Detection and characterisation of Lactobacillus spp. in the bovine uterus and their influence on bovine endometrial epithelial cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections and inflammation of the uterus are common in dairy cattle after parturition. In particular, pathogenic bacteria that cause endometritis have been the focus of research in cattle reproduction in the last ten years. The aim of the present study was to identify commensal lactobacilli in the bovine uterus and to examine their influence on the synthesis of pro-inflammatory factors in bovine endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Lactobacillus species were isolated from healthy bovine uteri and further characterised. Bovine endometrial epithelial cells in the second passage (n = 5 animals) were co-cultured with the autochthonous isolates L. buchneri, L. ruminis and L. amylovorus as well as with a commercially available L. vaginalis in different multiplicities of infection (MOI = 1, 5 and 10, respectively). Endometrial epithelial cells cultured without bacteria served as controls. At distinct points in time (2, 4 and 6 h) total RNA was extracted from co-cultured epithelial cells and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative PCR of pro-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, the release of such factors by co-cultured epithelial cells was measured by ELISA or EIA after 24 and 48 h. L. ruminis and L. amylovorus induced increased interleukin (IL) IL1A, IL6, IL8 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 mRNA levels and the release of IL8 and prostaglandin F(2?) in endometrial epithelial cells compared with control cells. In contrast, L. buchneri did not significantly influence the expression and release of these factors. Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 transcripts were found unchanged in co-cultured and untreated epithelial cells in vitro. However, endometrial epithelial cells of each animal showed individual differences in the response to bacterial load. These results suggest that Lactobacillus species are present in the bovine uterus, revealing immunomodulatory properties.
Project description:Among different bacteria colonizing the bovine uterus, Trueperella pyogenes is found to be associated with clinical endometritis (CE). The ability of cows to defend against T. pyogenes infections depends on the virulence of invading bacteria and on the host's innate immunity. Therefore, to gain insights into bacterial factors contributing to the interplay of this host pathogen, two strains of T. pyogenes were included in this study: one strain (TP2) was isolated from the uterus of a postpartum dairy cow developing CE and a second strain (TP5) was isolated from a uterus of a healthy cow. The two strains were compared in terms of their metabolic fingerprints, growth rate, virulence gene transcription, and effect on bovine endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, the effect of the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on the response of endometrial epithelial cells was evaluated. TP2, the strain isolated from the diseased cow, showed a higher growth rate, expressed more virulence factors (cbpA, nanH, fimE, and fimG), and elicited a higher mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors (PTGS2, CXCL3, and IL8) in bovine endometrial epithelial cells compared with TP5, the strain isolated from the healthy cow. The presence of PBMCs amplified the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors (PTGS2, CXCL3, IL1A, IL6, and IL8) in bovine endometrial epithelial cells co-cultured with live TP2 compared with untreated cells, especially as early as after 4 h. In conclusion, particular strain characteristics of T. pyogenes were found to be important for the development of CE. Furthermore, immune cells attracted to the site of infection might also play an important role in up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory response in the bovine uterus and thus significantly contribute to the host-pathogen interaction.
Project description:Infection of the bovine endometrium with Gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system bind Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulating the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1B (IL1B) and IL6, and the chemokine IL8. Because the endometrium is the first barrier to infection of the uterus, the signaling cascade triggered by LPS and the subsequent expression of inflammatory mediators were investigated in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and the key pathways identified using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and biochemical inhibitors. Treatment of endometrial cells with ultrapure LPS stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by increased IL1B, IL6, and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL6 protein accumulation in epithelial cells, and by increased IL1B and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL6 and IL8 protein accumulation in stromal cells. Treatment of endometrial cells with LPS also induced the degradation of IKB and the nuclear translocation of NFKB, as well as rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) and MAPK14. Knockdown of TLR4 or its signaling adaptor molecule, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), using siRNA reduced the inflammatory response to LPS in epithelial and stromal cells. Biochemical inhibition of MAPK3/1, but not JNK or MAPK14, reduced LPS-induced IL1B, IL6, and IL8 expression in endometrial cells. In conclusion, epithelial and stromal cells have an intrinsic role in innate immune surveillance in the endometrium, and in the case of LPS this recognition occurs via TLR4- and MYD88-dependent cell signaling pathways.
