Low RBM3 protein expression correlates with clinical stage, prognostic classification and increased risk of treatment failure in testicular non-seminomatous germ cell cancer.
ABSTRACT: Expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate with favourable clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in several cancer diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and prognostic ability of RBM3 in patients with testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT).Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 206 patients. Chi-square test was applied to analyze associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the impact of RBM3 expression on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and failure-free survival (FFS). Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk for failure.In the entire cohort, there was a significant association between clinical stage (p=0.044) and RBM3 expression. Weak RBM3 expression correlated with a significantly reduced FFS [79.3% versus 90.4% (p=0.019)] and CSS [87.5% versus 97.3% (p=0.047)]. For patients with metastatic disease (n = 88), significant associations were found between RBM3 expression and IGCCC group (p=0.007). The FFS was significantly inferior for patients with low tumour-specific RBM3 expression [59.3% versus 79.0% (p=0.013)], and this association remained significant in a multivariable model for patients with metastatic disease (HR=3.67; 95% CI 1.14, 11.89).Low RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of treatment failure in metastatic NSGCT, in relation to the prognostic factors included in the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC). These findings suggest that RBM3 may be a potential biomarker for treatment stratification in patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, and therefore merit further validation.
Project description:Approximately a quarter of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) have a residual mass, typically in the retroperitoneum, after chemotherapy. The management of small residual masses (?1 cm) is controversial, with good outcomes seen with either post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) or surveillance. We sought to review our experience of surveillance and synthesize the cumulative findings with the current literature in the form of a meta-analysis.We searched PubMed, EMBASE and abstracts from ASCO and AUA to identify relevant, English-language studies for the meta-analysis. The DFCI (Dana Farber Cancer Institute) database was constructed from a database of men undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy for metastatic NSGCT. The outcomes of interest were the proportion with necrosis, teratoma or active cancer on histology at PC-RPLND (literature) and the total number of relapses, RP-only relapses and overall survival in men undergoing surveillance (literature and DFCI cohort).Three of 47 men undergoing post-chemotherapy surveillance at our institution relapsed over a median follow-up of 5.4 years. All three were alive at a median of 4.2 years after relapse. On meta-analysis, the pooled estimates of necrosis, teratoma and active cancer in the 588 men who underwent PC-RPLND were 71, 24 and 4%, respectively. Of the combined 455 men who underwent surveillance, the pooled estimate of the relapse rate was 5%, with an RP-only relapse rate of 3%. Of the 15 men who suffered an RP-only relapse on surveillance, two died of disease.Surveillance is a reasonable strategy for men with minimal residual RP disease after chemotherapy and avoids an RPLND in ?97% of men who are cured with chemotherapy alone.
Project description:Background: Existing data on the association of metastatic sites and prognosis of patients with metastatic testicular malignancy are limited. In this study, the association of survival outcome and the prognostic value of different metastatic sites in patients with metastatic testicular cancer was investigated. Methods: A dataset from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) survey was selected for a retrospective metastatic testicular cancer cohort study. Patients with different metastatic sites were divided into corresponding groups for further analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was implemented for comparison of the survival distribution of cases. Multivariate Cox regression models were then applied to analyze the association of distant metastases with survival for all selected patients and subgroup based on different histological type with a single metastatic site. Results: A total of 1,661 patients treated for metastatic testicular malignant tumors between 2010 to 2016 were enrolled in this cohort study. Upon initial diagnosis, 61.9, 15.2, 6.7, 6.4, and 36.2% of patients were found to have lung, liver, bone, brain, and distant lymph nodes metastatic sites, respectively. Patients with lung, liver, or bone metastases showed more undesirable prognosis for overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), in contrast with those with distant lymph node metastases (all P < 0.05). In comparison with patients with more than one metastatic site, those with a single metastasis had extended OS and CSS (both P < 0.001). In patients with a single metastatic site, Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression demonstrated the association of bone and liver with the worst two groups of OS and CSS. Multivariate Cox models based on histological type showed different prognostic values of metastases in patients with seminoma or non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Conclusion: There is much heterogeneity in the oncological outcome of site-specific metastatic patients. Metastatic profiles and the prognostic value of metastases are dependent on the histological type in TC patients. Distant lymph nodes and lung metastases indicate favorable prognostic factors, while bone and liver metastases indicate negative survival outcomes in TC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We have previously reported that expression of the RNA- and DNA-binding protein RBM3 is associated with a good prognosis in breast cancer and ovarian cancer. In this study, the prognostic value of immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was assessed in incident cases of malignant melanoma from a prospective population-based cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>Until Dec 31st 2008, 264 incident cases of primary invasive melanoma had been registered in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Histopathological and clinical information was obtained for available cases and tissue microarrays (TMAs) constructed from 226 (85.6%) suitable paraffin-embedded tumours and 31 metastases. RBM3 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry on the TMAs and a subset of full-face sections. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparison of RBM3 expression and relevant clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the relationship between RBM3 and recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).<h4>Results</h4>RBM3 could be assessed in 215/226 (95.1%) of primary tumours and all metastases. Longitudinal analysis revealed that 16/31 (51.6%) of metastases lacked RBM3 expression, in contrast to the primary tumours in which RBM3 was absent in 3/215 (1.4%) cases and strongly expressed in 120/215 (55.8%) cases. Strong nuclear RBM3 expression in the primary tumour was significantly associated with favourable clinicopathological parameters; i.e. non-ulcerated tumours, lower depth of invasion, lower Clark level, less advanced clinical stage, low mitotic activity and non-nodular histological type, and a prolonged RFS (RR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.27-0.91) and OS (RR = 0.36, 95%CI = 0.20-0.64). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the beneficial prognostic value of RBM3 remained significant for OS (RR = 0.33; 95%CI = 0.18-0.61).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In line with previous in vitro data, we here show that RBM3 is down-regulated in metastatic melanoma and high nuclear RBM3 expression in the primary tumour is an independent marker of a prolonged OS. The potential utility of RBM3 in treatment stratification of patients with melanoma should be pursued in future studies.
Project description:The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young patients (? 50 years of age) appears to be increasing. However, their clinicopathological characteristics and survival are controversial. Likewise, the biomarkers are unclear. We used the West China (2008-2013, China), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (1973-2011, United States) and Linköping Cancer (1972-2009, Sweden) databases to analyse clinicopathological characteristics, survival and multiple biomarkers of young CRC patients. A total of 509,934 CRC patients were included from the three databases. The young CRC patients tended to have more distal location tumours, fewer tumour numbers, later stage, more mucinous carcinoma and poorer differentiation. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) of young patients was significantly better. The PRL (HR = 12.341, 95% CI = 1.615-94.276, P = 0.010), RBM3 (HR = 0.093, 95% CI = 0.012-0.712, P = 0.018), Wrap53 (HR = 1.952, 95% CI = 0.452-6.342, P = 0.031), p53 (HR = 5.549, 95% CI = 1.176-26.178, P = 0.045) and DNA status (HR = 17.602, 95% CI = 2.551-121.448, P = 0.001) were associated with CSS of the young patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that young CRC patients present advanced tumours and more malignant pathological features, while they have a better prognosis. The PRL, RBM3, Wrap53, p53 and DNA status are potential prognostic biomarkers for the young CRC patients.
Project description:High expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate, with prolonged survival in several malignant diseases and with the benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate RBM3 in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as a prognostic factor for overall survival and in relation to benefit of first-line chemotherapy.Immunohistochemical staining was conducted and evaluated in tumours from 455 mCRC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to access the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).High RBM3 expression, both nuclear and cytoplasmic, was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.90 and HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91, respectively). PFS was significantly longer in patients with high RBM3 expression who had received first-line oxaliplatin based treatment, compared to those who had received irinotecan based treatment, both regarding nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (p-value 0.020 and 0.022 respectively).High RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of prolonged survival in mCRC patients, in particular in patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin based chemotherapy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, clinical and histological characteristics, treatment and long-term follow-up of bilateral germ-cell tumours (BGCT) of the testis in order to determine in what respects they differ significantly from unilateral germ-cell tumours. In all, 31 patients with BGCT had metachronous tumours and 14 had synchronous tumours. Among the metachronous tumours, 61% occurred more than 5 years after the first tumour. The overall incidence of BGCT in patients with testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCT) was 1.9%. The incidence was 3.2% in patients presenting with a seminoma and 1.4 % in patients presenting with a nonseminomatous germ-cell tumour (NSGCT). Patients under 30 years of age at the time of the initial diagnosis had a higher incidence of bilateral tumours compared with older men. The outcome of BGCT was excellent. A high association was found between BGCT, sterility and suspected genetic risk factors for TGCT. These results argue against a systematic contralateral biopsy at diagnosis of first TGCT in all patients, but emphasise the importance of patient education and of the need to better identify patients at risk for a second TGCT. Therapeutic indications for synchronous BGCT, including conservative treatment, need to be better defined.
