH6 germline mutations are, indeed, associated with increased cancer risk and that the penetrance of mutations may be higher than appreciated elsewhere. A combination of MSI and immunohistochemistry analyses may be helpful in screening for MSH6 mutation carriers.
Project description:Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States and the most frequent extracolonic tumor in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). HNPCC patients have inherited defects in DNA mismatch repair and the microsatellite instability (MSI) tumor phenotype. Sporadic endometrial cancers also exhibit MSI, usually associated with methylation of the MLH1 promoter. Germ-line MSH6 mutations, which are rare in HNPCC, have been reported in several families with multiple members affected with endometrial carcinoma. We reasoned that MSH6 mutation might account for loss of mismatch repair in MSI-positive endometrial cancers in which the cause of MSI is unknown. We therefore investigated MSI and MLH1 promoter methylation in 441 endometrial cancer patients unselected for age or personal and family history of cancers. MSI and MLH1 promoter methylation status were associated with age of onset and tumor histology. One hundred cases (23% of the entire series) were evaluated for MSH6 defects. Inactivating germ-line MSH6 mutations were identified in seven women with MSI-positive, MLH1 promoter unmethylated cancers. Most of the MSI in these cases was seen with mononucleotide repeat markers. The MSH6 mutation carriers were significantly younger than the rest of the population (mean age 54.8 versus 64.6, P = 0.04). Somatic mutations were seen in 17 tumors, all of which had MSI. Our data suggest that inherited defects in MSH6 in women with endometrial cancer are relatively common. The minimum estimate of the prevalence of inherited MSH6 mutation in endometrial cancer is 1.6% (7 of 441), comparable with the predicted prevalence for patients with colorectal cancer.
Project description:Most hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients inherit a defective allele of a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, usually MLH1 or MSH2, resulting in high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in the tumors. Presence of MSI in the normal tissues of mutation carriers has been controversial. Here we directly compare MSI in the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA of seven HNPCC patients carrying different types of pathogenic MMR mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 genes with the PBL DNA of normal age-matched controls and of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC). Small pool PCR (SP-PCR) was used studying three microsatellite loci for at least 100 alleles each in most samples. The average frequencies of mutant microsatellite fragments in each HNPCC patient (0.04-0.24) were significantly higher (p<0.01) relative to their age-matched normal controls with mutant frequencies (MF) from 0.00 to 0.06, or SCRC patients (MF from 0.01-0.03). The data support the conclusions that higher MF in the PBL DNA of HNPCC patients is real and reproducible, may vary in extent according to the type of germline MMR mutation and the age of the individual, and provide a possible genetic explanation for anticipation in HNPCC families.
Project description:Colorectal cancers with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations characteristically display a high rate of replication errors in simple repetitive sequences detectable as microsatellite instability (MSI). Most are the result of somatic MMR dysfunction; however, a subset are caused by germline mutations. The availability of commercial antibodies for MSH2 and MLH1 [corrected] offers an alternative strategy to molecular methods for identifying MMR deficient cancers. To evaluate immunohistochemistry, MLH1 and MSH2 expression was studied using monoclonal antibodies in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded cancers. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of 23 cancers displaying MSI, including four cases with germline mutations, were compared with 23 microsatellite stable (MSS) cancers. All MSS cancers exhibited staining with both antibodies. Twenty two of the MSI cases showed absent MMR expression with either anti-MSH2 or anti-MLH1 [corrected]. The high sensitivity and predictive value of immunohistochemistry in detecting MMR deficiency offers a method of discriminating between MSI and MSS cancers caused by MSH2 and MLH1 [corrected] dysfunction. The application and suitability of immunohistochemistry for the detection of MSI and as a strategy for prioritising the mutational analysis of MMR genes in routine clinical practice is discussed.
Project description:Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by mutations in the mismatch-repair genes. We report here the identification and characterization of a founder mutation in MSH2 in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. We identified a nucleotide substitution, MSH2*1906G-->C, which results in a substitution of proline for alanine at codon 636 in the MSH2 protein. This allele was identified in 15 unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish families with HNPCC, most of which meet the Amsterdam criteria. Genotype analysis of 18 polymorphic loci within and flanking MSH2 suggested a single origin for the mutation. All colorectal cancers tested showed microsatellite instability and absence of MSH2 protein, by immunohistochemical analysis. In an analysis of a population-based incident series of 686 Ashkenazi Jews from Israel who have colorectal cancer, we identified 3 (0.44%) mutation carriers. Persons with a family history of colorectal or endometrial cancer were more likely to carry the mutation than were those without such a family history (P=.042), and those with colorectal cancer who carried the mutation were, on average, younger than affected individuals who did not carry it (P=.033). The mutation was not detected in either 566 unaffected Ashkenazi Jews from Israel or 1,022 control individuals from New York. In hospital-based series, the 1906C allele was identified in 5/463 Ashkenazi Jews with colorectal cancer, in 2/197 with endometrial cancer, and in 0/83 with ovarian cancer. When families identified by family history and in case series are included, 25 apparently unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish families have been found to harbor this mutation. Although this pathogenic mutation is not frequent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (accounting for 2%-3% of colorectal cancer in those whose age at diagnosis is <60 years), it is highly penetrant and accounts for approximately one-third of HNPCC in Ashkenazi Jewish families that fulfill the Amsterdam criteria.
