High seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever and scrub typhus bacteria in patients with febrile Illness, Kenya.
ABSTRACT: Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, <1% for typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.
Project description:Scrub typhus and spotted fever rickettsioses (SFR) are understudied, vector-borne diseases of global significance. Over 1 billion individuals are at risk for scrub typhus alone in an endemic region, spanning across eastern and southern Asia to Northern Australia. While highly treatable, diagnostic challenges make timely antibiotic intervention difficult for these diseases. Delayed therapy may lead to severe outcomes affecting multiple organs, including the central nervous system (CNS), where infection and associated neuroinflammation may be lethal or lead to lasting sequelae. Meningitis and encephalitis are prevalent in both scrub typhus and SFR. Additionally, case reports detailing focal neurological deficits have come to light, with attention to both acute and chronic sequelae of infection. Despite the increasing number of clinical reports outlining neurologic consequences of these diseases, relatively little research has examined underlying mechanisms of neuroinflammation. Animal models of scrub typhus have identified cerebral T-cell infiltration and vascular damage associated with endothelial infection and neuropathogenesis. Differential gene expression analysis of brain tissues during murine scrub typhus have revealed selective increases in CXCR3 ligands, proinflammatory and type-1 cytokines and chemokines, and cytotoxicity molecules, as well as alterations in the complement pathway. In SFR, microglial expansion and macrophage infiltration contribute to neurological disease progression. This narrative Review highlights clinical neurologic features of scrub typhus and SFR and evaluates our current understanding of basic research into neuroinflammation for both diseases in animal models. Further investigation into key mediators of neuropathogenesis may yield prognostic markers and treatment regimens for severe patients.
Project description:AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG positive) was surprisingly low, with 9.14% (83/908) testing positive to the three major rickettsial serogroups thought to circulate in the region. Prevalence of typhus group rickettsiae (TG)-specific antibodies (6.5%, 58/908) was significantly greater than scrub typhus group orientiae (STG)- or spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFG)-specific antibodies (<i>P</i> < 0.05). The majority of TG seropositives were observed among urban rather than rural residents (<i>P</i> < 0.05). In contrast, overall antibody prevalence to STG and SFG were both very low (1.1%, 10/908 for STG; 1.7%, 15/908 for SFG), with no significant differences between rural and urban residents. These results provide data on baseline population characteristics that may help inform development of <i>Rickettsia</i> serological testing criteria in future clinical studies.
Project description:A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.
Project description:The presence of the nucleic acid of the spotted fever group (SPG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae was investigated in 200 serum specimens seropositive for SFG rickettsiae by multiplex-nested polymerase chain reaction with primers derived from the rickettsial outer membrane protein B gene. The DNA of SFG, TG, or both rickettsiae was amplified in the 24 serum specimens, and sequence analysis showed Rickettsia conorii, R. japonica, and R. felis in the specimens. R. conorii and R. typhi were found in 7 serum specimens, which indicated the possibility of dual infection in these patients. These findings suggest that several kinds of rickettsial diseases, including boutonneuse fever, rickettsialpox, R. felis infection, and Japanese spotted fever, as well as scrub typhus and murine typhus, are occurring in Korea.
