Compartmentalized replication of R5 T cell-tropic HIV-1 in the central nervous system early in the course of infection.
ABSTRACT: Compartmentalized HIV-1 replication within the central nervous system (CNS) likely provides a foundation for neurocognitive impairment and a potentially important tissue reservoir. The timing of emergence and character of this local CNS replication has not been defined in a population of subjects. We examined the frequency of elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA concentration, the nature of CSF viral populations compared to the blood, and the presence of a cellular inflammatory response (with the potential to bring infected cells into the CNS) using paired CSF and blood samples obtained over the first two years of infection from 72 ART-naïve subjects. Using single genome amplification (SGA) and phylodynamics analysis of full-length env sequences, we compared CSF and blood viral populations in 33 of the 72 subjects. Independent HIV-1 replication in the CNS (compartmentalization) was detected in 20% of sample pairs analyzed by SGA, or 7% of all sample pairs, and was exclusively observed after four months of infection. In subjects with longitudinal sampling, 30% showed evidence of CNS viral replication or pleocytosis/inflammation in at least one time point, and in approximately 16% of subjects we observed evolving CSF/CNS compartmentalized viral replication and/or a marked CSF inflammatory response at multiple time points suggesting an ongoing or recurrent impact of the infection in the CNS. Two subjects had one of two transmitted lineages (or their recombinant) largely sequestered within the CNS shortly after transmission, indicating an additional mechanism for establishing early CNS replication. Transmitted variants were R5 T cell-tropic. Overall, examination of the relationships between CSF viral populations, blood and CSF HIV-1 RNA concentrations, and inflammatory responses suggested four distinct states of viral population dynamics, with associated mechanisms of local viral replication and the early influx of virus into the CNS. This study considerably enhances the generalizability of our results and greatly expands our knowledge of the early interactions of HIV-1 in the CNS.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) is a severe neurological disease that affects a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals. Increased compartmentalization has been reported between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 populations in subjects with HAD, but it is still not known when compartmentalization arises during the course of infection. To assess HIV-1 genetic compartmentalization early during infection, we compared HIV-1 populations in the peripheral blood and CSF in 11 primary infection subjects, with analysis of longitudinal samples over the first 18 months for a subset of subjects. We used heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the variable regions of env and single-genome amplification and sequence analysis of the full-length env gene to identify CSF-compartmentalized variants and to examine viral genotypes within the compartmentalized populations. For most subjects, HIV-1 populations were equilibrated between the blood and CSF compartments. However, compartmentalized HIV-1 populations were detected in the CSF of three primary infection subjects, and longitudinal analysis of one subject revealed that compartmentalization during primary HIV-1 infection was resolved. Clonal amplification of specific HIV-1 variants was identified in the CSF population of one primary infection subject. Our data show that compartmentalization can occur in the central nervous system (CNS) of subjects in primary HIV-1 infection in part through persistence of the putative transmitted parental variant or via viral genetic adaptation to the CNS environment. The presence of distinct HIV-1 populations in the CSF indicates that independent HIV-1 replication can occur in the CNS, even early after HIV-1 transmission.
Project description:HIV-1 subtype B replication in the CNS can occur in CD4+ T cells or macrophages/microglia in adults. However, little is known about CNS infection in children or the ability of subtype C HIV-1 to evolve macrophage-tropic variants. In this study, we examined HIV-1 variants in ART-naïve children aged three years or younger to determine viral genotypes and phenotypes associated with HIV-1 subtype C pediatric CNS infection. We examined HIV-1 subtype C populations in blood and CSF of 43 Malawian children with neurodevelopmental delay or acute neurological symptoms. Using single genome amplification (SGA) and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length env gene, we defined four states: equilibrated virus in blood and CSF (n?=?20, 47%), intermediate compartmentalization (n?=?11, 25%), and two distinct types of compartmentalized CSF virus (n?=?12, 28%). Older age and a higher CSF/blood viral load ratio were associated with compartmentalization, consistent with independent replication in the CNS. Cell tropism was assessed using pseudotyped reporter viruses to enter a cell line on which CD4 and CCR5 receptor expression can be differentially induced. In a subset of compartmentalized cases (n?=?2, 17%), the CNS virus was able to infect cells with low CD4 surface expression, a hallmark of macrophage-tropic viruses, and intermediate compartmentalization early was associated with an intermediate CD4 entry phenotype. Transmission of multiple variants was observed for 5 children; in several cases, one variant was sequestered within the CNS, consistent with early stochastic colonization of the CNS by virus. Thus we hypothesize two pathways to compartmentalization: early stochastic sequestration in the CNS of one of multiple variants transmitted from mother to child, and emergence of compartmentalized variants later in infection, on average at age 13.5 months, and becoming fully apparent in the CSF by age 18 months. Overall, compartmentalized viral replication in the CNS occurred in half of children by year three.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to the development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We examined the virological characteristics of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HAD subjects to explore the association between independent viral replication in the CNS and the development of overt dementia. We found that genetically compartmentalized CCR5-tropic (R5) T cell-tropic and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 populations were independently detected in the CSF of subjects diagnosed with HIV-1-associated dementia. Macrophage-tropic HIV-1 populations were genetically diverse, representing established CNS infections, while R5 T cell-tropic HIV-1 populations were clonally amplified and associated with pleocytosis. R5 T cell-tropic viruses required high levels of surface CD4 to enter cells, and their presence was correlated with rapid decay of virus in the CSF with therapy initiation (similar to virus in the blood that is replicating in activated T cells). Macrophage-tropic viruses could enter cells with low levels of CD4, and their presence was correlated with slow decay of virus in the CSF, demonstrating a separate long-lived cell as the source of the virus. These studies demonstrate two distinct virological states inferred from the CSF virus in subjects diagnosed with HAD. Finally, macrophage-tropic viruses were largely restricted to the CNS/CSF compartment and not the blood, and in one case we were able to identify the macrophage-tropic lineage as a minor variant nearly two years before its expansion in the CNS. These results suggest that HIV-1 variants in CSF can provide information about viral replication and evolution in the CNS, events that are likely to play an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Project description:To design effective eradication strategies, it may be necessary to target HIV reservoirs in anatomic compartments other than blood. This study examined HIV RNA rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) might serve as an independent source of resurgent viral replication. Paired blood and CSF samples were collected longitudinally from 14 chronically HIV-infected individuals undergoing ART interruption. HIV env (C2-V3), gag (p24) and pol (reverse transcriptase) were sequenced from cell-free HIV RNA and cell-associated HIV DNA in blood and CSF using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform. Comprehensive sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed to search for evidence of unique or differentially represented viral subpopulations emerging in CSF supernatant as compared with blood plasma. Using a conservative definition of compartmentalization based on four distinct statistical tests, nine participants presented a compartmentalized HIV RNA rebound within the CSF after interruption of ART, even when sampled within 2 weeks from viral rebound. The degree and duration of viral compartmentalization varied considerably between subjects and between time-points within a subject. In 10 cases, we identified viral populations within the CSF supernatant at the first sampled time-point after ART interruption, which were phylogenetically distinct from those present in the paired blood plasma and mostly persisted over time (when longitudinal time-points were available). Our data suggest that an independent source of HIV RNA contributes to viral rebound within the CSF after treatment interruption. The most likely source of compartmentalized HIV RNA is a CNS reservoir that would need to be targeted to achieve complete HIV eradication.
Project description:HIV-1 compartmentalization in the central nervous system (CNS) and its contribution to neurological disease have been well documented. Previous studies were conducted among people infected with subtypes B or C where CNS compartmentalization has been observed when comparing viral sequences in the blood to virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about CNS compartmentalization in other HIV-1 subtypes. Using a deep sequencing approach with Primer ID, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Nigerian and Malawian HIV-1 cohorts with or without fungal Cryptococcus infection diagnosed as cryptococcal meningitis (CM) to determine the extent of CSF/CNS compartmentalization with CM. Paired plasma and CSF samples from 45 participants were also analyzed for cytokine/chemokine levels. Viral populations comparing virus in the blood and the CSF ranged from compartmentalized to equilibrated, including minor or partial compartmentalization or clonal amplification of a single viral sequence. The frequency of compartmentalized viral populations in the blood and CSF was similar between the CM- and CM+ participants. We confirmed the potential to see compartmentalization with subtype C infection and have also documented CNS compartmentalization of an HIV-1 subtype G infection. Cytokine profiles indicated a proinflammatory environment, especially within the CSF/CNS. However, sCD163 was suppressed in the CSF in the presence of CM, perhaps due to elevated levels of IL-4, which were also a feature of the cytokine profile, showing a distinct cytokine profile with CM.
Project description:HIV-1 replication within the central nervous system (CNS) impairs neurocognitive function and has the potential to establish persistent, compartmentalized viral reservoirs. The origins of HIV-1 detected in the CNS compartment are unknown, including whether cells within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produce virus. We measured viral RNA+ cells in CSF from acutely infected macaques longitudinally and people living with early stages of acute HIV-1. Active viral transcription (spliced viral RNA) was present in CSF CD4+ T cells as early as four weeks post-SHIV infection, and among all acute HIV-1 specimens (N = 6; Fiebig III/IV). Replication-inactive CD4+ T cell infection, indicated by unspliced viral RNA in the absence of spliced viral RNA, was even more prevalent, present in CSF of >50% macaques and human CSF at ~10-fold higher frequency than productive infection. Infection levels were similar between CSF and peripheral blood (and lymph nodes in macaques), indicating comparable T cell infection across these compartments. In addition, surface markers of activation were increased on CSF T cells and monocytes and correlated with CSF soluble markers of inflammation. These studies provide direct evidence of HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and broad immune activation in peripheral blood and the CNS during acute infection, likely contributing to early neuroinflammation and reservoir seeding. Thus, early initiation of antiretroviral therapy may not be able to prevent establishment of CNS viral reservoirs and sources of long-term inflammation, important targets for HIV-1 cure and therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Compartmentalization of HIV-1 has been observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients at different clinical stages. Considering the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier, we wondered if a reduced selective pressure by neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in the central nervous system (CNS) could favor the evolution of NAb-sensitive viruses in this compartment. Single genome amplification (SGA) was used to sequence full-length HIV-1 envelope variants (453 sequences) from paired CSF and blood plasma samples in 9 subjects infected by HIV variants of various clades and suffering from diverse neurologic disorders. Dynamics of viral evolution were evaluated with a bayesian coalescent approach for individuals with longitudinal samples. Pseudotyped viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins variants representative of the quasi-species present in each compartment were generated, and their sensitivity to autologous neutralization, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and entry inhibitors was assessed. Significant compartmentalization of HIV populations between blood and CSF were detected in 5 out of 9 subjects. Some of the previously described genetic determinants for compartmentalization in the CNS were observed regardless of the HIV-1 clade. There was no difference of sensitivity to autologous neutralization between blood- and CSF-variants, even for subjects with compartmentalization, suggesting that selective pressure by autologous NAb is not the main driver of HIV evolution in the CNS. However, we observed major differences of sensitivity to sCD4 or to at least one bNAb targeting either the N160-V1V2 site, the N332-V3 site or the CD4bs, between blood- and CSF-variants in all cases. In particular, HIV-1 variants present in the CSF were more resistant to bNAbs than their blood counterpart in some cases. Considering the possible migration from CSF to blood, the CNS could be a reservoir of bNAb resistant viruses, an observation that should be considered for immunotherapeutic approaches.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection (PHI); four untreated groups defined by their blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts; untreated patients presenting with subacute HIV-associated dementia (HAD); antiretroviral-treated subjects with ≥1 years of plasma viral suppression; and untreated elite controllers. Twenty HIV-1-uninfected controls were included for comparison. Background biomarkers included blood CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CSF and blood HIV-1 RNA, CSF white blood cell (WBC) count, CSF/blood albumin ratio, CSF neurofilament light chain (NfL), and CSF t-tau.<h4>Findings</h4>HIV-1 infection was associated with a broad compartmentalized CSF inflammatory response that developed early in its course and changed with systemic disease progression, development of neurological injury, and viral suppression. CSF inflammation in untreated individuals without overt HAD exhibited at least two overall patterns of inflammation as blood CD4+ T lymphocytes decreased: one that peaked at 200-350 blood CD4+ T cells/μL and associated with lymphocytic CSF inflammation and HIV-1 RNA concentrations; and a second that steadily increased through the full range of CD4+ T cell decline and associated with macrophage responses and increasing CNS injury. Subacute HAD was distinguished by a third inflammatory profile with increased blood-brain barrier permeability and robust combined lymphocytic and macrophage CSF inflammation. Suppression of CSF and blood HIV-1 infections by antiretroviral treatment and elite viral control were associated with reduced CSF inflammation, though not fully to levels found in HIV-1 seronegative controls.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We hypothesized that pleocytosis, which is a marker of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, would result in viral genetic equilibration or de-compartmentalization between HIV populations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting viral trafficking.<h4>Methods</h4>Study subjects, who started or interrupted their antiretroviral treatment, had viral loads measured and clonal viral env sequences generated from HIV RNA extracted from paired blood and CSF samples. White blood counts in CSF were also measured at each timepoint. Degree of inter-compartment segregation was calculated by posterior probability using linear discriminant analysis and multidimensional scaling. Co-receptor usage was determined using a trained support vector machine.<h4>Results</h4>Pleocytosis was strongly associated with disruption of viral compartmentalization.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inflammation in the CNS, marked by pleocytosis, allows HIV populations to mix between blood and CSF, which may increase the overall viral genetic diversity within the CSF.