Project description:Interferon-tau (IFNT), a type I interferon (IFN), is known as pregnancy recognition signaling molecule secreted from the ruminant conceptus during the preimplantation period. Type I IFNs, such as IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are known to activate cell-death pathways as well as induce apoptosis. In cows, induction of apoptosis with DNA fragmentation is induced by IFNT in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells. However, the status of cell-death pathways in the bovine endometrium during the preimplantation period still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the different cell-death pathways, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy, in uterine tissue obtained from pregnant cows and in vitro cultured endometrial epithelial cells with IFNT stimulation. The expression of CASP7, 8, and FADD (apoptosis-related genes) was significantly higher in pregnant day 18 uterine tissue in comparison to non-pregnant day 18 tissue. The expression of CASP4, 11, and NLRP3 (pyroptosis-related genes) was significantly higher in the pregnant uterus in comparison to non-pregnant uterus. In contrast, autophagy-related genes were not affected by pregnancy. We also investigated the effect of IFNT on the expression of cell-death pathway-related genes, as well as DNA fragmentation in cultured endometrial epithelial cells. Similar to its effects in pregnant uterine tissue, IFNT affected the increase of apoptosis-related (CASP8) and pyroptosis-related genes (CASP11), but did not affect autophagy-related gene expression. IFNT also increased ?H2AX-positive cells, which is a marker of DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that apoptosis- and pyroptosis-related genes are induced by IFNT in the pregnant bovine endometrial epithelial cells.
Project description:Campylobacter fetus is an important venereal pathogen of cattle that causes infertility and abortions. It is transmitted during mating, and it travels from the vagina to the uterus; therefore, an important cell type that interacts with C. fetus are endometrial epithelial cells. Several virulence factors have been identified in the genome of C. fetus, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and antiphagocytic layers, but their expression is unknown. The ability of C. fetus to invade human epithelial cells has been demonstrated, but the ability of this microorganism to infect bovine endometrial epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. Bovine endometrial epithelial cells were isolated and challenged with C. fetus. The presence of C. fetus inside the endometrial epithelial cells was confirmed by the confocal immunofluorescence. C. fetus was not internalized when actin polymerization was disturbed, suggesting cytoskeleton participation in an internalization mechanism. To evaluate the intracellular survival of C. fetus, a gentamicin protection assay was performed. Although C. fetus was able to invade epithelial cells, the results showed that it did not have the capacity to survive in the intracellular environment. This study reports for the first time, the ability of C. fetus to invade bovine endometrial epithelial cells, and actin participation in this phenomenon.Campylobacter fetus is an important venereal pathogen of cattle that causes infertility and abortions. It is transmitted during mating, and it travels from the vagina to the uterus; therefore, an important cell type that interacts with C. fetus are endometrial epithelial cells. Several virulence factors have been identified in the genome of C. fetus, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and antiphagocytic layers, but their expression is unknown. The ability of C. fetus to invade human epithelial cells has been demonstrated, but the ability of this microorganism to infect bovine endometrial epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. Bovine endometrial epithelial cells were isolated and challenged with C. fetus. The presence of C. fetus inside the endometrial epithelial cells was confirmed by the confocal immunofluorescence. C. fetus was not internalized when actin polymerization was disturbed, suggesting cytoskeleton participation in an internalization mechanism. To evaluate the intracellular survival of C. fetus, a gentamicin protection assay was performed. Although C. fetus was able to invade epithelial cells, the results showed that it did not have the capacity to survive in the intracellular environment. This study reports for the first time, the ability of C. fetus to invade bovine endometrial epithelial cells, and actin participation in this phenomenon.
Project description:The presence of pathogenic bacteria in ejaculates has been a topic in boar semen preservation over the last decades. Since little information is available on commensal bacteria in boar semen, the aim of the present study was to identify commensal lactobacilli in fresh cryopreserved boar semen and to examine their influence on boar semen quality. Therefore, 111 boar ejaculates were investigated for the presence of Lactobacillus species. Thirty samples (27%) contained viable Lactobacillus species (e.g. L. amylovorus, L. animalis, L. reuteri and Weisella minor). L. animalis and L. buchneri DSM 32407 (isolated from the bovine uterus) qualified for further examinations based on their growth rate in six antibiotic-free boar semen extenders. After a 120 min short-term incubation with an antibiotic-free BTS-extender, progressive motility was diminished (P = 0.001) upon addition of 105 and 106 colony forming units (CFU/mL) L. animalis. The supplementation with L. buchneri DSM 32407 had no significant (P > 0.05) influence on sperm quality during short-term co-incubation. After 168 h long-term co-incubation, motility analysis revealed a negative (P = 0.026) impact of 105 CFU/mL L. buchneri DSM 32407. A concentration- and storage-dependent effect is particularly obvious (P < 0.001) using 106 CFU/mL L. buchneri DSM 32407. Most notably, the thermo-resistance (TRT) for 106 CFU/mL L. buchneri DSM 32407 (P = 0.001) was inferior to BTS with and without gentamicin after 72 and 168 h of semen co-incubation. The supplementation of 105 CFU/mL L. buchneri DSM 32407 impaired progressive motility to a lesser extent. The percentage of mitochondrially active spermatozoa after 96 h (P = 0.009) and membrane-intact spermatozoa after 168 h (P < 0.001) was lower when 106 CFU/mL L. buchneri DSM 32407 were suspended compared with all other groups. Finally, the addition of L. buchneri DSM 32407 to BTS-extended boar semen had no competitive effect on the total amount of bacteria 48 h after co-incubation. In summary, the present study demonstrated that there are Lactobacillus species present in the porcine seminal plasma, which can be cultivated using standard procedures. However, long-term co-incubation of lactic acid bacteria with spermatozoa had a negative influence on spermatozoa.
Project description:Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12?h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN) regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C)-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.
Project description:Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate) and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate), but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T) motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Isolation and culture of distinct primary endometrial cells are key to reliable in-vitro models to investigate the uterine immune response and optimse new disease interventions. Details on the isolation method and purity of distinct cell populations is lacking in currently available protocols leading to inconsistent results across laboratories. METHODS:Bovine endometrial tissue from non-pregnant bovine uteri were collected immediately post-mortem and separated using differential size filtering. Isolations (n?=?15) yielded an average of 3.1?×?105?±?0.7?×?105 epithelial cells and 1.88?×?106?±?5.44?×?105 stromal fibroblasts per uterine horn. Following expansion in culture, the purity of cell populations was confirmed using morphology and positive staining for cytokeratin and vimentin which identifies epithelial and stromal fibroblast populations, respectively. Using PCR, cDNA from both cell populations was negative for CD45, a marker of immune cells. RESULTS:On challenge with a bacterial PAMP (LPS), epithelial and stromal fibroblasts showed a marked increase in the expression of the inflammatory mediators IL8, IL6, S100A8 and S100A9, with both cell populations displaying distinct expression profiles. Here we provide a detailed methodology on the culture of primary bovine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and demonstrate these cells provide a physiologically relevant model for studies of endometrial inflammation and its regulation.
Project description:An abnormal uterine environment can influence maternal-fetal communication, conception rate and disrupt normal embryo development, thereby affecting fertility and the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Animal variability means that development of endometrial cell lines with appropriate characteristic are required. We evaluated the effect of an infectious agent (i.e., bacterial lipopolysaccharide; LPS) and proinflammatory mediators (i.e., Interleukin 1 beta; IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNF?) on inflammatory mediator gene expression and production by bovine endometrial epithelial (bEEL) and stromal (bCSC) cell lines. Expression of CXCL8/IL8, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6 cytokine genes was significantly upregulated in both epithelial and stromal cells when treated with LPS and IL-1?. LPS treatment of epithelial cells (compared with treatment by IL-1? and TNF?) exhibited greater CXCL8/IL8, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6 cytokine gene expression. Whereas, in stromal cells, IL-1? treatment (compared with LPS and TNF?) exhibited greater CXCL8/IL8, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6 cytokine gene expression. Interestingly, bEEL and bCSC cells treated with IL-1? increased IL1B gene expression, suggesting that IL-1? may act unusually in an autocrine-positive feedback loop. Cytokine production was stimulated by these agents in both cell types. We suggest that the characteristics of these two cell lines make them excellent tools for the study of intrauterine environment.
Project description:Potential beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on the genital health of cows become of particular interest when considering the importance of an optimal uterine health status for the success of breeding in dairy farming. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of an intrauterine administration of the Lactobacillus buchneri DSM 32407 on reproductive performance, uterine health status, endometrial mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors of cows with signs of subclinical endometritis (SCE). L. buchneri DSM 32407 (n?=?56; [LAC]) or a placebo (n?=?60; [PLA]) was administered on day 24-30 postpartum. Endometrial cytobrush samples of cows with SCE were taken before the administration and at three following weeks (n?=?16 cows each for LAC/SCE and PLA/SCE). A higher proportion of cows of the LAC and LAC/SCE group was pregnant after the first service and median days to conception for cows pregnant on day 200 pp were shorter. Three weeks after the administration, the endometrial mRNA expression of CXCL1/2, CXCL3, CXCR2, IL1B, IL8 and PTPRC was lower in the LAC/SCE group compared with the PLA/SCE group. These findings suggest that the presence of L. buchneri DSM 32407 contributes to a uterine environment that results in a better reproductive performance.