Notch regulates cytolytic effector function in CD8+ T cells.
ABSTRACT: The maturation of naive CD8(+) T cells into effector CTLs is a critical feature of a functional adaptive immune system. Development of CTLs depends, in part, upon the expression of the transcriptional regulator eomesodermin (EOMES), which is thought to regulate expression of two key effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Although EOMES is important for effector CTL development, the precise mechanisms regulating CD8(+) effector cell maturation remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that Notch1 regulates the expression of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B through direct binding to the promoters of these crucial effector molecules. By abrogating Notch signaling, both biochemically as well as genetically, we conclude that Notch activity mediates CTL activity through direct regulation of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B.
Project description:Activation of naive CD8(+) T cells with antigen induces their differentiation into effector cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs lyse infected or aberrant target cells by exocytosis of lytic granules containing the pore-forming protein perforin and a family of proteases termed granzymes. We show that effector CTL differentiation occurs in two sequential phases in vitro, characterized by early induction of T-bet and late induction of Eomesodermin (Eomes), T-box transcription factors that regulate the early and late phases of interferon (IFN) gamma expression, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate a critical role for the transcription factor Runx3 in CTL differentiation. Runx3 regulates Eomes expression as well as expression of three cardinal markers of the effector CTL program: IFN-gamma, perforin, and granzyme B. Our data point to the existence of an elaborate transcriptional network in which Runx3 initially induces and then cooperates with T-box transcription factors to regulate gene transcription in differentiating CTLs.
Project description:Interleukin(IL)-2 and inflammation regulate effector and memory cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) generation during infection. We demonstrate a complex interplay between IL-2 and inflammatory signals during CTL differentiation. IL-2 stimulation induced the transcription factor eomesodermin (Eomes), upregulated perforin (Prf1) transcription, and repressed re-expression of memory CTL markers Bcl6 and IL-7Ralpha. Binding of Eomes and STAT5 to Prf1 cis-regulatory regions correlated with transcriptional initiation (increased recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the Prf1 promoter). Inflammation (CpG, IL-12) enhanced expression of IL-2Ralpha and the transcription factor T-bet, but countered late Eomes and perforin induction while preventing IL-7Ralpha repression by IL-2. After infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, IL-2Ralpha-deficient effector CD8(+) T cells expressed more Bcl6 but less perforin and granzyme B, formed fewer KLRG-1(+) and T-bet-expressing CTL, and killed poorly. Thus, inflammation influences both effector and memory CTL differentiation, whereas persistent IL-2 stimulation promotes effector at the expense of memory CTL development.
Project description:Acquisition of effector properties is a key step in the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we show that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in CTL, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8+ T cells causes upregulation of perforin, granzyme and effector cytokines. Genome-wide analysis of miRNA changes induced by exposure of differentiating CTLs to IL-2 and inflammatory signals identifies miR-139 and miR-150 as components of a miRNA network that controls perforin, eomesodermin (Eomes) and IL-2Ra expression in differentiating CTLs and whose activity is modulated by IL-2, inflammation and antigenic stimulation. Overall our data show that strong IL-2R and inflammatory signals act through Dicer and miRNAs to control the cytolytic program and other aspects of effector CTL differentiation. Comparison of control and Dicer knock-out CTLs differentiated in vitro; Comparison of wild type CTLs differentiated in vitro with or without inflammatory stimuli; Comparison of effector and memory precursor CTLs isolated from mice infected with LCMV-Armstrong
Project description:Acquisition of effector properties is a key step in the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we show that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in CTLs, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8(+) T cells causes up-regulation of perforin, granzymes, and effector cytokines. Genome-wide analysis of microRNA (miR, miRNA) changes induced by exposure of differentiating CTLs to IL-2 and inflammatory signals identifies miR-139 and miR-150 as components of an miRNA network that controls perforin, eomesodermin, and IL-2R? expression in differentiating CTLs and whose activity is modulated by IL-2, inflammation, and antigenic stimulation. Overall, our data show that strong IL-2R and inflammatory signals act through Dicer and miRNAs to control the cytolytic program and other aspects of effector CTL differentiation.
Project description:The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment usurps host antitumor immunity by multiple mechanisms including interference with the Notch system, which is important for various metazoan cell fate decisions and hematopoietic cell differentiation and function. We observed that treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in mice bearing various solid tumors resulted in an upregulated expression of various Notch signaling components in lymphoid tissues, thereby increasing CD8+T-lymphocyte IFN? secretion and expression of effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B, as well as the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin. Bortezomib also neutralized TGF?-mediated suppression of IFN? and granzyme B expression in activated CD8+T-cells. Of note, bortezomib reversed tumor-induced downregulation of Notch receptors, Notch1 and Notch2, as well as increased the levels of cleaved Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and downstream targets Hes1 and Hey1 in tumor-draining CD8+T-cells. Moreover, bortezomib promoted CD8+T-cell nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) activity by increasing the total and phosphorylated levels of the I?B kinase and I?B? as well as the cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of phosphorylated p65. Even when we blocked NF?B activity by Bay-11-7082, or NICD cleavage by ?-secretase inhibitor, bortezomib significantly increased expression of Notch Hes1 and Hey1 genes as well as perforin, granzyme B and eomesodermin in activated CD8+T-cells. Data suggest that bortezomib can rescue tumor-induced dysfunction of CD8+T-cells by its intrinsic stimulatory effects promoting NICD-NF?B crosstalk. These findings provide novel insights on using bortezomib not only as an agent to sensitize tumors to cell death but also to provide lymphocyte-stimulatory effects, thereby overcoming immunosuppressive actions of tumor on anti-tumor T-cell functions.
Project description:Eomesodermin (Eomes), a T-bet homologue expressed in activated CD8+T cells was recently proposed to act as a master regulator of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell effector function and offers an exciting avenue for future exploration. Here, we have identified and characterized the full-length Atlantic salmon Eomes cDNA (2477 bp). Promoter analysis of the salmon Eomes showed the presence of important putative transcription binding sites like SP1, FOXO, Oct-1, SMAD, STAT, IRF, and Ets-1. The basal core region responsible for the promoter activity was located between base -199 and +59. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the Atlantic salmon Eomes was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues studied but strongly expressed in the ovary, spleen, brain, and the head kidney. Moreover, the involvement of Eomes in Atlantic salmon immune response and its relation with the cytolytic activity was demonstrated by investigating the early time dependent expression profile of Eomes and CD8? followed by high interferon gamma (IFN-?) and granzyme A expression during challenge with live Aeromonas salmonicida and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) virus. Therefore, we further analyzed the regulated expression and function of this transcription factor in spleen lymphocytes. Overexpression of Eomes induced IFN-?, and granzyme A expression but not perforin expression, whereas small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated suppression of Eomes expression led to significantly reduced IFN-? production. Thus, Eomes may be critical in cytolytic gene expression and function in fish similar to mammals. Furthermore, IFN-?, and mitogens induced Eomes expression. Taken together, this is the first study on the promoter activity and regulatory role of Eomes in fish.
Project description:Emerging evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus not only raises risk but also heightens mortality rate of cancer. It is not clear, however, whether antitumor CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is down-modulated in diabetic hosts. We investigated the impact of hyperglycemia on CTLs' acquisition of tumor-killing capability by utilizing streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-diabetic) mice. Murine diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (200 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice, 2C-T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic and P14-TCR transgenic mice. The study found that, despite harboring intact proliferative capacity measured with CFSE labeling and MTT assay, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs displayed impaired effector functions. After stimulation, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs produced less perforin and TNF? assessed by intracellular staining, as well as expressed less CD103 protein. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of STZ-diabetic P14 CD8+ effector cells showed an insufficient recruitment to the B16.gp33 melanoma and inadequate production of perforin, granzyme B and TNF? determined by immunohistochemistry in the tumor milieu. As a result, STZ-diabetic CD8+ effector cells were neither able to eliminate tumor nor to improve survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data suggest that CD8+ CTLs are crippled to infiltrate into tumors and thus fail to acquire tumor-killing capability in STZ-diabetic hosts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a deleterious role for CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We have recently reported that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a potent neuroprotective factor, limits CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune neuroinflammation by promoting tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently regulatory T cells. Whether HGF modulates cell-mediated immunity driven by MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells remains to be determined. METHODS: Here we examined whether HGF regulates antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses using an established model of murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. RESULTS: We found that HGF treatment of gp100-pulsed DCs reduced the activation of gp100-specific T cell receptor (Pmel-1) CD8+ T cells and subsequent MHC class I-restricted CTL-mediated cytolysis of gp100-pulsed target cells. The levels of perforin, granzyme B, IFN-?, and the degranulation marker CD107a as well as Fas ligand were decreased among CD8+ T cells, suggestive of a dual inhibitory effect of HGF on the perforin/granzyme B- and Fas-based lytic pathways in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Treatment of CD8+ T cells with concanamycin A, a potent inhibitor of the perforin-mediated cytotoxic pathway, abrogated CTL cytotoxicity indicating that blockade of the perforin-dependent killing is a major mechanism by which HGF diminished cytolysis of gp100-pulsed target cells. Moreover, HGF suppressed the generation of effector memory CTLs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that HGF treatment limits both the generation and activity of effector CTL from naïve CD8+ T cells. Complementary to its impact on CD4+ T-cell CNS autoimmunity and myelin repair, our findings further suggest that HGF treatment could be exploited to control CD8+ T-cell-mediated, MHC I-restricted autoimmune dysfunctions such as MS.
Project description:Focal inflammation causes systemic fever. Cancer hyperthermia therapy results in shrinkage of tumors by various mechanisms, including induction of adaptive immune response. However, the physiological meaning of systemic fever and mechanisms of tumor shrinkage by hyperthermia have not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated how heat shock influences the adaptive immune system. We established a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone (#IM29) specific for survivin, one of the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), from survivin peptide-immunized cancer patients' peripheral blood, and the CTL activities were investigated in several temperature conditions (37-41 °C). Cytotoxicity and IFN-? secretion of CTL were greatest under 39 °C condition, whereas they were minimum under 41 °C. To address the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we investigated the apoptosis status of CTLs, expression of CD3, CD8, and TCR?? by flow cytometry, and expression of perforin, granzyme B, and Fas ligand by western blot analysis. The expression of perforin and granzyme B were upregulated under temperature conditions of 39 and 41 °C. On the other hand, CTL cell death was induced under 41 °C condition with highest Caspase-3 activity. Therefore, the greatest cytotoxicity activity at 39 °C might depend on upregulation of cytotoxic granule proteins including perforin and granzyme B. These results suggest that heat shock enhances effector phase of the adaptive immune system and promotes eradication of microbe and tumor cells.
Project description:Human melanoma cells express various tumour antigens that are recognized by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and elicit tumour-specific responses in vivo. However, natural and therapeutically enhanced CTL responses in melanoma patients are of limited efficacy. The mechanisms underlying CTL effector phase failure when facing melanomas are still largely elusive. Here we show that, on conjugation with CTL, human melanoma cells undergo an active late endosome/lysosome trafficking, which is intensified at the lytic synapse and is paralleled by cathepsin-mediated perforin degradation and deficient granzyme B penetration. Abortion of SNAP-23-dependent lysosomal trafficking, pH perturbation or impairment of lysosomal proteolytic activity restores susceptibility to CTL attack. Inside the arsenal of melanoma cell strategies to escape immune surveillance, we identify a self-defence mechanism based on exacerbated lysosome secretion and perforin degradation at the lytic synapse. Interfering with this synaptic self-defence mechanism might be useful in potentiating CTL-mediated therapies in melanoma patients.