Enantioselective Cascade Cyclization/Protodemetalation of Polyenes with N3Pt(2+) Catalysts.
ABSTRACT: The combination of the N-based pincer ligand PyBOX with Pt(2+) leads to new catalysts for the enantioselective cycloisomerization of dienyl- and trienyl-ols. The mechanistic combination of electrophilic cyclization followed by rapid protodemetalation is surprising and leads to a powerful construct for developing new reactions.
Project description:Application of a tridentate NHC containing pincer ligand to Pt catalyzed cascade cyclization reactions has allowed for the catalytic, diastereoselective cycloisomerization of biogenic alkene terminated substrates to the their polycyclic counterparts.
Project description:A series of novel thio- and seleno-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by varying the substituents at N1 and N3 (ethyl, methyl, allyl, and phenyl), and C5 tethered with dienyl and trienyl moieties attached to substituents such as phenyl, 2-furanyl, 2-thiophenyl, 1-naphthyl, and 3-pyridyl. The cytotoxic potential of these derivatives was evaluated by using MTT assay against melanoma cell lines expressing either wild-type (CHL-1) or mutant (UACC 903) BRAF gene. Among all, 2b and 8b were identified as the most potent compounds. Both 2b and 8b inhibited viability of various melanoma cells and induced cell death as evidenced by Live and Dead assay. Western blot analysis showed that they induce PARP cleavage and inhibit anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h of the treatment. Novel thiobarbituric acid analogs also inhibited viability of various other solid tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic, breast, and colon. Overall, 2b, 2d, and 8b emerged as the most effective compounds and make good leads for the development of future therapeutic agents.
Project description:[reaction: see text]. Dicationic Pt(II) complexes containing triphosphine pincer ligands are excellent catalysts for the cycloisomerization of 1,6- and 1,7-dienes into bicyclopropane carbocycles. In analogy to the biosynthetic route to these monoterpene-like compounds, carbocation intermediates are proposed and supported by trapping experiments. Reactivation of the trapped intermediates indicates that cation generation by C-C bond formation is both rapid and reversible.
Project description:The mechanism of alkynoic acid cycloisomerization with SCS indenediide Pd pincer complexes has been investigated experimentally and computationally. These studies confirmed the cooperation between the Pd center and the backbone of the pincer ligand, and revealed the involvement of a second molecule of substrate. It acts as a proton shuttle in the activation of the acid, it directs the nucleophilic attack of the carboxylic acid on the ?-coordinated alkyne and it relays the protonolysis of the resulting vinyl Pd species. A variety of H-bond donors have been evaluated as external additives, and polyols featuring proximal hydroxyl groups, in particular catechol derivatives, led to significant catalytic enhancement. The impact of 4-nitrocatechol and 1,2,3-benzenetriol is particularly striking on challenging substrates such as internal 4- and 5-alkynoic acids. Endo/exo selectivities up to 7.3/1 and 60-fold increase in reactivity were achieved.
Project description:Herein, we disclose the first report on iodo-cycloisomerization of 1-(indol-3-yl)-1-arylbut-3-yn-2-ols to form 3-iodocarbazoles. The synthesis proceeds through a cascade 5-endo-spirocyclization, followed by selective 1,2-alkyl migration. This method governs the green synthesis principles such as open-flask reaction, AcOEt as the solvent, rt reaction with short time, use of iodine, and broad substrate scope with atom and step economy.
Project description:In situ generated [(PPP)Pt][BF(4)](2) (PPP = triphos) catalyzes the cycloisomerization of 1,6-enyne-ols by initiative pi-activation of the alkyne. This generates an isolable cationic Pt-alkenyl species which subsequently participates in turnover limiting protonolysis with in situ generated acid. This latter reactivity contrasts cationic Pt-alkyls which are more difficult to protonolyze. Mechanistic studies on isolated Pt-alkenyls, and deuterium labeling helped to elucidate the mechanistic details.
Project description:A reaction sequence involving the 1,6-conjugate addition of a nucleophile to a dienyl diketone followed by Nazarov cyclization is described. Several nucleophiles are identified as competent initiators for the sequence. A different reaction outcome is observed when catalytic amounts of nucleophile are employed, involving elimination of the nucleophile after the electrocyclization.
Project description:(Xylyl-phanephos)Pt(2+) in combination with XeF(2) mediates the consecutive diastereoselective cation-olefin cyclization/fluorination of polyene substrates. Isolated yields were typically in the 60-69% range while enantioselectivities reached as high as 87%. The data are consistent with a stereoretentive fluorination of a P(2)Pt-alkyl cation intermediate.
Project description:[reaction: see text] Herein we report a method for the synthesis of substituted pyridines. The unsaturated ketones and aldehydes derived from the cycloisomerization of primary and secondary propargyl diynols in the presence of [CpRu(CH3CN)3]PF6 (1) are converted to 1-azatrienes which in turn undergo a subsequent electrocyclization-dehydration to provide pyridines with excellent regiocontrol.
Project description:Indolizine, pyrrolone, and indolizinone heterocycles are easily accessed via the Pt(II)-catalyzed cycloisomerization or a tandem cyclization/1,2-migration of pyridine propargylic alcohols and derivatives. This method provides an efficient synthesis of highly functionalized heterocycles from readily available substrates. [reaction: see text]