Project description:Roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) cases are Lynch syndrome and exhibit germ-line mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes; the other half are familial colorectal cancer (CRC) type X (FCCTX) and are MMR proficient. About 70% of Lynch syndrome tumors have germ-line MLH1 or MSH2 mutations. The clinical presentation, histopathological features, and carcinogenesis of FCCTX resemble those of sporadic MMR-proficient colorectal tumors. It is of interest to obtain biomarkers that distinguish FCCTX from sporadic microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC, to develop preventive strategies.The tumors and adjacent normal tissues of 40 patients with HNPCC were assayed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 (HM27) BeadChip to assess the DNA methylation level at about 27,000 loci. The germ-line mutation status of MLH1 and MSH2 and the microsatellite instability status in these patients were obtained. Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements of three groups of patients with general CRC were downloaded from public domain databases. Probes with DNA methylation levels that differed significantly between patients with sporadic MSS CRC and FCCTX were examined, to explore their potential as biomarkers.We found that MSS HNPCC tumors were overwhelmingly hypomethylated compared with those from patient groups with other types of CRC, including germ-line MLH1/MSH2-mutated HNPCC and sporadic MSS CRC. Five gene-marker panels that exhibited a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 90% in both discovery and validation cohorts were proposed to distinguish MSS HNPCC tumors from sporadic MSS CRC.Our results warrant further investigation and validation. The loci identified here may become useful biomarkers for distinguishing between FCCTX and sporadic MSS CRC tumors.
Project description:Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is suggestive of a hereditary predisposition. Lynch syndrome is the most frequent CRC hereditary cause. The MUTYH gene has also been related to hereditary CRC. A systematic characterization of these two diseases has not been reported previously in this population.We studied a retrospectively collected series of 140 patients ≤50 years old diagnosed with nonpolyposis CRC. Demographic, clinical, and familial features were obtained. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, and immunostaining for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 proteins. Germline MMR mutations were evaluated in all MMR-deficient cases. Tumor samples with loss of MLH1 or MSH2 protein expression were analyzed for somatic methylation. Germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated in all cases. BRAF V600E and KRAS somatic mutational status was also determined.Fifteen tumors (11.4%) were MSI, and 20 (14.3%) showed loss of protein expression (7 for MLH1/PMS2, 2 for isolated MLH1, 3 for MSH2/MSH6, 7 for isolated MSH6, and 1 for MSH6/PMS2). We identified 11 (7.8%) germline MMR mutations, 4 in MLH1, 1 in MSH2, and 6 in MSH6. Methylation analysis revealed one case with somatic MLH1 methylation. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in four (2.8%) cases. KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations were present in 39 (27.9%) and 5 (3.6%) cases, respectively.Loss of MSH6 expression is the predominant cause of MMR deficiency in early-onset CRC. Our findings prompt the inclusion of MSH6 and MUTYH screening as part of the genetic counseling of these patients and their relatives.
Project description:Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are predictive biomarkers for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Still, the relationship between the underlying cause(s) of MSI and TMB in tumors remains poorly defined. We investigated associations of TMB to mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MMR mutations in a diverse sample of tumors. Hypothesized differences were identified by the protein/gene affected/mutated and the tumor histology/primary site. Overall, 1057 MSI-H tumors were identified from the 32?932 tested. MSI was examined by NGS using 7000+ target microsatellite loci. TMB was calculated using only nonsynonymous missense mutations sequenced with a 592-gene panel; a subset of MSI-H tumors also had MMR IHC performed. Analyses examined TMB by MMR protein heterodimer impacted (loss of MLH1/PMS2 vs. MSH2/MSH6 expression) and gene-specific mutations. The sample was 54.6% female; mean age was 63.5?years. Among IHC tested tumors, loss of co-expression of MLH1/PMS2 was more common (n = 544/705, 77.2%) than loss of MSH2/MSH6 (n = 81/705, 11.5%; P <?.0001), and was associated with lower mean TMB (MLH1/PMS2: 25.03 mut/Mb vs MSH2/MSH6 46.83 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). TMB also varied by tumor histology: colorectal cancers demonstrating MLH1/PMS2 loss had higher TMBs (33.14 mut/Mb) than endometrial cancers (20.60 mut/Mb) and other tumors (25.59 mut/Mb; P <?.0001). MMR gene mutations were detected in 42.0% of tumors; among these, MSH6 mutations were most common (25.7%). MSH6 mutation patterns showed variability by tumor histology and TMB. TMB varies by underlying cause(s) of MSI and tumor histology; this heterogeneity may contribute to differences in response to ICI.