Antiviral effect of methylated flavonol isorhamnetin against influenza.
ABSTRACT: Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease with frequent seasonal epidemics that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans, poultry, and animals. Influenza is a serious economic concern due to the costly countermeasures it necessitates. In this study, we compared the antiviral activities of several flavonols and other flavonoids with similar, but distinct, hydroxyl or methyl substitution patterns at the 3, 3', and 4' positions of the 15-carbon flavonoid skeleton, and found that the strongest antiviral effect was induced by isorhamnetin. Similar to quercetin and kaempferol, isorhamnetin possesses a hydroxyl group on the C ring, but it has a 3'-methyl group on the B ring that is absent in quercetin and kaempferol. Co-treatment and pre-treatment with isorhamnetin produced a strong antiviral effect against the influenza virus A/PR/08/34(H1N1). However, isorhamnetin showed the most potent antiviral potency when administered after viral exposure (post-treatment method) in vitro. Isorhamnetin treatment reduced virus-induced ROS generation and blocked cytoplasmic lysosome acidification and the lipidation of microtubule associated protein1 light chain 3-B (LC3B). Oral administration of isorhamnetin in mice infected with the influenza A virus significantly decreased lung virus titer by 2 folds, increased the survival rate which ranged from 70-80%, and decreased body weight loss by 25%. In addition, isorhamnetin decreased the virus titer in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of isorhamnetin could explain its strong anti-influenza virus potency; the methyl group located on the B ring of isorhamnetin may contribute to its strong antiviral potency against influenza virus in comparison with other flavonoids.
Project description:Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg (T. hemsleyanums) is a kind of traditional folk medicinal plant which has been used widely in China for its antivirus, antitumor, and other clinical effects. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive/MS) was utilized to analyze the chemical constituents of T. hemsleyanums. Fifty-one constituents were clarified, including flavonoids, anthraquinones, esters, fatty acids, phenols, and catechins. In the subsequent quantitative analysis, the contents of ten compounds of rutin, kaempferol, astragalin, quercitrin, quercetin, vitexin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin, vitexin, emodin-8-O-?-D-glucoside, and isoquercetin in 18 batches of T. hemsleyanums collected from different places of cultivation were determined. Meanwhile, anti-influenza virus bioactivity in vitro of the above samples was detected with Gaussia Luciferase viral titer assay. It was found that the antiviral bioactivity varied from batches to batches in accordance with content difference of the chemical constituents in T. hemsleyanums. Correlation analysis was performed with SPSS software for the association between LC-MS chemometrics and bioactivity of influenza virus inhibition, and 8 constituents of flavonoids showed positive correlation coefficient, which may provide a valuable clue for searching potential antiviral components in T. hemsleyanums.
Project description:Despite the availability of several anti-herpesviral agents, it should be emphasized that the need for new inhibitors is highly encouraged due to the increasing resistant viral strains as well as complications linked with periods of recurring viral replication and reactivation of latent herpes infection. Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) is a common phytotherapeutics around the world with health benefits. Limited studies, however, have addressed the potential antiviral activities of EGb, including herpesviruses such as Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). We evaluated the antiviral activity of EGb and its phytochemical constituents: flavonoids and terpenes against HHV-1 and HHV-2. Pretreatment of the herpesviruses with EGb prior to infection of cells produced a remarkable anti-HHV-1 and anti-HHV-2 activity. The extract affected the viruses before adsorption to cell surface at non-cytotoxic concentrations. In this work, through a comprehensive anti-HHV-1 and anti-HHV-2 activity study, it was revealed that flavonoids, especially isorhamnetin, are responsible for the antiviral activity of EGb. Such activity was absent in quercetin and kaempferol. However, EGb showed the most potent antiviral potency compared to isorhamnetin. EGb could augment current therapies for herpes labialis and genital herpes. Moreover, the potential use of EGb in multidrug therapy with synthetic anti-herpes compounds might be considered.
