Exploring the enantioselective mechanism of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 by iterative saturation mutagenesis.
ABSTRACT: Halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) shows great potential in producing valuable chiral epoxides and ?-substituted alcohols. The wild-type (WT) enzyme displays a high R-enantiopreference toward most aromatic substrates, whereas no S-selective HheC has been reported to date. To obtain more enantioselective enzymes, seven noncatalytic active-site residues were subjected to iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM). After two rounds of screening aspects of both activity and enantioselectivity (E), three outstanding mutants (Thr134Val/Leu142Met, Leu142Phe/Asn176His, and Pro84Val/Phe86Pro/Thr134Ala/Asn176Ala mutants) with divergent enantioselectivity were obtained. The two double mutants displayed approximately 2-fold improvement in R-enantioselectivity toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol (2-CPE) without a significant loss of enzyme activity compared with the WT enzyme. Strikingly, the Pro84Val/Phe86Pro/Thr134Ala/Asn176Ala mutant showed an inverted enantioselectivity (from an ER of 65 [WT] to an ES of 101) and approximately 100-fold-enhanced catalytic efficiency toward (S)-2-CPE. Molecular dynamic simulation and docking analysis revealed that the phenyl side chain of (S)-2-CPE bound at a different location than that of its R-counterpart; those mutations generated extra connections for the binding of the favored enantiomer, while the eliminated connections reduced binding of the nonfavored enantiomer, all of which could contribute to the observed inverted enantiopreference.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) is a valuable tool in the preparation of R enantiomers of epoxides and ?-substituted alcohols. In contrast, the halohydrin dehalogenase from Arthrobacter sp. AD2 (HheA) shows a low S enantioselectivity toward most aromatic substrates. Here, three amino acids (V136, L141, and N178) located in the two neighboring active-site loops of HheA were proposed to be the key residues for controlling enantioselectivity. They were subjected to saturation mutagenesis aimed at evolving an S-selective enzyme. This led to the selection of two outstanding mutants (the V136Y/L141G and N178A mutants). The double mutant displayed an inverted enantioselectivity (from S enantioselectivity [E(S)] = 1.7 to R enantioselectivity [E(R)] = 13) toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol without compromising enzyme activity. Strikingly, the N178A mutant showed a large enantioselectivity improvement (E(S) > 200) and a 5- to 6-fold-enhanced specific activity toward (S)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol. Further analysis revealed that those mutations produced some interference for the binding of nonfavored enantiomers which could account for the observed enantioselectivities. Our work demonstrated that those three active-site residues are indeed crucial in modulating the enantioselectivity of HheA and that a semirational design strategy has great potential for rapid creation of novel industrial biocatalysts.
Project description:Protein design is limited by the diversity of functional groups provided by the canonical protein "building blocks". Incorporating noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into enzymes enables a dramatic expansion of their catalytic features. For this, quick identification of fully translated and correctly folded variants is decisive. Herein, we report the engineering of the enantioselectivity of an esterase utilizing several ncAAs. Key for the identification of active and soluble protein variants was the use of the split-GFP method, which is crucial as it allows simple determination of the expression levels of enzyme variants with ncAA incorporations by fluorescence. Several identified variants led to improved enantioselectivity or even inverted enantiopreference in the kinetic resolution of ethyl 3-phenylbutyrate.
Project description:The effect of all possible mutations at position 178 on the enantioselectivity of yeast surface-bound horseradish peroxidase (HRP) toward chiral phenols has been investigated. In contrast to their wild-type predecessor, most HRP mutants are enantioselective, with the Arg178Glu variant exhibiting the greatest, 25-fold, (S)/(R) preference. Using kinetic analysis of enzymatic oxidation of various substrate analogues and molecular modeling of enzyme-substrate complexes, this enantioselectivity enhancement is attributed to changes in the transition state energy due to electrostatic repulsion between the carboxylates of the enzyme's Glu178 and the substrate's (R)-enantiomer.
