Bacterial and viral identification and differentiation by amplicon sequencing on the MinION nanopore sequencer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The MinION™ nanopore sequencer was recently released to a community of alpha-testers for evaluation using a variety of sequencing applications. Recent reports have tested the ability of the MinION™ to act as a whole genome sequencer and have demonstrated that nanopore sequencing has tremendous potential utility. However, the current nanopore technology still has limitations with respect to error-rate, and this is problematic when attempting to assemble whole genomes without secondary rounds of sequencing to correct errors. In this study, we tested the ability of the MinION™ nanopore sequencer to accurately identify and differentiate bacterial and viral samples via directed sequencing of characteristic genes shared broadly across a target clade. RESULTS:Using a 6 hour sequencing run time, sufficient data were generated to identify an E. coli sample down to the species level from 16S rDNA amplicons. Three poxviruses (cowpox, vaccinia-MVA, and vaccinia-Lister) were identified and differentiated down to the strain level, despite over 98% identity between the vaccinia strains. The ability to differentiate strains by amplicon sequencing on the MinION™ was accomplished despite an observed per-base error rate of approximately 30%. CONCLUSIONS:While nanopore sequencing, using the MinION™ platform from Oxford Nanopore in particular, continues to mature into a commercially available technology, practical uses are sought for the current versions of the technology. This study offers evidence of the utility of amplicon sequencing by demonstrating that the current versions of MinION™ technology can accurately identify and differentiate both viral and bacterial species present within biological samples via amplicon sequencing.
Project description:The miniaturized and portable DNA sequencer MinION™ has demonstrated great potential in different analyses such as genome-wide sequencing, pathogen outbreak detection and surveillance, human genome variability, and microbial diversity. In this study, we tested the ability of the MinION™ platform to perform long amplicon sequencing in order to design new approaches to study microbial diversity using a multi-locus approach. After compiling a robust database by parsing and extracting the rrn bacterial region from more than 67000 complete or draft bacterial genomes, we demonstrated that the data obtained during sequencing of the long amplicon in the MinION™ device using R9 and R9.4 chemistries were sufficient to study 2 mock microbial communities in a multiplex manner and to almost completely reconstruct the microbial diversity contained in the HM782D and D6305 mock communities. Although nanopore-based sequencing produces reads with lower per-base accuracy compared with other platforms, we presented a novel approach consisting of multi-locus and long amplicon sequencing using the MinION™ MkIb DNA sequencer and R9 and R9.4 chemistries that help to overcome the main disadvantage of this portable sequencing platform. Furthermore, the nanopore sequencing library, constructed with the last releases of pore chemistry (R9.4) and sequencing kit (SQK-LSK108), permitted the retrieval of the higher level of 1D read accuracy sufficient to characterize the microbial species present in each mock community analysed. Improvements in nanopore chemistry, such as minimizing base-calling errors and new library protocols able to produce rapid 1D libraries, will provide more reliable information in the near future. Such data will be useful for more comprehensive and faster specific detection of microbial species and strains in complex ecosystems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The miniaturised and portable DNA sequencer MinION™ has been released to the scientific community within the framework of an early access programme to evaluate its application for a wide variety of genetic approaches. This technology has demonstrated great potential, especially in genome-wide analyses. In this study, we tested the ability of the MinION™ system to perform amplicon sequencing in order to design new approaches to study microbial diversity using nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequences. RESULTS:Using R7.3 chemistry, we generated more than 3.8 million events (nt) during a single sequencing run. These data were sufficient to reconstruct more than 90 % of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for 20 different species present in a mock reference community. After read mapping and 16S rRNA gene assembly, consensus sequences and 2d reads were recovered to assign taxonomic classification down to the species level. Additionally, we were able to measure the relative abundance of all the species present in a mock community and detected a biased species distribution originating from the PCR reaction using 'universal' primers. CONCLUSIONS:Although nanopore-based sequencing produces reads with lower per-base accuracy compared with other platforms, the MinION™ DNA sequencer is valuable for both high taxonomic resolution and microbial diversity analysis. Improvements in nanopore chemistry, such as minimising base-calling errors and the nucleotide bias reported here for 16S amplicon sequencing, will further deliver more reliable information that is useful for the specific detection of microbial species and strains in complex ecosystems.
Project description:A simple and accurate molecular diagnostic method for malaria is urgently needed due to the limitations of conventional microscopic examination. In this study, we demonstrate a new diagnostic procedure for human malaria using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the MinION™ nanopore sequencer.We generated specific LAMP primers targeting the 18S-rRNA gene of all five human Plasmodium species including two P. ovale subspecies (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale wallikeri, P. ovale curtisi, P. knowlesi and P. malariae) and examined human blood samples collected from 63 malaria patients in Indonesia. Additionally, we performed amplicon sequencing of our LAMP products using MinION™ nanopore sequencer to identify each Plasmodium species.Our LAMP method allowed amplification of all targeted 18S-rRNA genes of the reference plasmids with detection limits of 10-100 copies per reaction. Among the 63 clinical samples, 54 and 55 samples were positive by nested PCR and our LAMP method, respectively. Identification of the Plasmodium species by LAMP amplicon sequencing analysis using the MinION™ was consistent with the reference plasmid sequences and the results of nested PCR.Our diagnostic method combined with LAMP and MinION™ could become a simple and accurate tool for the identification of human Plasmodium species, even in resource-limited situations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Species-level genetic characterization of complex bacterial communities has important clinical applications in both diagnosis and treatment. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene has proven to be a powerful strategy for the taxonomic classification of bacteria. This study aims to improve the method for full-length 16S rRNA gene analysis using the nanopore long-read sequencer MinION™. We compared it to the conventional short-read sequencing method in both a mock bacterial community and human fecal samples.<h4>Results</h4>We modified our existing protocol for full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing by MinION™. A new strategy for library construction with an optimized primer set overcame PCR-associated bias and enabled taxonomic classification across a broad range of bacterial species. We compared the performance of full-length and short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing for the characterization of human gut microbiota with a complex bacterial composition. The relative abundance of dominant bacterial genera was highly similar between full-length and short-read sequencing. At the species level, MinION™ long-read sequencing had better resolution for discriminating between members of particular taxa such as Bifidobacterium, allowing an accurate representation of the sample bacterial composition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our present microbiome study, comparing the discriminatory power of full-length and short-read sequencing, clearly illustrated the analytical advantage of sequencing the full-length 16S rRNA gene.
Project description:The MinION™ is a new, portable single-molecule sequencer developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies. It measures four inches in length and is powered from the USB 3.0 port of a laptop computer. The MinION™ measures the change in current resulting from DNA strands interacting with a charged protein nanopore. These measurements can then be used to deduce the underlying nucleotide sequence.We present a read dataset from whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the model organism Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 generated on a MinION™ device during the early-access MinION™ Access Program (MAP). Sequencing runs of the MinION™ are presented, one generated using R7 chemistry (released in July 2014) and one using R7.3 (released in September 2014).Base-called sequence data are provided to demonstrate the nature of data produced by the MinION™ platform and to encourage the development of customised methods for alignment, consensus and variant calling, de novo assembly and scaffolding. FAST5 files containing event data within the HDF5 container format are provided to assist with the development of improved base-calling methods.
Project description:The Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencer enables the selection of specific DNA molecules for sequencing by reversing the driving voltage across individual nanopores. To directly select molecules for sequencing, we used dynamic time warping to match reads to reference sequences. We demonstrate our open-source Read Until software in real-time selective sequencing of regions within small genomes, individual amplicon enrichment and normalization of an amplicon set.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing of infectious agents enables the identification and characterization of emerging viruses. The MinION device is a portable sequencer that allows real-time sequencing in fields or hospitals. <i>Hantaan orthohantavirus</i> (Hantaan virus, HTNV), harbored by <i>Apodemus agrarius</i>, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and poses a critical public health threat worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using nanopore sequencing for whole-genome sequencing of HTNV from samples having different viral copy numbers. Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing was performed in <i>A. agrarius</i> lung tissues collected from the Republic of Korea. Genomic sequences of HTNV were analyzed based on the viral RNA copy numbers. Amplicon-based nanopore sequencing provided nearly full-length genomic sequences of HTNV and showed sufficient read depth for phylogenetic analysis after 8 h of sequencing. The average identity of the HTNV genome sequences for the nanopore sequencer compared to those of generated from Illumina MiSeq revealed 99.8% (L and M segments) and 99.7% (S segment) identities, respectively. This study highlights the potential of the portable nanopore sequencer for rapid generation of accurate genomic sequences of HTNV for quicker decision making in point-of-care testing of HFRS patients during a hantavirus outbreak.
Project description:The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS) technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS) technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oxford Nanopore Technologies Ltd (Oxford, UK) have recently commercialized MinION, a small single-molecule nanopore sequencer, that offers the possibility of sequencing long DNA fragments from small genomes in a matter of seconds. The Oxford Nanopore technology is truly disruptive; it has the potential to revolutionize genomic applications due to its portability, low cost, and ease of use compared with existing long reads sequencing technologies. The MinION sequencer enables the rapid sequencing of small eukaryotic genomes, such as the yeast genome. Combined with existing assembler algorithms, near complete genome assemblies can be generated and comprehensive population genomic analyses can be performed. RESULTS:Here, we resequenced the genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C strain to evaluate the performance of nanopore-only assemblers. Then we de novo sequenced and assembled the genomes of 21 isolates representative of the S. cerevisiae genetic diversity using the MinION platform. The contiguity of our assemblies was 14 times higher than the Illumina-only assemblies and we obtained one or two long contigs for 65 % of the chromosomes. This high contiguity allowed us to accurately detect large structural variations across the 21 studied genomes. CONCLUSION:Because of the high completeness of the nanopore assemblies, we were able to produce a complete cartography of transposable elements insertions and inspect structural variants that are generally missed using a short-read sequencing strategy. Our analyses show that the Oxford Nanopore technology is already usable for de novo sequencing and assembly; however, non-random errors in homopolymers require polishing the consensus using an alternate sequencing technology.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene (<i>BMPR2</i>) represent a major genetic cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Identification of <i>BMPR2</i> mutations is crucial for the genetic diagnosis of PAH. MinION nanopore sequencer is a portable third-generation technology that enables long-read sequencing at a low-cost. This nanopore technology-based device has not been used previously for PAH diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using MinION nanopore sequencing for the genetic analysis of PAH patients, focused on <i>BMPR2</i>. <b>Methods:</b> We developed a protocol for the custom bioinformatics pipeline analysis of long reads generated by long-PCR. To evaluate the potential of using MinION sequencing in PAH, we analyzed five samples, including those of two idiopathic PAH patients and a family of three members with one affected patient. Sanger sequencing analysis was performed to validate the variants. <b>Results:</b> The median read length was around 3.4 kb and a good mean quality score of approximately 19 was obtained. The total number of reads generated was uniform among the cases and ranged from 2,268,263 to 3,126,719. The coverage was consistent across flow cells in which the average number of reads per base ranged from 80,375 to 135,603. We identified two polymorphic variants and three mutations in four out of five patients. Certain indel variant calling-related errors were observed, mostly outside coding sequences. <b>Conclusion:</b> We have shown the ability of this portable nanopore sequencer to detect <i>BMPR2</i> mutations in patients with PAH. The MinION nanopore sequencer is a promising tool for screening <i>BMPR2</i> mutations, especially in small laboratories and research groups.