Project description:The flowering process has been reported to play crucial roles in improving the flavor and efficacy of fermented tea. <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> leaves containing many beneficial ingredients are a suitable plant source for tea processing. In this study, we isolated a ?-glucosidase-producing fungus <i>Eurotium amstelodami</i> BSX001 from the fermented tea and used <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> leaves (HRL) as a substrate to explore the detailed process of bioconversion of some important functional factors. The results show that the contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids increased significantly after seven days, especially flavonoid aglycones (e.g., quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin). Such compounds greatly enhance the antioxidative activity of fermented products. Metabolic analysis of the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol) further confirmed the effective biotransformation by <i>E. amstelodami</i>. Mechanisms of the bioconversion could be involved in deglycosylation, dihydroxylation, and O-methylation. Our findings expand the understanding of tea fermentation process and provide further guidance for the fermented tea industry.
Project description:Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) is known as a potential source of bioactive flavonoids, such as quercetin, arresting the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-zippering. Here, the GBL flavonoids were isolated in two different manners and then examined for their bioactivity, physicochemical stability, and biocompatibility. The majority of flavonoids in the non-hydrolyzed and acidolyzed isolates, termed non-hydrolyzed isolate (NI) and acidolyzed isolate (AI) hereafter, were rich in flavonol glycosides and aglycones, respectively. Glycosidic/aglyconic quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in both NI and AI, whereas a little of apigenin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin were found in AI. NI was more thermostable in all pH ranges than quercetin, kaempferol, and AI. NI and AI both inhibited neurotransmitter release from differentiated neuronal PC-12 cells. NI and AI showed 1/2-1/3 lower EC50/CC50 values than quercetin and kaempferol. The NI and AI exhibited no toxicity assessed by the tests on chorioallantoic membranes of hen's eggs, removing toxicological concerns of irritation potential. Moreover, GBL isolates, particularly AI, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the use below the CC50 levels. Taken together, these results suggest that GBL isolates that are rich in antioxidant flavonoids are effective anti-neuroexocytotic agents with high stability and low toxicity.
Project description:Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been reported to possess antiplatelet activity. However, its extensive metabolism following ingestion has resulted in difficulty elucidating precise mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed to characterize the antiplatelet mechanisms of two methylated metabolites of quercetin-isorhamnetin and tamarixetin-and explore potential interactions with aspirin. Isorhamnetin and tamarixetin inhibited human platelet aggregation, and suppressed activatory processes including granule secretion, integrin αIIbβ3 function, calcium mobilization, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)/linker for activation of T cells (LAT) phosphorylation downstream of glycoprotein VI with similar potency to quercetin. All three flavonoids attenuated thrombus formation in an in vitro microfluidic model, and isoquercetin, a 3-O-glucoside of quercetin, inhibited thrombosis in a murine laser injury model. Isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and quercetin enhanced the antiplatelet effects of aspirin more-than-additively in a plate-based aggregometry assay, reducing aspirin IC 50 values by an order of magnitude, with this synergy maintained in a whole blood test of platelet function. Our data provide mechanistic evidence for the antiplatelet activity of two quercetin metabolites, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin, and suggest a potential antithrombotic role for these flavonoids. In combination with their interactions with aspirin, this may represent a novel avenue of investigation for the development of new antithrombotic strategies and management of current therapies.
Project description:Marigold (<i>Calendula officinalis</i> L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of <i>C. officinalis</i> flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC<sub>50</sub> 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-<i>?</i>-(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC<sub>50</sub> 51.26 ?M) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-<i>O</i>-(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC<sub>50</sub> 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-<i>?</i>-(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC<sub>50</sub> 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC<sub>50</sub> 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18-19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents.
Project description:Influenza type A is considered as a severe public health concern. The mechanism of drugs applied for the control of this virus depends on two surface glycoproteins with antigenic properties, namely hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). HA aids the virus to penetrate cells in the early stage of infection and NA is an enzyme with the ability to break glycoside bonds, which enables virion spread through the host cell membrane. Since NA contains a relatively preserved active site, it has been an important target in drug design. Oseltamivir is a common drug used for the treatment of influenza infections, for which cases of resistance have recently been reported, giving rise to health concerns. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds with potential blocking effects in the neuraminidase active site. Based on their antiviral effect, the flavonoids quercetin, catechin, naringenin, luteolin, hispidulin, vitexin, chrysin and kaempferol were selected in the present study and compared alongside oseltamivir on molecular docking, binding energy and active site structure, in order to provide insight on the potential of these compounds as targeted drugs for the control and treatment of influenza type A. The molecular characterization of flavonoids with binding affinity was performed using AutoDock Vina software. The results indicated that these compounds may effectively block the NA active site. Therefore, these natural compounds derived from fruits have the potential for development into drugs for controlling influenza, which may aid overcome the clinical challenge of the H1N1 strain epidemic.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lipid accumulation is the primary evidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and its flavonoid ingredients (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) could lessen the lipid accumulation associated with up-regulation of the rate-limiting enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which GBE and its flavonoids induced expression of CPT1A. RESULTS: CPT1A inhibition with RNAi resulted in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. Through deletion and mutation analysis of CPT1A's promoter combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, the CPT1A promoter region (-50 to -5 nt) was determined to contain two putative Sp1 binding sites, namely Sp1a and Sp1b, which might act as the GBE regulation response DNA element. Sp1 might be induced to transfer from cytoplasma to nucleus to bind the promoter region of -50 to -5 nt by GBE. The regulatory effects of GBE on CPT1A were also verified on the flavonoid ingredients quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. CONCLUSION: Sp1 was crucial in regulating CPT1A expression with GBE and its flavonoid ingredients, and the -50 to -5 nt region of CPT1A promoter played important roles in Sp1 binding.
Project description:Flavonoids in Chinese Medicine have been proven in animal studies that could aid in osteogenesis and bone formation. However, there is no consented mechanism for how these phytochemicals action on the bone-forming osteoblasts, and henceforth the prediction model of chemical screening for this specific biochemical function has not been established. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel selection and effective approach of flavonoids on the prediction of bone-forming ability via osteoblastic voltage-gated calcium (CaV) activation and inhibition using molecular modelling technique. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) in supervised maching-learning approach is applied in this study to predict the behavioral manifestations of flavonoids in the CaV channels, and developing statistical correlation between the biochemical features and the behavioral manifestations of 24 compounds (Training set: Kaempferol, Taxifolin, Daidzein, Morin, Scutellarein, Quercetin, Apigenin, Myricetin, Tamarixetin, Rutin, Genistein, 5,7,2'-Trihydroxyflavone, Baicalein, Luteolin, Galangin, Chrysin, Isorhamnetin, Naringin, 3-Methyl galangin, Resokaempferol; test set: 5-Hydroxyflavone, 3,6,4'-Trihydroxyflavone, 3,4'-Dihydroxyflavone and Naringenin). Based on statistical algorithm, QSAR provides a reasonable basis for establishing a predictive correlation model by a variety of molecular descriptors that are able to identify as well as analyse the biochemical features of flavonoids that engaged in activating or inhibiting the CaV channels for osteoblasts. The model has shown these flavonoids have high activating effects on CaV channel for osteogenesis. In addition, scutellarein was ranked the highest among the screened flavonoids, and other lower ranked compounds, such as daidzein, quercetin, genistein and naringin, have shown the same descending order as previous animal studies. This predictive modelling study has confirmed and validated the biochemical activity of the flavonoids in the osteoblastic CaV activation.
Project description:Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-?-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group. At the same time a possible flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tropical water lily was presumed putatively. These studies will help to elucidate the evolution mechanism on the formation of flower colors and provide theoretical basis for outcross breeding and developing health care products from this plant.