Project description:Haloalcohol dehalogenases are bacterial enzymes that cleave the carbon-halogen bond in short aliphatic vicinal haloalcohols, like 1-chloro-2,3-propanediol, some of which are recalcitrant environmental pollutants. They use a conserved Ser-Tyr-Arg catalytic triad to deprotonate the haloalcohol oxygen, which attacks the halogen-bearing carbon atom, producing an epoxide and a halide ion. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the haloalcohol dehalogenase HheA(AD2) from Arthrobacter sp. strain AD2 at 2.0-A resolution. Comparison with the previously reported structure of the 34% identical enantioselective haloalcohol dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 shows that HheA(AD2) has a similar quaternary and tertiary structure but a much more open substrate-binding pocket. Docking experiments reveal that HheA(AD2) can bind both enantiomers of the haloalcohol substrate 1-p-nitrophenyl-2-chloroethanol in a productive way, which explains the low enantiopreference of HheA(AD2). Other differences are found in the halide-binding site, where the side chain amino group of Asn182 is in a position to stabilize the halogen atom or halide ion in HheA(AD2), in contrast to HheC, where a water molecule has taken over this role. These results broaden the insight into the structural determinants that govern reactivity and selectivity in the haloalcohol dehalogenase family.
Project description:Escherichia coli has been widely used as an expression host for the identification of desired biocatalysts through screening or selection assays. We have previously used E. coli in growth selection and screening assays for identification of Bacillus subtilis lipase variants (located in the periplasm) with improved activity and enantioselectivity toward 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerol (IPG) esters. In the course of these studies, we discovered that E. coli itself exhibits significant cytoplasmic esterase activity toward IPG esters. In order to identify the enzyme (or enzymes) responsible for this esterase activity, we analyzed eight E. coli knockout strains, in which single esterase genes were deleted, for their ability to hydrolyze IPG butyrate. This approach led to the identification of esterase YbfF as the major E. coli enzyme responsible for the hydrolytic activity toward IPG esters. The gene coding for YbfF was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the corresponding protein was purified and characterized for its biocatalytic performance. YbfF displays a high level of activity toward IPG butyrate and IPG caprylate and prefers the R-enantiomer of these substrates, producing the S-enantiomer of the IPG product with high enantiomeric excess (72 to 94% ee). The enantioselectivity of YbfF for IPG caprylate (E = 40) could be significantly enhanced when using dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as cosolvents in kinetic resolution experiments. The enzyme also shows high enantioselectivity toward 1-phenylethyl acetate (E ? 200), giving the chiral product (R)-1-phenylethanol with >99% ee. The high activity and enantioselectivity of YbfF make it an attractive enzyme for organic synthesis.
Project description:A highly efficient selection method for enhanced enzyme enantioselectivity based on yeast surface display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is developed and validated. Its application to horseradish peroxidase has resulted in enzyme variants up to 2 orders of magnitude selective toward either substrate enantiomer at will. These marked improvements in enantioselectivity are demonstrated for the surface-bound and soluble enzymes and rationalized by computational docking studies.
Project description:The lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia represents a widely applied catalyst for highly enantioselective resolution of chiral secondary alcohols. While its stereopreference is determined predominantly by the substrate structure, stereoselectivity depends on atomic details of interactions between substrate and lipase. Thirty secondary alcohols with published E values using P. cepacia lipase in hydrolysis or esterification reactions were selected, and models of their octanoic acid esters were docked to the open conformation of P. cepacia lipase. The two enantiomers of 27 substrates bound preferentially in either of two binding modes: the fast-reacting enantiomer in a productive mode and the slow-reacting enantiomer in a nonproductive mode. Nonproductive mode of fast-reacting enantiomers was prohibited by repulsive interactions. For the slow-reacting enantiomers in the productive binding mode, the substrate pushes the active site histidine away from its proper orientation, and the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) between the histidine side chain and the alcohol oxygen increases, d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) was correlated to experimentally observed enantioselectivity: in substrates for which P. cepacia lipase has high enantioselectivity (E > 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is >2.2 A for slow-reacting enantiomers, thus preventing efficient catalysis of this enantiomer. In substrates of low enantioselectivity (E < 20), the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is less than 2.0 A, and slow- and fast-reacting enantiomers are catalyzed at similar rates. For substrates of medium enantioselectivity (20 < E < 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is around 2.1 A. This simple model can be applied to predict enantioselectivity of P. cepacia lipase toward a broad range of secondary alcohols.