Project description:The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility. We aimed to examine the extent of any loss in discrimination within the IGCC classification in comparison with alternative modelling by formal weighing of the risk factors. We analysed survival of 3048 NSGCT patients with Cox regression and recursive partitioning for alternative classifications. Good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups were based on predicted 5-year survival. Classifications were further refined by subgrouping within the poor prognosis group. Performance was measured primarily by a bootstrap corrected c-statistic to indicate discriminative ability for future patients. The weights of the risk factors in the alternative classifications differed slightly from the implicit weights in the IGCC classification. Discriminative ability, however, did not increase clearly (IGCC classification, c=0.732; Cox classification, c=0.730; Recursive partitioning classification, c=0.709). Three subgroups could be identified within the poor prognosis groups, resulting in classifications with five prognostic groups and slightly better discriminative ability (c=0.740). In conclusion, the IGCC classification in three prognostic groups is largely supported by Cox regression and recursive partitioning. Cox regression was the most promising tool to define a more refined classification. British Journal of Cancer (2004) 90, 1176-1183. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601665 www.bjcancer.com Published online 24 February 2004
Project description:BACKGROUND: Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearman's correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. RESULTS: Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p <0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated with a significantly shorter DSS (HR=2.55; 95% CI 1.68-3.86)) and 5-year OS (HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.56-2.82), also in multivariable analysis (HR=1.65; 95% CI 1.07-2.53 for DSS and HR=1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.10 for 5-year OS). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours expressing reduced RBM3 levels, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly shorter PFS (p=0.048) and 5-year OS (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumours and an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and a potentially useful biomarker for treatment stratification and surveillance of disease progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>High nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to correlate with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and a prolonged survival in several cancer forms. Here, we examined the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of RBM3 expression in tumours from a consecutive cohort of upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.<h4>Material and methods</h4>Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-naive adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach (n?=?173). In addition paired samples of normal squamous epithelium (n?=?53), gastric mucosa (n?=?117), Barrett's esophagus/gastric intestinal metaplasia (n?=?61) and lymph node metastases (n?=?71) were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to assess the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS).<h4>Results</h4>RBM3 expression was similar in primary tumours and lymph node metastases, but significantly higher in primary tumours and metastases arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia compared with cases without intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.001). RBM3 expression was significantly reduced in more advanced tumour stages (p = 0.006). Low RBM3 expression was significantly associated with a shorter OS in cases with radically resected (R0) tumours (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.33-3.61, p = 0.002) and RFS in curatively treated patients with R0 resection/distant metastasis-free disease (HR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.64-6.30, p = 0.001). These associations remained significant in adjusted analysis (HR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.25, p = 0.010 for OS and HR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.45-6.29, p = 0.003 for RFS).<h4>Conclusion</h4>High expression of RBM3 may signify a subset of upper gastrointestinal cancers arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia and independently predicts a reduced risk of recurrence and death in patients with these cancer forms. These findings are of potential clinical utility and merit further validation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: OCT3/4 (POU5F1) is an established diagnostic immunohistochemical marker for specific histological variants of human malignant germ cell tumours (GCTs), including the seminomatous types and the stem cell component of non-seminomas, known as embryonal carcinoma. OCT3/4 is crucial for the regulation of pluripotency and the self-renewal of normal embryonic stem- and germ cells. Detection of expression of this transcription factor is complicated by the existence of multiple pseudogenes and isoforms. Various claims have been made about OCT3/4 expression in non-GCTs, possibly related to using nonspecific detection methods. False-positive findings undermine the applicability of OCT3/4 as a specific diagnostic tool in a clinical setting. In addition, false-positive findings could result in misinterpretation of pluripotency regulation in solid somatic cancers and their stem cells. Of the three identified isoforms--OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1--only OCT4A proved to regulate pluripotency. Up until now, no convincing nuclear OCT4A protein expression has been shown in somatic cancers or tissues. METHODS: This study investigates expression of the various OCT3/4 isoforms in GCTs (both differentiated and undifferentiated) and somatic (non-germ cell) cancers, including representative cell lines and xenografts. RESULTS: Using specific methods, OCT4A and OCT4B1 are shown to be preferentially expressed in undifferentiated GCTs. The OCT4B variant shows no difference in expression between GCTs (either differentiated or undifferentiated) and somatic cancers. In spite of the presence of OCT4A mRNA in somatic cancer-derived cell lines, no OCT3/4 protein is detected. Significant positive correlations between all isoforms of OCT3/4 were identified in both tumours with and without a known stem cell component, possibly indicating synergistic roles of these isoforms. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that OCT4A protein only appears in seminomatous GCTs, embryonal carcinoma and representative cell lines. Furthermore, it emphasises that in order to correctly assess the presence of functional OCT3/4, both isoform specific mRNA and protein detection are required.