Disordered sleep and myopia risk among Chinese children.
ABSTRACT: Disordered sleep and myopia are increasingly prevalent among Chinese children. Similar pathways may be involved in regulation of both sleep cycles and eye growth. We therefore sought to examine the association between disordered sleep and myopia in this group.Urban primary school children participating in a clinical trial on myopia and outdoor activity underwent automated cycloplegic refraction with subjective refinement. Parents answered questions about children's sleep duration, sleep disorders (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire [CSHQ]), near work and time spent outdoors.Among 1970 children, 1902 (96.5%, mean [standard deviation SD] age 9.80 [0.44] years, 53.1% boys) completed refraction and questionnaires. Myopia < = -0.50 Diopters was present in both eyes of 588 (30.9%) children (1329/3804 = 34.9% of eyes) and 1129 children (59.4%) had abnormal CSHQ scores (> 41). In logistic regression models by eye, odds of myopia < = -0.50D increased with worse CSHQ score (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.01 per point, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] [1.001, 1.02], P = 0.014) and more night-time sleep (OR 1.02, 95% CI [1.01, 1.04, P = 0.002], while male sex (OR 0.82, 95% CI [0.70, 0.95], P = 0.008) and time outdoors (OR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.95, 0.99], P = 0.011) were associated with less myopia. The association between sleep duration and myopia was not significant (p = 0.199) for total (night + midday) sleep.Myopia and disordered sleep were both common in this cohort, but we did not find consistent evidence for an association between the two.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00848900.
Project description:<label>OBJECTIVE</label>To evaluate measures of sleep (exploratory endpoints) in two pivotal studies of a multilayer bead extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.<label>METHODS</label>Study 1 evaluated the time course of response to MPH-MLR (n?=?26) patients in an analog classroom setting through four phases: screening (?28 days), open label (OL) dose optimization (4 weeks), double-blind (DB) crossover (2 weeks; placebo vs. optimized dose), and follow-up call. Study 2 was a forced-dose parallel evaluation of MPH-MLR (n?=?230) in four phases: screening (?28 days), DB (1 week; placebo or MPH-MLR 10, 15, 20, or 40?mg/day), OL dose optimization (11 weeks), and follow-up call. Sleep was evaluated by parents using the Children's or Adolescent Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ or ASHQ) during the DB and OL phases. DB analysis: Study 1 (crossover), analysis of variance; Study 2, analysis of covariance. OL analysis: paired t-test.<label>RESULTS</label>DB: treatments were significantly different in Study 1 only for CSHQ Sleep Onset Delay (MPH-MLR, 1.90 vs. placebo, 1.34; p?=?0.0046, placebo was better), and Study 2 for CSHQ Parasomnias (treatment, p?=?0.0295), but no MPH-MLR treatment was different from placebo (pairwise MPH-MLR treatment to placebo, all p???0.170). OL: CSHQ total and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Duration, Sleep Anxiety, Night Wakings, Parasomnias, and Sleep-disordered Breathing subscales decreased (improved, Study 1) significant only for CSHQ Night Wakings (p?<?0.05); in Study 2 CSHQ total and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Duration, Night Wakings, Parasomnias, and Daytime Sleepiness, and ASHQ total, Bedtime, Sleep Behavior, and Morning Waking all significantly improved (p?<?0.05).<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>In both studies, there was minimal negative impact of MPH-MLR on sleep during the brief DB phase and none during the longer duration OL phase. Some measures of sleep improved with optimized MPH-MLR dose.