Project description:The aetiological diagnostic of fevers in Laos remains difficult due to limited laboratory diagnostic facilities. However, it has recently become apparent that both scrub and murine typhus are common causes of previous undiagnosed fever. Epidemiological data suggests that scrub typhus would be more common in rural areas and murine typhus in urban areas, but there is very little recent information on factors involved in scrub and murine typhus transmission, especially where they are sympatric - as is the case in Vientiane, the capital of the Lao PDR.We therefore determined the frequency of IgG seropositivity against scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), as indices of prior exposure to these pathogens, in randomly selected adults in urban and peri-urban Vientiane City (n = 2,002, ?35 years). Anti-scrub and murine typhus IgG were detected by ELISA assays using filter paper elutes. We validated the accuracy of ELISA of these elutes against ELISA using serum samples. The overall prevalence of scrub and murine typhus IgG antibodies was 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Scrub typhus seropositivity was significantly higher among adults living in the periphery (28.4%) than in the central zone (13.1%) of Vientiane. In contrast, seroprevalence of murine typhus IgG antibodies was significantly higher in the central zone (30.8%) as compared to the periphery (14.4%). In multivariate analysis, adults with a longer residence in Vientiane were at significant greater risk of past infection with murine typhus and at lower risk for scrub typhus. Those with no education, living on low incomes, living on plots of land with poor sanitary conditions, living in large households, and farmers were at higher risk of scrub typhus and those living in neighborhoods with high building density and close to markets were at greater risk for murine typhus and at lower risk of scrub typhus past infection.This study underscores the intense circulation of both scrub and murine typhus in Vientiane city and underlines difference in spatial distribution and risk factors involved in the transmission of these diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Scrub typhus is an emerging neglected tropical disease, reported from many parts of Asia including Nepal. This study aims to determine the seroepidemiology of scrub typhus among febrile patients attending Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMC-TH), Bharatpur, Nepal. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a hospital laboratory-based prospective study conducted in CMC-TH (a 750-bed hospital) located in Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1797 patients visiting CMC-TH with acute febrile illness (temperature more than 38°C) were enrolled in this study. METHODS:A total of 1797 blood samples were collected from patients presenting with acute febrile illness. The samples were processed for detection of antibody for scrub typhus by ELISA for specific IgM antibody and Weil-Felix test. RESULTS:Out of 1797 serum sample of febrile patients, 524 (29.2%) were scrub typhus positive. Maximum seropositive cases were from Chitwan district, 271 (51.7%) with predominance among women, 314 (35.9%). Scrub typhus was common among age group 51-60 years (37.2%) and farmers, 182 (37.8%). Highest seropositivity was found in July, 60 (57.7%). Fever was common clinical symptom. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 386 (73.7%) and raised transaminase aspartate aminotransferase, 399 (76.1%) among seropositive cases. Weil-Felix test positive were 397 (22.1%) and IgM ELISA positive were 524 (29.2%). The correlation between IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix test showed statistically significant association (r=0.319, p<0.001). CONCLUSION:High prevalence of scrub typhus implies that patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is utmost need of reliable diagnostic facilities at all levels of healthcare system in Nepal. Infection with scrub typhus was found high and this calls for an urgent need to introduce vaccine against scrub typhus. More sustain and vigorous awareness programmes need to be promoted for early diagnosis, treatment and control.
Project description:Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and scrub typhus (ST) are endemic to Japan and share similar clinical features. To document the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that distinguish these 2 rickettsial diseases, during 2004-2015 we recruited 31 JSF patients, 188 ST patients, and 97 nonrickettsial disease patients from the southern Boso Peninsula of Japan. JSF occurred during April-October and ST during November-December. Patients with JSF and ST were significantly older and more likely to reside in wooded areas than were patients with nonrickettsial diseases. Spatial analyses revealed that JSF and ST clusters rarely overlapped. Clinical findings more frequently observed in JSF than in ST patients were purpura, palmar/plantar rash, hyponatremia, organ damage, and delayed defervescence after treatment. Although their clinical features are similar, JSF and ST differ in seasonality, geographic distribution, physical signs, and severity. Because a considerable percentage of patients did not notice rash and eschar, many rickettsial diseases might be underdiagnosed in Japan.
Project description:Acute Q fever and scrub typhus are zoonoses endemic to southern Taiwan. Among the 137 patients with acute Q fever (89, 65.0%) or scrub typhus (43, 31.4%), we identified 5 patients (3.6%) who were co-infected with Coxiella burnetii and Orientia tsutsugamushi.
Project description:Comparative analysis of Genome wide expression was performed to demonstrate diagnostic potential of expression profiling and to identify host response genes in scrub typhus. The results showed that there is a unique expression pattern in peripheral blood leukocytes of scrub typhus infected patients that could discriminate scrub typhus from the other infections and also provided insight into host transcriptional responses to this paticular infection. Overall design: Genome-wide expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with scrub typhus were compared to those from healthy control and from patients with dengue fever, murine typhus or malaria.
Project description:To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus-endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection.