ABL tyrosine kinase inhibition variable effects on the invasive properties of different triple negative breast cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT: The non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL drives myeloid progenitor expansion in human chronic myeloid leukemia. ABL inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is a first-line treatment for this disease. Recently, ABL has also been implicated in the transforming properties of solid tumors, including triple negative (TN) breast cancer. TN breast cancers are highly metastatic and several cell lines derived from these tumors display high invasive activity in vitro. This feature is associated with the activation of actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia that promote extracellular matrix degradation. Here, we investigated nilotinib effect on the invasive and migratory properties of different TN breast cancer cell lines. Nilotinib decreased both matrix degradation and invasion in the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. However, and unexpectedly, nilotinib increased by two-fold the invasive properties of the TN breast cancer cell line BT-549 and of Src-transformed fibroblasts. Both display much higher levels of ABL kinase activity compared to MDA-MB 231. Similar effects were obtained by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of ABL expression, confirming ABL central role in this process. ABL anti-tumor effect in BT-549 cells and Src-transformed fibroblasts was not dependent on EGF secretion, as recently reported in neck and squamous carcinoma cells. Rather, we identified the TRIO-RAC1 axis as an important downstream element of ABL activity in these cancer cells. In conclusion, the observation that TN breast cancer cell lines respond differently to ABL inhibitors could have implications for future therapies.
Project description:Target-specific treatment modalities are currently not available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and acquired chemotherapy resistance is a primary obstacle for the treatment of these tumors. Here we employed derivatives of BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cell lines that were adapted to grow in the presence of either 5-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin or Docetaxel in an aim to identify molecular pathways involved in the adaptation to drug-induced cell killing. All six drug-adapted BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines displayed cross resistance to chemotherapy and decreased apoptosis sensitivity. Expression of the anti-apoptotic co-chaperone BAG3 was notably enhanced in two thirds (4/6) of the six resistant lines simultaneously with higher expression of HSP70 in comparison to parental controls. Doxorubicin-resistant BT-549 (BT-549rDOX20) and 5-Fluorouracil-resistant MDA-MB-468 (MDA-MB-468r5-FU2000) cells were chosen for further analysis with the autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 and lentiviral depletion of ATG5, indicating that enhanced cytoprotective autophagy partially contributes to increased drug resistance and cell survival. Stable lentiviral BAG3 depletion was associated with a robust down-regulation of Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, restoration of drug-induced apoptosis and reduced cell adhesion in these cells, and these death-sensitizing effects could be mimicked with the BAG3/Hsp70 interaction inhibitor YM-1 and by KRIBB11, a selective transcriptional inhibitor of HSF-1. Furthermore, BAG3 depletion was able to revert the EMT-like transcriptional changes observed in BT-549rDOX20 and MDA-MB-468r5-FU2000 cells. In summary, genetic and pharmacological interference with BAG3 is capable to resensitize TNBC cells to treatment, underscoring its relevance for cell death resistance and as a target to overcome therapy resistance of breast cancer.
Project description:Of the more than one million global cases of breast cancer diagnosed each year, approximately fifteen percent are characterized as triple-negative, lacking the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Lack of effective therapies, younger age at onset, and early metastatic spread have contributed to the poor prognoses and outcomes associated with these malignancies. Here, we investigate the ability of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) to selectively target triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation and survival in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo.TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and BT-549 were treated with nanomolar (nM) quantities of panobinostat. Relevant histone acetylation was verified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent imaging. Assays for trypan blue viability, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation, and DNA fragmentation were used to evaluate overall cellular toxicity. Changes in cell cycle progression were assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Additionally, qPCR arrays were used to probe MDA-MB-231 cells for panobinostat-induced changes in cancer biomarkers and signaling pathways. Orthotopic MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 mouse xenograft models were used to assess the effects of panobinostat on tumorigenesis. Lastly, flow cytometry, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining were applied to detect changes in cadherin-1, E-cadherin (CDH1) protein expression and the results paired with confocal microscopy in order to examine changes in cell morphology.Panobinostat treatment increased histone acetylation, decreased cell proliferation and survival, and blocked cell cycle progression at G2/M with a concurrent decrease in S phase in all TNBC cell lines. Treatment also resulted in apoptosis induction at 24 hours in all lines except the MDA-MB-468 cell line. MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 tumor formation was significantly inhibited by panobinostat (10 mg/kg/day) in mice. Additionally, panobinostat up-regulated CDH1 protein in vitro and in vivo and induced cell morphology changes in MDA-MB-231 cells consistent with reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype.This study revealed that panobinostat is overtly toxic to TNBC cells in vitro and decreases tumorigenesis in vivo. Additionally, treatment up-regulated anti-proliferative, tumor suppressor, and epithelial marker genes in MDA-MB-231 cells and initiated a partial reversal of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our results demonstrate a potential therapeutic role of panobinostat in targeting aggressive triple-negative breast cancer cell types.
