Fibroblast growth factor receptor isotype expression and its association with overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor signaling is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) isotype expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and neighboring nonneoplastic liver tissue, and elucidate its prognostic implications.Immunohistochemical staining of FGFR1, -2, -3, and -4 was performed in the HCCs and paired neighboring nonneoplastic liver tissue of 870 HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection. Of these, clinical data for 153 patients who underwent curative resection as a primary therapy were reviewed, and the relationship between FGFR isotype expression and overall survival was evaluated (development set). This association was also validated in 73 independent samples (validation set) by Western blot analysis.FGFR1, -2, -3, and -4 were expressed in 5.3%, 11.1%, 3.8%, and 52.7% of HCCs, respectively. Among the development set of 153 patients, FGFR2 positivity in HCC was associated with a significantly shorter overall survival (5-year survival rate, 35.3% vs. 61.8%; P=0.02). FGFR2 expression in HCC was an independent predictor of a poor postsurgical prognosis (hazard ratio, 2.10; P=0.02) in the development set. However, the corresponding findings were not statistically significant in the validation set.FGFR2 expression in HCC could be a prognostic indicator of postsurgical survival.
Project description:The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling cascade is a key signaling pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis. We report high FGF receptor (FGFR) expression in 17.7% (11 of 62) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models. Infigratinib, a pan-FGFR inhibitor, potently suppresses the growth of high-FGFR-expressing and sorafenib-resistant HCCs. Infigratinib inhibits FGFR signaling and its downstream targets, cell proliferation, the angiogenic rescue program, hypoxia, invasion, and metastasis. Infigratinib also induces apoptosis and vessel normalization and improves the overall survival of mice bearing FGFR-driven HCCs. Infigratinib acts in synergy with the microtubule-depolymerizing drug vinorelbine to promote apoptosis, suppress tumor growth, and improve the overall survival of mice. Increased expression levels of FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 through gene amplification correlate with treatment response and may serve as potential biomarkers for patient selection. Conclusion: Treatments with Infigratinib alone or in combination with vinorelbine may be effective in a subset of patients with HCC with FGFR-driven tumors.
Project description:The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling cascade is one of the key signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). FGF has been shown to augment vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated HCC development and angiogenesis, as well as to potentially lead to resistance to VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-targeted agents. Thus, novel agents targeting FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling may enhance and/or overcome de novo or acquired resistance to VEGF-targeted agents in HCC. Mice bearing high- and low-FGFR tumors were treated with Infigratinib (i.e., a pan-FGFR kinase inhibitor) and/or Bevacizumab (i.e., an angiogenesis inhibitor). The antitumor activity of both agents was assessed individually or in combination. Tumor vasculature, intratumoral hypoxia, and downstream targets of FGFR signaling pathways were also investigated. Infigratinib, when combined with Bevacizumab, exerted a synergistic inhibitory effect on tumor growth, invasion, and lung metastasis, and it significantly improved the overall survival of mice bearing FGFR-dependent HCC. Infigratinib/Bevacizumab promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation concomitant with upregulation of p27, and reduction in the expression of FGFR2-4, p-FRS-2, p-ERK1/2, p-p70S6K/4EBP1, Cdc25C, survivin, p-Cdc2, and p-Rb. Combining Infigratinib/Bevacizumab may provide therapeutic benefits for a subpopulation of HCC patients with FGFR-dependent tumors. A high level of FGFR-2/3 may serve as a potential biomarker for patient selection to Infigratinib/Bevacizumab.
