Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio) NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.
ABSTRACT: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio) using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, ?-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and Aspartic acid (Walker B) formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2) interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with ?-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.
Project description:Proteins of the NACHT [NAIP (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), CIITA (MHC class II transcription activator), HET-E (incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina) and TP1 (telomerase-associated protein)] family may serve as critical pathogen-sensing and signal-transducing molecules within the innate immune system. In the present paper, we show that CLAN [CARD (caspase-recruitment domain), LRR (leucine-rich repeat) and NACHT domain-containing protein], a NACHT-containing protein originally demonstrated to bind and activate pro-caspase 1, is also capable of influencing the functions of other members of the NACHT family. Through heterotypic NACHT-domain interactions, CLAN was found to associate with Nod1, Nod2 and NAC [nucleotide-binding domain and CARD-containing protein; NALP1 (NACHT, LRR and PYRIN protein 1)] when co-expressed in HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney) cells. NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) reporter assays demonstrated that co-expression of either full-length CLAN or the NACHT domain of CLAN significantly inhibited NF-kappaB activation induced by Nod1 or Nod2 overexpression. In addition, co-expression of CLAN or the NACHT domain of CLAN with Nod1 or Nod2 inhibited the ability of these proteins to generate active IL-1beta (interleukin 1beta) through their association with pro-caspase 1. The NACHT domain of CLAN was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments to bind all NACHT domains that were tested, including the NACHT domains from CLAN itself, Nod1, Nod2, cryopyrin, NAC, PAN2 [PAAD [pyrin, AIM (absent-in-melanoma), ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) and death-domain-like]- and NACHT-containing protein] and NAIP (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein). Finally, monocyte-expressed CLAN was found to associate with Nod2 following exposure to bacterial peptidoglycan, implying a regulatory role for interaction of these NACHT proteins in the innate immune response. These studies suggest that by mediating hetero-oligomerization, NACHT domains provide a means by which various NACHT-containing proteins may interact, creating protein-interaction networks that potentially modulate immune responses to invading pathogens.
Project description:The pathogenesis of chronic joint inflammation remains unclear, although the involvement of pathogen recognition receptors has been suggested recently. In the present article, we describe the role of two members of the NACHT-LRR (NLR) family, Nod1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) and Nod2 in a model of acute joint inflammation induced by intraarticular injection of Streptococcus pyogenes cell wall fragments. Here, we show that Nod2 deficiency resulted in reduced joint inflammation and protection against early cartilage damage. In contrast, Nod1 gene-deficient mice developed enhanced joint inflammation with concomitant elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cartilage damage, consistent with a model in which Nod1 controls the inflammatory reaction. To explore whether the different function of Nod1 and Nod2 occurs also in humans, we exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carrying either Nod1ins/del or Nod2fs mutation with SCW fragments in vitro. Production of both TNFalpha and IL-1beta was clearly impaired in PBMCs carrying the Nod2fs compared with PBMCs isolated from healthy controls. In line with results in Nod1 gene-deficient mice, PBMCs from individuals bearing a newly described Nod1 mutation produced enhanced levels of proinflammatory cytokines after 24-h stimulation with SCW fragments. These data indicate that the NLR family members Nod1 and Nod2 have different functions in controlling inflammation, and that intracellular Nod1-Nod2 interactions may determine the severity of arthritis in this experimental model. Whether a distorted balance between the function of Nod1 and/or Nod2 is involved in the pathogenesis of human autoinflammatory or autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, remains to be elucidated.
Project description:Understanding how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to disease at a molecular level provides a starting point for improved therapeutic intervention. SNPs in the innate immune receptor nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) can cause the inflammatory disorders Blau Syndrome (BS) and early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) through receptor hyperactivation. Here, we show that these polymorphisms cluster into two primary locations: the ATP/Mg(2+)-binding site and helical domain 1. Polymorphisms in these two locations may consequently dysregulate ATP hydrolysis and NOD2 autoinhibition, respectively. Complementary mutations in NOD1 did not mirror the NOD2 phenotype, which indicates that NOD1 and NOD2 are activated and regulated by distinct methods.
Project description:Amino acids with functional or key structural roles display higher degrees of conservation through evolution. The comparative analysis of protein sequences from multiple species and/or between homologous proteins can be highly informative in the identification of key structural and functional residues. Residues which in turn provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of protein function. We have explored the genomic and amino acid conservation of the prototypic innate immune genes NOD1 and NOD2. NOD1 orthologs were found in all vertebrate species analyzed, whilst NOD2 was absent from the genomes of avian, reptilian and amphibian species. Evolutionary trace analysis was used to identify highly conserved regions of NOD1 and NOD2 across multiple species. Consistent with the known functions of NOD1 and NOD2 highly conserved patches were identified that matched the Walker A and B motifs and provided interaction surfaces for the adaptor protein RIP2. Other patches of high conservation reflect key structural functions as predicted by homology models. In addition, the pattern of residue conservation within the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of NOD1 and NOD2 is indicative of a conserved mechanism of ligand recognition involving the concave surface of the LRRs.