Project description:DNA shuffling and saturation mutagenesis of positions F108, L190, I219, D235, and C248 were used to generate variants of the epoxide hydrolase of Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (EchA) with enhanced enantioselectivity and activity for styrene oxide and enhanced activity for 1,2-epoxyhexane and epoxypropane. EchA variant I219F has more than fivefold-enhanced enantioselectivity toward racemic styrene oxide, with the enantiomeric ratio value (E value) for the production of (R)-1-phenylethane-1,2-diol increased from 17 for the wild-type enzyme to 91, as well as twofold-improved activity for the production of (R)-1-phenylethane-1,2-diol (1.96 +/- 0.09 versus 1.04 +/- 0.07 micromol/min/mg for wild-type EchA). Computer modeling indicated that this mutation significantly alters (R)-styrene oxide binding in the active site. Another three variants from EchA active-site engineering, F108L/C248I, I219L/C248I, and F108L/I219L/C248I, also exhibited improved enantioselectivity toward racemic styrene oxide in favor of production of the corresponding diol in the (R) configuration (twofold enhancement in their E values). Variant F108L/I219L/C248I also demonstrated 10-fold- and 2-fold-increased activity on 5 mM epoxypropane (24 +/- 2 versus 2.4 +/- 0.3 micromol/min/mg for the wild-type enzyme) and 5 mM 1,2-epoxyhexane (5.2 +/- 0.5 versus 2.6 +/- 0.0 micromol/min/mg for the wild-type enzyme). Both variants L190F (isolated from a DNA shuffling library) and L190Y (created from subsequent saturation mutagenesis) showed significantly enhanced activity for racemic styrene oxide hydrolysis, with 4.8-fold (8.6 +/- 0.3 versus 1.8 +/- 0.2 micromol/min/mg for the wild-type enzyme) and 2.7-fold (4.8 +/- 0.8 versus 1.8 +/- 0.2 micromol/min/mg for the wild-type enzyme) improvements, respectively. L190Y also hydrolyzed 1,2-epoxyhexane 2.5 times faster than the wild-type enzyme.
Project description:A major problem in predicting the enantioselectivity of an enzyme toward substrate molecules is that even high selectivity toward one substrate enantiomer over the other corresponds to a very small difference in free energy. However, total free energies in enzyme-substrate systems are very large and fluctuate significantly because of general protein motion. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), a serine hydrolase, displays enantioselectivity toward secondary alcohols. Here, we present a modeling study where the aim has been to develop a molecular dynamics-based methodology for the prediction of enantioselectivity in CALB. The substrates modeled (seven in total) were 3-methyl-2-butanol with various aliphatic carboxylic acids and also 2-butanol, as well as 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol with octanoic acid. The tetrahedral reaction intermediate was used as a model of the transition state. Investigative analyses were performed on ensembles of nonminimized structures and focused on the potential energies of a number of subsets within the modeled systems to determine which specific regions are important for the prediction of enantioselectivity. One category of subset was based on atoms that make up the core structural elements of the transition state. We considered that a more favorable energetic conformation of such a subset should relate to a greater likelihood for catalysis to occur, thus reflecting higher selectivity. The results of this study conveyed that the use of this type of subset was viable for the analysis of structural ensembles and yielded good predictions of enantioselectivity.
Project description:Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched samples of a molecular sieve. Enantiopure organic structure directing agents are designed with the assistance of computational methods and used to synthesize enantioenriched, polycrystalline molecular sieve samples of either enantiomer. Computational results correctly predicted which enantiomer is obtained, and enantiomeric enrichment is proven by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The enantioenriched and racemic samples of the molecular sieves are tested as adsorbents and heterogeneous catalysts. The enantioenriched molecular sieves show enantioselectivity for the ring opening reaction of epoxides and enantioselective adsorption of 2-butanol (the R enantiomer of the molecular sieve shows opposite and approximately equal enantioselectivity compared with the S enantiomer of the molecular sieve, whereas the racemic sample of the molecular sieve shows no enantioselectivity).