Project description:A recent gene expression classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes a poor survival subclass termed S2 representing about one-third of all HCC in clinical series. S2 cells express E-cadherin and c-myc and secrete AFP. As the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) differs between S2 and non-S2 HCC, this study investigated whether molecular subclasses of HCC predict sensitivity to FGFR inhibition. S2 cell lines were significantly more sensitive (p < 0.001) to the FGFR inhibitors BGJ398 and AZD4547. BGJ398 decreased MAPK signaling in S2 but not in non-S2 cell lines. All cell lines expressed FGFR1 and FGFR2, but only S2 cell lines expressed FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR4 siRNA decreased proliferation by 44% or more in all five S2 cell lines (p < 0.05 for each cell line), a significantly greater decrease than seen with knockdown of FGFR1-3 with siRNA transfection. FGFR4 knockdown decreased MAPK signaling in S2 cell lines, but little effect was seen with knockdown of FGFR1-3. In conclusion, the S2 molecular subclass of HCC is sensitive to FGFR inhibition. FGFR4-MAPK signaling plays an important role in driving proliferation of a molecular subclass of HCC. This classification system may help to identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from inhibition of this pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGFR2) amplification, occurring in ~2-9% of gastric cancers (GC), is associated with poor overall survival. RESULTS:RNA sequencing identified a novel FGFR2-ACSL5 fusion in the resistant tumor that was absent from the matched pre-treatment tumor. The FGFR2-amplified PDC line was sensitive to FGFR inhibitors whereas the PDC line with concomitant FGFR2 amplification and FGFR2-ACSL5 fusion exhibited resistance. Additionally, the FGFR2-amplified GC PDC line, which was initially sensitive to FGFR2 inhibitors, subsequently also developed resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We identified an FGFR2-amplified patient with GC, who demonstrated a dramatic and long-term response to LY2874455, a pan-FGFR inhibitor, but eventually developed an acquired LY2874455 resistance. Following resistance development, an endoscopic biopsy was performed for transcriptome sequencing and patient-derived tumor cell line (PDC) establishment to elucidate the underlying molecular alterations. CONCLUSIONS:FGFR inhibitors may function against FGFR2-amplified GC, and a novel FGFR2-ACSL5 fusion identified by transcriptomic characterization may underlie clinically acquired resistance. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Poor treatment response represents a substantial concern in patients with gastric cancer carrying multiple FGFR2 gene copies. Here, we show the utility of a general FGFR inhibitor for initial response prior to treatment resistance and report the first characterization of a potential resistance mechanism involving an FGFR2-ACSL5 fusion protein.
Project description:To establish serum microRNA profiles as prognostic biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma patients (HCCs), we used deep sequencing to screen serum microRNAs in a discovery set .Twelve up-regulated serum miRNAs were selected for qPCR analysis in a training set. MiR-192-5p and miR-29a-3p were identified and associated with HCC prognosis. HCCs with high concentrations of miR-192-5p and miR-29a-3p had poorer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those with low concentrations. We calculated a prognostic index (PI) score and classified patients into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. OS and PFS among the 3 groups from the training set were significantly different (all P < 0.05). PI (PIOS, PIPFS) score was the only independent prognostic predictor for OS and PFS of HCCs in the training set. These results were further confirmed in a validation set. In conclusion, differentially expressed serum miRNAs can be helpful for predicting survival in HCCs.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is associated with proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of carcinomas, and FGFR signaling inhibitors are considered a key drug for the treatment of solid tumors with FGFR overexpression. Amplification of FGFR2 is reportedly identified in 3%-10% of gastric cancers (GCs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether the identification of the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with FGFR2 overexpression is useful to detect patients with FGFR2-overexpressing GC. One hundred GC patients who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled. A total volume of 8 mL of peripheral blood was collected from each patient just before gastrectomy, and mononuclear cells were enriched by Ficol density gradient centrifugation. These cells were immunostained with PI/CD45/EpCAM/FGFR2. The number of CTCs with FGFR2 expression in each sample was enumerated by FACScan. The FGFR2 expression level of the resected primary tumor was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The number of FGFR2-positive CTCs in the GC patients' peripheral blood was significantly correlated with the FGFR2 expression level of the primary GC. The relapse-free survival of the patients with FGFR2-positive CTCs (?5 cells/10 mL blood) was significantly poorer (P = .018, log-rank) than that of the patients without FGFR2-positive CTCs (<5 cell/10 mL blood). These findings suggested that the determination of FGFR2-positive CTCs might help identify an existing tumor with FGFR2 overexpression.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene amplification has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to further characterize the prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with cancer.A search of several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, was conducted to identify studies examining the association between FGFR gene amplification and cancer. A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria, and overall incidence rates, hazard risk (HR), overall survival, disease-free survival, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.In the meta-analysis of 24 studies, the prevalence of FGFR gene amplification was FGFR1: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08-0.13) and FGFR2: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02-0.06). Overall survival was significantly worse among patients with FGFR gene amplification: FGFR1 [HR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.23-1.99); p?=?0.0002] and FGFR2 [HR 2.27 (95% CI: 1.73-3.00); p<0.00001].Current evidence supports the conclusion that the outcomes of patients with FGFR gene amplified cancers is worse than for those with non-FGFR gene amplified cancers.
Project description:Aberrant kinase activation resulting from mutation, amplification, or translocation can drive growth and survival in a subset of human cancer. FGFR2 is amplified in breast and gastric cancer, and we report here the first characterization of FGFR2 gene amplification in colorectal cancer in the NCI-H716 colorectal cancer cell line. FGFR2 is highly expressed and activated in NCI-H716 cells, and FGFR selective small molecule inhibitors or FGFR2 shRNA strongly inhibited cell viability in vitro, indicating "addiction" of NCI-H716 cells to FGFR2. NCI-H716 growth in a xenograft model was also inhibited by an FGFR small molecule inhibitor. FGFR2 was required for activation of multiple downstream signaling proteins including AKT, ERK, S6RP and NFKB. Inhibition of downstream kinases such as AKT or ERK alone had modest effects on proliferation, whereas combined inhibition of AKT and ERK signaling resulted in a loss of viability similar to FGFR2 inhibition. We identified elevated FGFR2 expression in a small subset of primary colorectal cancer, however FGFR2 amplification was not observed. Although FGFR2 amplification is not common in primary colon cancer or lymph node and liver metastases, other subsets of colorectal cancer such as ascites, from which the NCI-H716 cell line was derived, have yet to be tested. These results suggest that emerging FGFR inhibitor therapeutics may have efficacy in a subset of colon cancer driven by FGFR2 amplification.
Project description:Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) and their ligands were shown to contribute to MPM aggressiveness and it was suggested that subgroups of MPM patients could benefit from FGFR-targeted inhibitors. In the current investigation, we determined the expression of all four FGFRs (FGFR1-FGFR4) by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 94 MPM patients. From 13 of these patients, we were able to establish stable cell lines, which were subjected to FGFR1-4 staining, transcript analysis by quantitative RT-PCR, and treatment with the FGFR inhibitor infigratinib. While FGFR1 and FGFR2 were widely expressed in MPM tissue and cell lines, FGFR3 and FGFR4 showed more restricted expression. FGFR1 and FGFR2 showed no correlation with clinicopathologic data or patient survival, but presence of FGFR3 in 42% and of FGFR4 in 7% of patients correlated with shorter overall survival. Immunostaining in cell lines was more homogenous than in the corresponding tissue samples. Neither transcript nor protein expression of FGFR1-4 correlated with response to infigratinib treatment in MPM cell lines. We conclude that FGFR3 and FGFR4, but not FGFR1 or FGFR2, have prognostic significance in MPM and that FGFR expression is not sufficient to predict FGFR inhibitor response in MPM cell lines.
Project description:PURPOSE:Various aberrations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 are found in different cancers, including breast cancer (BC). This study analyzed the impact of FGFR amplification on the BC prognosis. METHODS:The study included 894 BC patients. The amplification rates of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 were evaluated on tissue microarrays using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Associations between these parameters and prognosis were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression analyses. RESULTS:FGFR1 FISH was assessable in 503 samples, FGFR2 FISH in 447, and FGFR3 FISH in 562. The FGFR1 amplification rate was 6.6% (n?=?33). Increased FGFR2 copy numbers were seen in 0.9% (n?=?4); only one patient had FGFR3 amplification (0.2%). Most patients with FGFR1 amplification had luminal B-like tumors (69.7%, n?=?23); only 32.6% (n?=?153) of patients without FGFR1 amplification had luminal B-like BC. Other patient and tumor characteristics appeared similar between these two groups. Observed outcome differences between BC patients with and without FGFR1 amplification did not achieve statistical significance; however, there was a trend toward poorer distant metastasis-free survival in BC patients with FGFR1 amplification (HR?=?2.08; 95% CI 0.98 to 4.39, P?=?0.05). CONCLUSION:FGFR1 amplification occurs most frequently in patients with luminal B-like BC. The study showed a nonsignificant correlation with the prognosis, probably due to the small sample size. Further research is therefore needed to address the role of FGFR1 amplifications in early BC patients. FGFR2 and FGFR3 amplifications are rare in patients with primary BC.