Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale.
ABSTRACT: Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.
Project description:The Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-s) was designed to assess the emotional and psychological attitudes of patients' engagement along their healthcare management journey. The aim of this study was to validate a culturally adapted Chinese version of the PHE-s (CPHE-s). Three hundred and seventy-seven participants were recruited from eight community health centers in a sample of patients with chronic disease in Hunan Province, China. The original Italian PHE-s was translated into Mandarin Chinese using a standardized forward-backward translation. The Rasch model was utilized and presented uni-dimensionality and good items fitness of the PHE-s. The internal consistency was 0.89 and the weighted Kappa coefficients of the items (test-retest reliability) ranged from 0.52 to 0.79. Both principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single-factor structure of the PHE-s. In testing the external validity, the PHE-s showed a significant moderate correlation with patient activation but not with medicine adherence behavior, which requires further exploration. The result suggested that the PHE-s is a reliable and valid instrument to assess the level of patient engagement in his or her own health management among chronic patients in China. Further analysis of reliability and validity should be assessed among other patient cohorts in China, and future directions for testing changes after patient engagement interventions should be developed by exploring some clinical relevance.
Project description:Academic engagement describes students' involvement in academic learning and achievement. This paper reports the psychometric properties of the University Student Engagement Inventory (USEI) with a sample of 3992 university students from nine different countries and regions from Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. The USEI operationalizes a trifactorial conceptualization of academic engagement (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive). Construct validity was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficients. Weak measurement invariance was observed for country/region, while strong measurement invariance was observed for gender and area of graduation. The USEI scores showed predictive validity for dropout intention, self-rated academic performance, and course approval rate while divergent validity with student burnout scores was also evident. Overall, the results indicate that the USEI can produce reliable and valid data on academic engagement of university students across the world.
Project description:This study's objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS).After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8-17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima's Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age.The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form.The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health.
Project description:Valid assessment of family functioning can play a vital role in optimizing client outcomes. Because family functioning is influenced by family structure, socioeconomic context, and culture, existing measures of family functioning-primarily developed with nuclear, middle-class European American families-may not be valid assessments of families in diverse populations. The Family Effectiveness Measure was developed to address this limitation.The aim of this study was to test the Family Effectiveness Measure with data from a primarily low-income African American convenience sample using the Rasch measurement model.A sample of 607 adult women completed the measure. Rasch analysis was used to assess unidimensionality, response category functioning, item fit, person reliability, differential item functioning by race and parental status, and item hierarchy. Criterion-related validity was tested using correlations with five other variables related to family functioning.The Family Effectiveness Measure measures two separate constructs: The Effective Family Functioning construct was a psychometrically sound measure of the target construct that was more efficient because of the deletion of 22 items. The Ineffective Family Functioning construct consisted of 16 of those deleted items but was not as strong psychometrically. Items in both constructs evidenced no differential item functioning by race. Criterion-related validity was supported for both.In contrast to the prevailing conceptualization that family functioning is a single construct, assessed by positively and negatively worded items, use of the Rasch analysis suggested the existence of two constructs. Whereas the Effective Family Functioning scale is a strong and efficient measure of family functioning, the Ineffective Family Functioning scale will require additional item development and psychometric testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In January 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread in Italy. The Italian government adopted urgent measures to slow its spread. Enforcing compliance with such measures is crucial in order to enhance their effectiveness. Engaging citizens in the COVID-19 preventive process is urgent today both in Italy and around the world. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have investigated the role of health engagement in predicting citizens' compliance with health emergency containment measures. METHOD:An online survey was administered between February 28 and March 4, 2020 on a representative sample of 1000 Italians. The questionnaire included a measure of health engagement (Patient Health Engagement Scale), a 5-item Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, resulting in 4 positions that describe the psychological readiness to be active in one's own health management, and a series of ad hoc items intended to measure citizens' perceived susceptibility and severity of the disease, orientation towards health management, trust in institutional bodies, health habits and food consumption. To investigate the relationship between health engagement and these variables, ANOVA analysis, logistic regression and contingency tables with Pearson's chi-squared analysis have been carried out. RESULTS:Less engaged people show higher levels of perceived susceptibility to the virus and severity of the disease; they are less trustful of scientific and healthcare authorities, they feel less self-effective in managing their own health-both in normal conditions and under stress-and are less prone to cooperate with healthcare professionals. Low levels of health engagement also are associated with a change in the usual purchase behavior. CONCLUSIONS:The Patient Health Engagement model (PHE) provides a useful framework for understanding how people will respond to health threats such as pandemics. Therefore, intervention studies should focus on raising their levels of engagement to increase the effectiveness of educational initiatives intended to promote preventive behaviors.
Project description:Self-report measures of medication nonadherence confound the extent of and reasons for medication nonadherence. Each construct is assessed with a different type of psychometric model, which dictates how to establish reliability and validity.To evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of medication nonadherence that assesses separately the extent of nonadherence and reasons for nonadherence.Cross-sectional survey involving the new measure and comparison measures to establish convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The new measure was readministered 2-21 days later.A total of 202 veterans with treated hypertension were recruited from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center.A new self-report measure assessed the extent of nonadherence and reasons for nonadherence. Comparison measures included self-reported medication self-efficacy, beliefs about medications, impression management, conscientiousness, habit strength, and an existing nonadherence measure.Three items assessing the extent of nonadherence produced reliable scores for this sample, ? = 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.87). Correlations with comparison measures provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Correlations with systolic ( r = 0.27, P < 0.0001) and diastolic (r = 0.27, P < 0.0001) blood pressure provided evidence of predictive validity. Reasons for nonadherence were assessed with 21 independent items. Intraclass correlations were 0.58 for the extent score and ranged from 0.07 to 0.64 for the reasons.The dual conceptualization of medication nonadherence allowed a stronger evaluation of the reliability and validity than was previously possible with measures that confounded these 2 constructs. Measurement of self-reported nonadherence consistent with psychometric principles will enable reliable, valid evaluation of interventions to reduce nonadherence.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed survey tool measuring omissions in primary care.<h4>Methods</h4>The Errors of Care Omission Survey (ECOS) is the only known tool to measure critical omissions ("errors") in primary care from the perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs), both physicians and nurse practitioners. The tool has 31 items grouped into the following four subscales: Self-Management Support, Follow-up, Emotional Health Support, and Care Integration. A cross-sectional survey design was used to mail the tool to PCPs and 582 PCPs in one state in the U.S. completed and returned the survey. Exploratory factor analysis with target rotation was carried out. Internal consistency reliability of identified subscales was investigated.<h4>Results</h4>Four factors emerged representing domains of omissions in primary care. The original Follow-up and Care Integration subscales were retained. The items on Self-Management Support and Emotional Health Support subscales loaded differently on two factors, which were labeled Patient Self-Management and Family Engagement subscales, suggesting that conceptually PCPs separate patient and family involvement in patient care. Seven poorly performing or redundant items were removed. The remaining 24 items measure patient self-management, family engagement, follow-up, and care integration domains of omissions in primary care. The ECOS subscales have acceptable internal consistency reliability with Cronbach's ? ranging from 0.90 to 0.97.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The ECOS can be used in primary care to identify critical omissions, so actions can be taken by clinicians and administrators to prevent them before they result in patient harm. Further testing of the ECOS is recommended with diverse samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fatigue is a common symptom associated with a wide range of diseases and needs to be more thoroughly studied. To minimise patient burden and to enhance response rates in research studies, patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) need to be as short as possible, without sacrificing reliability and validity. It is also important to have a generic measure that can be used for comparisons across different patient populations. Thus, the aim of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian 5-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) in two distinct patient populations. METHODS:The sample was obtained from two different Norwegian studies and included patients 4-6?weeks after stroke (n =?322) and patients with osteoarthritis on a waiting list for total knee arthroplasty (n =?203). Fatigue severity was rated by five items from the Norwegian version of the LFS, rating each item on a numeric rating scale from 1 to 10. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 5-item scale across the two patient samples. RESULTS:Three of the five LFS items ("tired", "fatigued" and "worn out") showed acceptable internal scale validity as they met the set criterion for goodness-of-fit after removal of two items with unacceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. The 3-item LFS explained 81.6% of the variance, demonstrated acceptable unidimensionality, could separate the fatigue responses into three distinct severity groups and had no differential functioning with regard to disease group. The 3-item version of the LFS had a higher separation index and better internal consistency reliability than the 5-item version. CONCLUSIONS:A 3-item version of the LFS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties in two distinct samples of patients, suggesting it may be useful as a brief generic measure of fatigue severity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02338869; registered 10/04/2014 (stroke study).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical networks are being used widely to facilitate large system transformation in healthcare, by engagement of stakeholders throughout the health system. However, there are no available instruments that measure engagement in these networks.<h4>Methods</h4>The study purpose was to develop and assess the measurement properties of a multiprofessional tool to measure engagement in clinical network initiatives. Based on components of the International Association of Public Participation Spectrum and expert panel review, we developed 40 items for testing. The draft instrument was distributed to 1,668 network stakeholders across different governance levels (leaders, members, support, frontline stakeholders) in 9 strategic clinical networks in Alberta (January to July 2014). With data from 424 completed surveys (25.4% response rate), descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson correlations, linear regression, multivariate analysis, and Cronbach alpha were conducted to assess reliability and validity of the scores.<h4>Results</h4>Sixteen items were retained in the instrument. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution and accounted for 85.7% of the total variance in engagement with clinical network initiatives: global engagement, inform (provided with information), involve (worked together to address concerns), and empower (given final decision-making authority). All subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability (Cronbach alpha 0.87 to 0.99). Both the confirmatory factor analysis and regression analysis confirmed that inform, involve, and empower were all significant predictors of global engagement, with involve as the strongest predictor. Leaders had higher mean scores than frontline stakeholders, while members and support staff did not differ in mean scores.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provided foundational evidence for the use of this tool for assessing engagement in clinical networks. Further work is necessary to evaluate engagement in broader network functions and activities; to assess barriers and facilitators of engagement; and, to elucidate how the maturity of networks and other factors influence engagement.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution's patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. METHODS: A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach's alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. RESULTS: A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56-.72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65-.83). CONCLUSIONS: The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.