Timp3 deficient mice show resistance to developing breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Timp3 is commonly silenced in breast cancer, but mechanistic studies have identified both tumor promotion and suppression effects of this gene. We have taken a genetic approach to determine the impact of Timp3 loss on two mouse models of breast cancer. Interestingly, MMTV-PyMT Timp3-?- mice have delayed tumor onset and 36% of MMTV-Neu Timp3-?- mice remain tumor free. TIMP3 is a regulator of TNF signaling and similar to Timp3, Tnf or Tnfr1 loss delays early tumorigenesis. The tumor suppression in Timp3 null mice requires Tnfr1, but does not result in alterations in the local immune compartment. In the mammary gland, Timps are highly expressed in the stroma and through the transplantation of tumor cells we observe that Timp3 deficiency in the host is sufficient to delay the growth of early, but not advanced tumor cells. Together our data is the first to identify a tumor promoting role of endogenous Timp3 in vivo, the spatial and temporal windows of this effect, and its dependence on Tnfr1.
Project description:The balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) determines the integrity of the extracellular matrix. TIMP3 is the most highly expressed tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) in the kidney, but its function in renal disease is incompletely understood. In this study, TIMP3-/- mice demonstrated an age-dependent chronic tubulointerstitial fibrosis. After unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), young TIMP3-/- mice exhibited increased renal injury (tubular atrophy, cortical and medullary thinning, and vascular damage) compared with wild-type mice. In addition, TIMP3-/- mice had greater interstitial fibrosis; increased synthesis and deposition of type I collagen; increased activation of fibroblasts; enhanced apoptosis; and greater activation of MMP2, but not MMP9, after UUO. TIMP3 deficiency also led to accelerated processing of TNFalpha, demonstrated by significantly higher TACE activity and greater soluble TNFalpha levels by 3 d after UUO. The additional deletion of TNFalpha markedly reduced inflammation, apoptosis, and induction of a number of MMPs. Moreover, inhibition of MMPs in TIMP3-/-/TNFalpha-/- mice further abrogated postobstructive injury and prevented tubulointerestitial fibrosis. In humans, TIMP3 expression increased in the renal arteries and proximal tubules of subjects with diabetic nephropathy or chronic allograft nephropathy. Taken together, these results provide evidence that TIMP3 is an important mediator of kidney injury, and regulating its activity may have therapeutic benefit for patients with kidney disease.
Project description:The pleiotropic cytokines, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) play critical roles in tissue homeostasis in response to injury and are implicated in multiple human diseases and cancer. We reported that the loss of Timp3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3) leads to abnormal TNF signaling and cardiovascular function. Here we show that parallel deregulation of TGFbeta1 and TNF signaling in Timp3(-/-) mice amplifies their cross-talk at the onset of cardiac response to mechanical stress (pressure overload), resulting in fibrosis and early heart failure. Microarray analysis showed a distinct gene expression profile in Timp3(-/-) hearts, highlighting activation of TGFbeta1 signaling as a potential mechanism underlying fibrosis. Neonatal cardiomyocyte-cardiofibroblast co-cultures were established to measure fibrogenic response to agonists known to be induced following mechanical stress in vivo. A stronger response occurred in neonatal Timp3(-/-) co-cultures, as determined by increased Smad signaling and collagen expression, due to increased TNF processing and precocious proteolytic maturation of TGFbeta1 to its active form. The relationship between TGFbeta1 and TNF was dissected using genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Timp3(-/-)/Tnf(-/-) mice had lower TGFbeta1 than Timp3(-/-), and anti-TGFbeta1 antibody (1D11) negated the abnormal TNF response, indicating their reciprocal stimulatory effects, with each manipulation abolishing fibrosis and improving heart function. Thus, TIMP3 is a common innate regulator of TGFbeta1 and TNF in tissue response to injury. The matrix-bound TIMP3 balances the anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory processes toward constructive tissue remodeling.
Project description:The cell death receptor Fas plays a role in the establishment of fulminant hepatitis, a major cause of drug-induced liver failure. Fas activation elicits extrinsic apoptotic and hepatoprotective signals; however, the mechanisms by which these signals are integrated during disease are unknown. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) controls the critical sheddase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) and may dictate stress signaling. Using mice and cells lacking TIMP3, ADAM17, and ADAM17-regulated cell surface molecules, we have found that ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TNF receptors and EGF family ligands controls activation of multiple signaling cascades in Fas-induced hepatitis. We demonstrated that TNF signaling promoted hepatotoxicity, while excessive TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) shedding in Timp3-/- mice was protective. Compound Timp3-/-Tnf-/- and Timp3-/-Tnfr1-/- knockout conferred complete resistance to Fas-induced toxicity. Loss of Timp3 enhanced metalloproteinase-dependent EGFR signaling due to increased release of the EGFR ligands TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, and HB-EGF, while depletion of shed amphiregulin resensitized Timp3-/- hepatocytes to apoptosis. Finally, adenoviral delivery of Adam17 prevented acetaminophen-induced liver failure in a clinically relevant model of Fas-dependent fulminant hepatitis. These findings demonstrate that TIMP3 and ADAM17 cooperatively dictate cytokine signaling during death receptor activation and indicate that regulated metalloproteinase activity integrates survival and death signals during acute hepatotoxic stress.
Project description:Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/Interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24) is a novel member of the IL-10 gene family that selectively induces apoptosis and toxic autophagy in a broad spectrum of human cancers, including breast cancer, without harming normal cells or tissues. The ability to investigate the critical events underlying cancer initiation and progression, as well as the capacity to test the efficacy of novel therapeutics, has been significantly advanced by the development of genetically engineered mice (GEMs) that accurately recapitulate specific human cancers. We utilized three transgenic mouse models to better comprehend the in vivo role of MDA-7/IL-24 in breast cancer. Using the MMTV-PyMT spontaneous mammary tumor model, we confirmed that exogenously introducing MDA-7/IL-24 using a Cancer Terminator Virus caused a reduction in tumor burden and also produced an antitumor "bystander" effect. Next we performed xenograft studies in a newly created MMTV-MDA-7 transgenic model that over-expresses MDA-7/IL-24 in the mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation, and found that MDA-7/IL-24 overexpression delayed tumor growth following orthotopic injection of a murine PDX tumor cell line (mPDX) derived from a tumor formed in an MMTV-PyMT mouse. We also crossed the MMTV-MDA-7 line to MMTV-Erbb2 transgenic mice and found that MDA-7/IL-24 overexpression delayed the onset of mammary tumor development in this model of spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis as well. Finally, we assessed the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in immune regulation, which can potentially contribute to tumor suppression in vivo. Our findings provide further direct in vivo evidence for the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in tumor suppression in breast cancer in immune-competent transgenic mice.
Project description:Based largely on studies in xenograft models, lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been implicated in the progression of multiple types of human tumors, including breast cancer. Here we examine the role of Lcn2 in mammary tumorigenesis and lung metastasis using an in vivo molecular genetics approach. We crossed a well-characterized transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, the MMTV-PyMT (mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen) mouse, with two independent gene-targeted Lcn2(-/-) mouse strains of the 129/Ola or C57BL/6 genetic background. The onset and progression of mammary tumor development and lung metastasis in the female progeny of these crosses were monitored over a 20-week period. Female Lcn2(-/-)MMTV-PyMT mice of the 129/Ola background (Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129)) showed delayed onset of mammary tumors, and both Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129) mice and Lcn2(-/-)MMTV-PyMT mice of the C57BL/6 background (Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6)) exhibited significant decreases in multiplicity and tumor burden (approximately 2- to 3-fold), as measured by total tumor weight and volume. At the molecular level, mammary tumors derived from Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6) females showed reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and a lack of high molecular weight MMP activity. However, although increased MMP-9 activity has been linked to tumor progression, neither Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6) nor Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129) female mice showed a reduction in lung metastases compared to Lcn2(+/+)PyMT controls. Our results demonstrate, using an in vivo animal model approach, that Lcn2 is a potent inducer of mammary tumor growth but not a significant promoter of lung metastasis.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-3 inhibit matrix metalloproteinases to limit extracellular matrix degradation. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug used to cure osteosarcoma. Interleukin (IL)-6 and TIMP3 play important roles in the drug resistance of osteosarcoma; however, their relationship in this process remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of TIMP3 in the cisplatin sensitivity of osteosarcoma and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We compared TIMP3 expression levels between patients with cisplatin-sensitive and -insensitive osteosarcoma. TIMP3 was overexpressed or knocked down in the Saos2-lung cell line, which is a Saos2 subtype isolated from pulmonary metastases that has higher cisplatin chemoresistance than Saos2 cells. IL-6 expression, cell proliferation, sensitivity to cisplatin, migration, and invasion after TIMP3 overexpression or knockdown were determined. The same experiments were performed using MG63 and U2OS cells. Subsequently, luciferase-labeled Saos2-lung cells overexpressing TIMP3 were injected into the tibiae of nude mice treated with cisplatin. The results showed that IL-6 inhibited TIMP3 expression in Saos2 and Saos2-lung cells via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. STAT3 knockdown reversed the effect of IL-6. The expression of TIMP3 was higher in patients with cisplatin-sensitive osteosarcoma than in those with insensitive osteosarcoma. IL-6 expression was downregulated upon TIMP3 overexpression, and upregulated by TIMP3 knockdown. TIMP3 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cisplatin sensitivity by activating apoptosis-related signal pathways and inhibiting IL-6 expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, cisplatin sensitivity correlated positively with TIMP3 expression, which is regulated by the IL-6/TIMP3/caspase pathway. The TIMP3 pathway could represent a target for new therapies to treat osteosarcoma.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a critical aspect of cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are physiological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the ECM proteins. TIMP3 is highly expressed in the heart, and is markedly downregulated in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We therefore examined the time- and region-dependent role of TIMP3 in the cardiac response to myocardial infarction (MI). TIMP3(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to MI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. TIMP3(-/-)-MI mice exhibited a significantly compromised rate of survival compared with WT-MI mice, primarily due to increased left ventricular (LV) rupture, greater infarct expansion, exacerbated LV dilation, and greater systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Second harmonic generation imaging of unfixed and unstained hearts revealed greater collagen disarray and reduced density in the TIMP3(-/-) infarct myocardium compared with the WT group. Gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities increased in TIMP3(-/-) compared with WT hearts at 1 day post-MI but not at 3 days or 1 wk post-MI. Neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory MMPs were significantly increased in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of TIMP3(-/-)-MI hearts. Treatment of TIMP3(-/-) mice with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (PD-166793) for 2 days before and 2 days after MI markedly improved post-MI infarct expansion, LV rupture incident, LV dilation, and systolic dysfunction in these mice up to 1 wk post-MI. Our data demonstrate that the initial rise in proteolytic activities early post-MI is a triggering factor for subsequent LV adverse remodeling, LV rupture, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Hence, timing of treatments to improve cardiac response to MI may be critical in producing favorable outcome.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are emerging as important biomarkers of various diseases, including cancer. Intriguingly, circulating levels of several miRNAs are lower in patients with cancer compared with healthy individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a circulating miRNA might serve as a surrogate of the effects of cancer on miRNA expression or release in distant organs. Here we report that circulating levels of the muscle-enriched miR486 is lower in patients with breast cancer compared with healthy individuals and that this difference is replicated faithfully in MMTV-PyMT and MMTV-Her2 transgenic mouse models of breast cancer. In tumor-bearing mice, levels of miR486 were relatively reduced in muscle, where there was elevated expression of the miR486 target genes PTEN and FOXO1A and dampened signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Skeletal muscle expressed lower levels of the transcription factor MyoD, which controls miR486 expression. Conditioned media (CM) obtained from MMTV-PyMT and MMTV-Her2/Neu tumor cells cultured in vitro were sufficient to elicit reduced levels of miR486 and increased PTEN and FOXO1A expression in C2C12 murine myoblasts. Cytokine analysis implicated tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and four additional cytokines as mediators of miR486 expression in CM-treated cells. Because miR486 is a potent modulator of PI3K/AKT signaling and the muscle-enriched transcription factor network in cardiac/skeletal muscle, our findings implicated TNF?-dependent miRNA circuitry in muscle differentiation and survival pathways in cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor, is not only essential for proper mammary ductal development, but also associated with breast cancer proliferation and growth. In the absence of AREG, mammary ductal growth is stunted and fails to expand. Furthermore, suppression of AREG expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast tumor cells inhibits in-vitro and in-vivo growth. METHODS:We crossed AREG-null (AREG-/-) mice with the murine luminal B breast cancer model, MMTV-PyMT (PyMT), to generate spontaneous breast tumors that lack AREG (AREG-/- PyMT). We evaluated tumor growth, cytokeratin-8 (K8)-positive luminal cells, cytokeratin-14 (K14)-positive myoepithelial cells, and expression of AREG, Ki67, and PyMT. Primary myoepithelial cells from nontumor-bearing AREG+/+ mice underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting and were adapted to culture for in-vitro coculture studies with AT-3 cells, a cell line derived from C57Bl/6 PyMT mammary tumors. RESULTS:Intriguingly, PyMT-induced lesions progress more rapidly in AREG-/- mice than in AREG+/+ mice. Quantification of K8+ luminal and K14+ myoepithelial cells in non-PyMT AREG-/- mammary glands showed fewer K14+ cells and a thinner myoepithelial layer. Study of AT-3 cells indicated that coculture with myoepithelial cells or exposure to AREG, epidermal growth factor, or basic fibroblast growth factor can suppress PyMT expression. Late-stage AREG-/- PyMT tumors are significantly less solid in structure, with more areas of papillary and cystic growth. Papillary areas appear to be both less proliferative and less necrotic. In The Cancer Genome Atlas database, luminal-B invasive papillary carcinomas have lower AREG expression than luminal B invasive ductal carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS:Our study has revealed a previously unknown role of AREG in myoepithelial cell development and PyMT expression. AREG expression is essential for proper myoepithelial coverage of mammary ducts. Both AREG and myoepithelial cells can suppress PyMT expression. We find that lower AREG expression is associated with invasive papillary breast cancer in both the MMTV-PyMT model and human breast cancer.
Project description:KCa3.1 K+ channels reportedly contribute to the proliferation of breast tumor cells and may serve pro-tumor functions in the microenvironment. The putative interaction of KCa3.1 with major anti-cancer treatment strategies, which are based on cytotoxic drugs or radiotherapy, remains largely unexplored. We employed KCa3.1-proficient and -deficient breast cancer cells derived from breast cancer-prone MMTV-PyMT mice, pharmacological KCa3.1 inhibition, and a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model to study the relevance of functional KCa3.1 for therapy response. The KCa3.1 status of MMTV-PyMT cells did not determine tumor cell proliferation after treatment with different concentrations of docetaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, or cyclophosphamide. KCa3.1 activation by ionizing radiation (IR) in breast tumor cells in vitro, however, enhanced radioresistance, probably via an involvement of the channel in IR-stimulated Ca2+ signals and DNA repair pathways. Consistently, KCa3.1 knockout increased survival time of wildtype mice upon syngeneic orthotopic transplantation of MMTV-PyMT tumors followed by fractionated radiotherapy. Combined, our results imply that KCa3.1 confers resistance to radio- but not to chemotherapy in the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model. Since KCa3.1 is druggable, KCa3.1 targeting concomitant to radiotherapy seems to be a promising strategy to radiosensitize breast tumors.