Project description:The peptidoglycan fragments ?-d-glutamyl- meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) and muramyl-dipeptide (MDP) are microbial-specific metabolites that activate intracellular pattern recognition receptors and stimulate immune signaling pathways. While extensive structure-activity studies have demonstrated that these bacterial cell wall metabolites trigger NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling, their direct binding to these innate immune receptors or other proteins in mammalian cells has not been established. To characterize these fundamental microbial metabolite-host interactions, we synthesized a series of peptidoglycan metabolite photoaffinity reporters and evaluated their cross-linking to NOD1 and NOD2 in mammalian cells. We show that active iE-DAP and MDP photoaffinity reporters selectively cross-linked NOD1 and NOD2, respectively, and not their inactive mutants. We also discovered MDP reporter cross-linking to Arf GTPases, which interacted most prominently with GTP-bound Arf6 and coimmunoprecipitated with NOD2 upon MDP stimulation. Notably, MDP binding to NOD2 and Arf6 was abrogated with loss-of-function NOD2 mutants associated with Crohn's disease. Our studies demonstrate peptidoglycan metabolite photoaffinity reporters can capture their cognate immune receptors in cells and reveal unpredicted ligand-induced interactions with other cellular cofactors. These photoaffinity reporters should afford useful tools to discover and characterize other peptidoglycan metabolite-interacting proteins.
Project description:NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins or NOD-like receptors) are regulators of inflammation and immunity. A subgroup of NLRs and the innate immune receptor, AIM2 (absent-in-melanoma 2), can induce the assembly of a large caspase-1 activating complex called the inflammasome. Other NLRs regulate key signaling pathways such as NF-kB and MAPK. Since inflammation is a central component of colorectal cancer (CRC), this work was undertaken to analyze NLR and AIM2 expression in human CRC by combining bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification using clinical tissue samples. Additional experiments analyzed the association of (i) gene expression and cancer staging, and (ii) gene expression among inflammasome components.Ten public CRC datasets from the Oncomine® Platform were analyzed. Genes analyzed include NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP6, NLRP12, NLRC3, NLRC4, NLRC5, NOD1, NOD2 and AIM2. Additionally, forty case-matched cancer samples and adjacent healthy control tissues isolated from a cohort of Chinese CRC patients were profiled.Three patterns of gene expression in CRC are shown. The expression of NLRC3, a checkpoint of inflammation, and the inflammasome components NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 were reduced in CRC. NOD1 and NOD2 expression was increased in CRC, while NLRC5, NLRP6 and NLRP12 showed little difference compared to controls. Reduced expression of NLRC3 in CRC was verified in all available databases analyzed and confirmed with our patient cohort. Furthermore, the extent of NLRC3 and AIM2 gene reduction was correlated with cancer progression. This report reveals the potential value of NLR and AIM2 genes as biomarkers of CRC and cancer progression.
Project description:Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1? release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly.
Project description:NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammation and autophagy. These pathways rely on the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) within the receptors, which serve as protein interaction platforms that coordinately regulate immune signaling. We show that NOD1 CARD binds ubiquitin (Ub), in addition to directly binding its downstream targets receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) and autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1). NMR spectroscopy and structure-guided mutagenesis identified a small hydrophobic surface of NOD1 CARD that binds Ub. In vitro, Ub competes with RIP2 for association with NOD1 CARD. In vivo, we found that the ligand-stimulated activity of NOD1 with a mutant CARD lacking Ub binding but retaining ATG16L1 and RIP2 binding is increased relative to wild-type NOD1. Likewise, point mutations in the tandem NOD2 CARDs at positions analogous to the surface residues defining the Ub interface on NOD1 resulted in loss of Ub binding and increased ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. These data suggest that Ub binding provides a negative feedback loop upon NOD-dependent activation of RIP2.
Project description:The prototypical model for NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasome assembly includes nucleotide-dependent activation of the NLR downstream of pathogen- or danger-associated molecular pattern (PAMP or DAMP) recognition, followed by nucleation of hetero-oligomeric platforms that lie upstream of inflammatory responses associated with innate immunity. As members of the STAND ATPases, the NLRs are generally thought to share a similar model of ATP-dependent activation and effect. However, recent observations have challenged this paradigm to reveal novel and complex biochemical processes to discern NLRs from other STAND proteins. In this review, we highlight past findings that identify the regulatory importance of conserved ATP-binding and hydrolysis motifs within the nucleotide-binding NACHT domain of NLRs and explore recent breakthroughs that generate connections between NLR protein structure and function. Indeed, newly deposited NLR structures for NLRC4 and NLRP3 have provided unique perspectives on the ATP-dependency of inflammasome activation. Novel molecular dynamic simulations of NLRP3 examined the active site of ADP- and ATP-bound models. The findings support distinctions in nucleotide-binding domain topology with occupancy of ATP or ADP that are in turn disseminated on to the global protein structure. Ultimately, studies continue to reveal how the ATP-binding and hydrolysis properties of NACHT domains in different NLRs integrate with signaling modules and binding partners to control innate immune responses at the molecular level.
Project description:RIPK2 mediates inflammatory signaling by the bacteria-sensing receptors NOD1 and NOD2. Kinase inhibitors targeting RIPK2 are a proposed strategy to ameliorate NOD-mediated pathologies. Here, we reveal that RIPK2 kinase activity is dispensable for NOD2 inflammatory signaling and show that RIPK2 inhibitors function instead by antagonizing XIAP-binding and XIAP-mediated ubiquitination of RIPK2. We map the XIAP binding site on RIPK2 to the loop between β2 and β3 of the N-lobe of the kinase, which is in close proximity to the ATP-binding pocket. Through characterization of a new series of ATP pocket-binding RIPK2 inhibitors, we identify the molecular features that determine their inhibition of both the RIPK2-XIAP interaction, and of cellular and in vivoNOD2 signaling. Our study exemplifies how targeting of the ATP-binding pocket in RIPK2 can be exploited to interfere with the RIPK2-XIAP interaction for modulation of NOD signaling.