Project description:We recently reported that T-DM1-resistant JIMT1 (T-DM1R-JIMT1) cells exhibited high invasive activity via EGFR and integrin cooperated pathways and gained cross-resistance to doxorubicin. Here, we show that EGFR positively coordinates with MRP1 in T-DM1R-JIMT1 cells to contribute to cross-resistance to doxorubicin. Downregulating EGFR and MRP1 inhibits T-DM1R-JIMT1 cell growth and re-sensitizes T-DM1R cells to doxorubicin, suggesting that dual targeting EGFR and MRP1 could serve as a therapeutic approach to overcome T-DM1 resistance. However, it increases cell invasion activity of T-DM1R-JIMT1 cells with molecular and cellular phenotypes similar to the breast cancer cells that express low levels of HER2 (MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells). Importantly, the invasion activity of MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells is also significantly increased after chronically exposed to T-DM1 although cell growth of MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells is not inhibited by T-DM1. These results highlight the importance of HER2 heterogenicity in HER-positive breast cancers treated with T-DM1. Our study also provides evidence demonstrating that proliferation and invasion activities of T-DM1R-JIMT1, and MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells are regulated by different mechanisms and that different aspects of cancer cell behaviors affected by targeted-therapeutics should be fully characterized in order to overcome T-DM1-resistant disease and to prevent cancer metastasis.
Project description:Breast cancers can be divided into several types. Because triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most refractory to current anti-cancer therapies, efficient treatment has been urgently required. Members of the Bcl-2 family play pro- and anti-apoptotic roles in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Some Bcl-2 family members are expressed in breast cancer and influence the response to anti-cancer therapies. In this study, we investigated whether Bcl-2 inhibition could sensitize TNBC cells to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin (DR). Treatment with a combination of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199 and DR synergistically decreased the viability of the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549. In an apoptosis assay, the combination treatment resulted in only a marginal effect in BT-549 cells, whereas drastic apoptosis was induced in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with both ABT-199 and DR. Both caspase-8 and -9 were involved in the combination treatment-induced apoptosis. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bcl-2 increased the sensitivity of both cell lines to DR. The combination treatment also significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of the TNBC cell lines. In a xenograft mouse model, oral administration of ABT-199 augmented the DR-induced antitumor effect on subcutaneously established MDA-MB-231 cells. These results indicate that the combination of DR with Bcl-2 inhibitors, including ABT-199, may be a promising treatment modality for TNBC patients.
Project description:We analysed aquired chemotherapeutic resistance of two different triple negative breast cancer cell lines BT-549 (Doxorubicin resistance) and MDA-MB-468 (5-Fluorouracil) by comparing the proteome of the parental cell line with the resistant cell line.
Project description:The aim was to identify genes that were commonly influenced by a siRNA targeting PRKCD in breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-468 and BT-549 breast cancer cell lines were treated with control siRNA or siRNA targeting PRKCD. Three samples in each group were analyzed.