Project description:We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years.This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children's use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child's age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF.Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores.Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone usage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by behavioural, communication and social impairments. The prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is 40-80%, with significant effects on quality of life for the children and carers. This systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence of the effects of behavioural interventions to improve sleep among children with ASD. METHODS:Databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Autism Data, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with autism spectrum conditions. RESULTS:Three studies met the inclusion criteria, one provided actigraphy data, one Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) data, and one both actigraphy and CSHQ data for use in meta-analyses. There were significant differences between the behavioural intervention and comparison groups (actigraphy data) for total sleep time (24.41 minutes, 95% CI 5.71, 43.11, P = 0.01), sleep latency (-18.31 minutes, 95% CI -30.84, -5.77, P = 0.004) and sleep efficiency (5.59%, 95% CI 0.87, 10.31, P = 0.02). There was also a favourable intervention effect evident for the subjective CSHQ data (-4.71, 95% CI -6.70, -2.73, P<0.00001). Risk of bias was low across several key domains (randomisation, allocation concealment and reporting), with some studies being unclear due to poor reporting. CONCLUSIONS:There are very few high quality randomised controlled trials in this area. Here we provide initial synthesised quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for treating sleep problems in children with ASD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Protocol was registered (CRD42017081784) on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
Project description:<b>Study Objectives:</b> This study aims to identify the characteristic sleep disturbances that affect behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), providing a potential direction for sleep and behavioral intervention in ASD. <b>Methods:</b> The data of 513 children with ASD and 246 typically developing (TD) children aged between 2 and 5 years old were collected. The behavior performance of preschool children was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist for 1.5-5.0 years old. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used to measure the sleep status of the children, and the Social Responsiveness Scale was used to measure the severity of disorder. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of sleep disturbances on behavioral problems, and independent-sample <i>t</i>-test was performed to compare the mean of the samples. <b>Results:</b> Compared to TD children, children with ASD had longer sleep onset delay and more night awakenings. The parasomnias score (a subscale of the CSHQ) was significantly associated with the internalizing (? = 0.113, <i>P</i> = 0.010), externalizing (? = 0.128, <i>P</i> = 0.006), and total problems (? = 0.143, <i>P</i> = 0.001) of children with ASD, while this association was not significant in TD children. "Bed wetting" and "restless and moves a lot" (two items in the CSHQ under parasomnia) significantly only affected the overall behavioral score in children with ASD (<i>P</i> < 0.05). <b>Conclusion:</b> Parasomnias, especially bed wetting and restlessness, are specifically associated with the behavioral problems of children with ASD rather than TD children.
Project description:Background:Animal studies suggested that maternal sleep during pregnancy was associated with sleep pattern in offspring; however, it has not been clear in human populations. Aim:Our study discusses the relationships of maternal sleep duration with sleep characteristics in their offspring through an epidemiological study. Methods:A retrospective cross-sectional study including 6236 mother-child dyads was conducted in 31 preschools in May 2019, in Shanghai, China. Information regarding maternal sleep duration in three trimesters of pregnancy was collected retrospectively. Children's current sleep characteristics were evaluated through the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Linear regressions and logistic regression models were applied to estimate ? and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results:Maternal sleep duration was positively associated with childhood sleep duration, which was shown in the first (?=0.113), second (?=0.131), and third trimesters (?=0.088). Meanwhile, insufficient maternal sleep duration could increase the risk of children's short sleep duration (first trimester: AOR=1.25; second trimester: AOR=1.33; third trimester: AOR=1.33). Maternal sleep duration was also associated with childhood CSHQ score: ?=-0.308, -0.392, and -0.300 for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Similarly, insufficient maternal sleep duration could predict childhood sleep disturbance as AOR=1.28 in the second trimester and AOR=1.26 in the third trimester. Conclusion:Our findings established a relationship between maternal sleep during pregnancy and their children's sleep pattern through a population-based epidemiology study. Poor childhood sleep was found when their mother experienced less sleep duration during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimesters.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and results from an extra chromosome 21 (Trisomy 21). Sleep issues and/or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are assumed to be part of the DS phenotype with a high prevalence but are often under recognized. This cross-sectional study of children with DS examines the caregiver-reported sleep behaviors of 108 children with DS, ranging in age from 1.50 to 13.40 years (mean?=?5.18 years) utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ). The CSHQ revealed 76% of children with DS had sleep problems, which began at a young age, and continue to persist and may recur with increasing age. Furthermore, children with DS who undergone adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy for OSA continued to have sleep problems suggesting that ongoing monitoring of sleep issues is needed in this population. Implications of sleep problems and recommended anticipatory guidance and intervention are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evaluate risk factors for paediatric myopia in a contemporary French cohort taking into account consumption of refined carbohydrates (starches and sugars). METHODS:An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2017 and May 2018. Two hundred sixty-four children aged 4 to 18?years attending the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Gui de Chauliac in Montpellier were recruited. Ophthalmologic or optometric cycloplegic refraction were measured. Evaluated risk factors for myopia were collected, including family history of myopia, outdoor time, reading time, screen time, physical activity, and consumption of refined carbohydrates. Association between the probability of at least one eye showing myopia (defined as?<?0 D) and frequency of refined carbohydrates consumption adjusted for risk factors and control factors was tested. RESULTS:Overall, 86/264 (32.6%) children investigated showed myopia in at least one eye. We included 180 children exhibiting refraction <?3 D in both eyes: 88 (48.9%) girls and 92 (51.1%) boys. The consumption of refined carbohydrates significantly increased the probability of myopia for girls (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.13; P =?0.009) but decreased it for boys (OR?=?0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P =?0.011). The probability of myopia was marginally increased with increased screen time (OR?=?2.32; 95% CI, 0.94-6.47; P =?0.083). Outdoor time seemed marginally protective (OR?=?0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.01; P =?0.057). CONCLUSION:Refined carbohydrates consumption could be associated with child myopia, with increased probability for girls and unexpected reduced probability for boys, possibly due to the fact that frequency of carbohydrates consumption do not really capture boy's chronic hyperglycemia, boys being more physically active than girls at all ages. Some known risk/protective factors of myopia were marginally significant: screen time (risk) and outdoor time (protective). This study reinforces the belief that modifiable risk factors for myopia could be targets for future public health actions.
Project description:Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; MIM 610883) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microduplication, a 3.7 Mb copy number variant, mapping within chromosome 17p11.2, encompassing the dosage-sensitive RAI1 gene. Whereas RAI1 triplosensitivity causes PTLS, haploinsufficiency of RAI1 due to 17p11.2 microdeletion causes the clinically distinct Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; MIM 182290). Most individuals with SMS have an inversion of the melatonin cycle. Subjects with PTLS have mild sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea with no melatonin abnormalities described. Sleep patterns and potential disturbances in subjects with PTLS have not been objectively characterized. We delineated sleep characteristics in 23 subjects with PTLS who underwent a polysomnogram at Texas Children's Hospital. Eleven of these subjects (58%) completed the Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Urinary melatonin was measured in one patient and published previously. While the circadian rhythm of melatonin in PTLS appears not to be disrupted, we identified significant differences in sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, oxygen nadir, obstructive apnea hypopnea index, and periodic limb movements between prepubertal subjects with PTLS and previously published normative data. Data from the CSHQ indicate that 64% (7/11) of parents do not identify a sleep disturbance in their children. Our data indicate that younger individuals, <10 years, with PTLS have statistically significant abnormalities in five components of sleep despite lack of recognition of substantial sleep disturbances by parents. Our data support the contention that patients with PTLS should undergo clinical evaluations for sleep disordered breathing and periodic limb movement disorder, both of which are treatable conditions.
Project description:Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.
Project description:Importance:Myopia has reached epidemic levels among children in regions of East and Southeast Asia. High myopia is associated with myopic macular degeneration, glaucoma, and retinal detachment. Objective:To determine the incidence of myopia and high myopia based on refraction without cycloplegia among children in primary and junior high schools in China. Design, Setting, and Participants:This observational cohort study was completed in Guangzhou, China. It consisted of a cohort from 19 primary schools, who were followed up from 2010 to 2015, and a cohort from 22 junior high schools, who were followed up from 2010 to 2012. All schools were randomly chosen at rates proportional to the number of schools in each of the city's 11 districts. Students with or without myopia in grade 1 (primary school) or grade 7 (junior high school) were eligible for inclusion. Data analysis occurred from February 2017 to October 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of -0.50 diopters (D) or less, as measured by subjective refraction without cycloplegia; high myopia was defined as a SER of -6.0 D or less. Annual incidences were defined as the proportion of participants each year found to have myopia or high myopia who did not previously have the condition. Height, weight, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature (CRC), and AL/CRC ratio were examined to assess if these measures were associated with future myopia or high myopia. Results:A total of 4741 students with or without myopia in either grade 1 for the primary school cohort (mean [SD] age 7.2 [0.4] years; 932 of 1975 [47.2%] female) or grade 7 for the junior high school cohort (mean [SD] age 13.2 [0.5] years; 1254 of 2670 [47.0%] female) were included. Baseline mean (SD) SER was 0.31 (0.86) D among 1975 students in grade 1 vs -1.60 (2.00) D among 2670 students in grade 7. Baseline prevalence of myopia was 12.0% in grade 1 students (n = 237 of 1969) and 67.4% in grade 7 students (n = 1795 of 2663). The incidence of myopia was 20% to 30% each year throughout both cohorts. The incidence of high myopia was initially less than 1% in the primary school cohort (grade 1: n = 2 of 1825; 0.1% [95% CI, 0.0%-0.3%]), but incidence exceeded 2% in the junior high school cohort (in grade 9: n = 48 of 2044; 2.3% [95% CI, 1.0%-3.7%]). Conclusions and Relevance:The incidence of myopia among Chinese students based on refraction without cycloplegia is among the highest of any cultural or ethnic group. If confirmed with cycloplegic refraction, interventions to prevent myopia onset in Chinese populations should be initiated in primary schools.