Project description:The crumbs protein homolog 3 (CRB3) regulates the tight junction to help maintain epithelial polarity. Altered CRB3 expression was associated with carcinogenesis of epithelial cells. This study detected CRB3 expression in 192 cases of breast cancer tissues and in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (Metabric) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for association with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotypes. The in vitro experiments confirm the ex vivo data. The data showed that levels of both CRB3 mRNA and protein were associated with TNBC phenotypes, ie, 41.1% (39/95) of ER+ breast cancer was CRB3-positive, whereas 26.9% (25/93) ER- tumour was CRB3-positive (P = 0.046). Moreover, 47.6% (30/63) of PR+ breast cancer was CRB3-positive vs 28.4% (33/116) PR- tumours positive for CRB3 (P = 0.013). In addition, 40.1% (27/66) of ER+/PR+ tumour was CRB3-positive, but only 22.4% (19/85) of TNBC showed CRB3 expression (P = 0.048). Indeed, levels of CRB3 mRNA were higher in non-TNBC than TNBC in both Metabric (P = 3.682e-10) and TCGA datasets (P = 2.501e-07). The in vitro data showed that CRB3 expression was higher in luminal (MCF7 and T47D) than in HER2 (MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3) and basal (MDA-MB-231 and BT-549) breast cancer cell lines. More interestingly, ER? regulated expression of CRB3 protein in MCF7 and BT-549 cells and ER? expression was associated with CRB3 expression in breast cancer tissues specimens. This study demonstrated that ER? could be a novel regulator for CRB3 expression in breast cancer.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive disease frequently associated with resistance to chemotherapy. Evidence supports that small molecules showing DNA methyltransferase inhibitory activity (DNMTi) are important to sensitize cancer cells to cytotoxic agents, in part, by reverting the acquired epigenetic changes associated with the resistance to therapy. The present study aimed to evaluate if chemical compounds derived from propolis could act as epigenetic drugs (epi-drugs). We selected three phenolic acids (caffeic, dihydrocinnamic, and p-coumaric) commonly detected in propolis and the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea, which is a well-known DNA demethylating agent, for further analysis. The treatment with p-coumaric acid and EGCG significantly reduced the cell viability of four triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (BT-20, BT-549, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-436). Computational predictions by molecular docking indicated that both chemicals could interact with the MTAse domain of the human DNMT1 and directly compete with its intrinsic inhibitor S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH). Although the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) did not change the global DNA methylation content, by using MS-PCR (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) we demonstrated that EEP and EGCG were able to partly demethylate the promoter region of RASSF1A in BT-549 cells. Also, in vitro treatment with EEP altered the RASSF1 protein expression levels. Our data indicated that some chemical compound present in the EEP has DNMTi activity and can revert the epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor RASSF1A. These findings suggest that propolis are a promising source for epi-drugs discovery.
Project description:Proteasome inhibition is an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used for treatment in a number of cancers including breast cancer; however, the development of DOX resistance largely limits its clinical application. One of the possible mechanisms of DOX-resistance is that DOX might induce the activation of NF-?B. In this case, proteasome inhibitors could inhibit the activation of NF-?B by blocking inhibitory factor ?B (I?B) degradation. Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, overcomes bortezomib resistance and lessens its side-effects. Currently, the effect of carfilzomib on breast cancer cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we exploited the role of carfilzomib in seven breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T-47D, MDA-MB-361, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, representing all major molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We found that carfilzomib alone had cytotoxic effects on the breast cancer cells and it increased DOX-induced cytotoxic effects and apoptosis in combination by enhancing DOX-induced JNK phosphorylation and inhibiting DOX-induced I?B? degradation. The results suggest that carfilzomib has potent antitumor effects on breast cancer in vitro and can sensitize breast cancer cells to DOX treatment. DOX in combination with carfilzomib may be an effective and feasible therapeutic option in the clinical trials for treating breast cancer.
Project description:Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5'-demethoxy-?-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin (2), 5'-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3), and 7',8'-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4) for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI) was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide) were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc). Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011-7.22 µM) and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (?0.08 µg/mL); compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively) than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17) in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure.