Pik3ip1 modulates cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting PI3K pathway.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) is a highly conserved lipid kinase involved in physiological cardiac hypertrophy (PHH). PI3K interacting protein1 (Pik3ip1) shares homology with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and is known to interact with the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K, leading to attenuation of PI3K activity in liver and immune cells. However, the role of Pik3ip1 in the heart remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of Pik3ip1 on cardiac hypertrophy were examined. We found that the expression level of Pik3ip1 was markedly higher in cardiomyocytes than in fibroblasts. The interaction of Pik3ip1 with the p110a subunit of PI3K in the heart was identified by immunoprecipitation using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM). Approximately 35% knockdown of Pik3ip1 was sufficient to induce myocardial hypertrophy. Pik3ip1 deficiency was shown to lead to activation of PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, increasing protein synthesis and cell size. However, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Pik3ip1 attenuated PI3K-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Pik3ip1 was upregulated by PHH due to swimming training, but not by pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PAH) due to pressure-overload, suggesting that Pik3ip1 plays a compensatory negative role for PHH. Collectively, our results elucidate the mechanisms for the roles of Pik3ip1 in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Project description:Signaling initiated by Class Ia phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) is essential for cell proliferation and survival. We discovered a novel protein we call PI3K interacting protein 1 (PIK3IP1) that shares homology with the p85 regulatory PI3K subunit. Using a variety of in vitro and cell based assays, we demonstrate that PIK3IP1 directly binds to the p110 catalytic subunit and down modulates PI3K activity. Our studies suggest that PIK3IP1 is a new type of PI3K regulator.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a well-known regulator of cell division, motility, and survival in most cell types. Recently, we characterized a novel protein that we call PI3K Interacting Protein 1 (PIK3IP1), which binds to the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K and reduces its activity in vitro. Little is known about the role of PIK3IP1 in normal and neoplastic growth in vivo. Proper liver function and development depend on intact PI3K signal transduction; when dysregulated, the PI3K pathway is linked to the development of liver cancer. To begin to dissect the contribution of PIK3IP1 to hepatic PI3K signaling in vivo and to liver tumorigenesis in particular, we formulated the following hypothesis: because PIK3IP1 down-regulates PI3K signaling and uncontrolled PI3K signaling is associated with liver cancer, then PIK3IP1-mediated down-regulation of the PI3K pathway should inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. To test this idea, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing PIK3IP1 in hepatocytes in a mouse strain prone to develop HCC. Isolated PIK3IP1 transgenic mouse hepatocytes showed blunted PI3K signaling, DNA synthetic activity, motility, and survival compared with controls. In vivo, spontaneous liver tumorigenesis was significantly dampened in the transgenic animals. This was accompanied by decreased hepatic PI3K activity and reduced hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenics compared with controls. We also observed that human HCC expressed less PIK3IP1 protein than adjacent matched liver tissue. Our data show that PIK3IP1 is an important regulator of PI3K in vivo, and its dysregulation can contribute to liver carcinogenesis.
Project description:PI3K Interacting Protein 1 (PIK3IP1) is a suppressor of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We previously reported that activated Ras suppresses PIK3IP1 expression to positively regulate the PI3K pathway in cancer cells. Using doxycycline-inducible PIK3IP1, here we confirm that reversing the effect of Ras by inducing expression of PIK3IP1 suppresses Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth, supporting the central role of PIK3IP1 in transformation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Ras-activation that causes loss of PIK3IP1 expression are unknown. We find that Ras activity represses PIK3IP1 expression via the recruitment of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to the PIK3IP1 gene promoter and enhancer, resulting in erasure of active histone marks. These studies demonstrate cross-activation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, where Ras decommissions PIK3IP1 gene expression by enhancing LSD1 and its corepressor activities to suppress PIK3IP1 transcription.
Project description:The PI-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is critical for T-cell development and activation. Several negative regulators of this pathway have already been described and characterized: the lipid phosphatases SHIP, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II (INPP4B), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), the latter of which are tumor suppressors. PIK3IP1 (PI3K interacting protein 1) is a recently described transmembrane protein that has the ability to bind the catalytic protein p110 and prevent its activation by the p85 family adaptor proteins. Thus far, nothing is known about the possible role of PIK3IP1 in the regulation of lymphocyte development or activation. Here, we show for the first time that PIK3IP1 is expressed in T cells. Ectopic expression of PIK3IP1 in Jurkat or D10 T-cell lines inhibited activation of an NFAT/AP-1 transcriptional reporter. Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of PIK3IP1 in the same cell lines modestly augmented Akt phosphorylation, T-cell activation, and production of IL-2. These results suggest that the novel PI3K regulator PIK3IP1 plays an inhibitory role in T-cell activation.
Project description:We have assessed the capacity of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and repair angiotensin II induced insult in culture and in mouse hearts when injected. hUCB were able to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells, when induced with 5-azacytidine or co-cultured with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM). When co-cultured, hUCB reversed the pathological effects induced by angiotensin II (Ang-II) in NRCM and in mice injected after Ang-II infusion. As assessed by increased heart weight to body mass ratio and Ang-II-induced fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy was also reduced after hUCB were injected. hUCB also reversed the pathological heart failure markers induced by Ang-II in mice. Further, we observed a shift from pathological hypertrophy towards physiological hypertrophy by hUCB in Ang-II-challenged mice. Our findings support hUCB as a feasible model for experimentation in stem cell therapy and emphasize the relevance of the hUCB in reversing heart failure conditions.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3Ks) modulate cellular growth, proliferation, and survival; dysregulation of the PI3K pathway can lead to autoimmune disease and cancer. PIK3IP1 (or transmembrane inhibitor of PI3K [TrIP]) is a putative transmembrane regulator of PI3K. TrIP contains an extracellular kringle domain and an intracellular domain with homology to the inter-SH2 domain of the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, but the mechanism of TrIP function is poorly understood. We show that both the kringle and p85-like domains are necessary for TrIP inhibition of PI3K and that TrIP is down-modulated from the surface of T cells during T cell activation. In addition, we present evidence that the kringle domain may modulate TrIP function by mediating oligomerization. Using an inducible knockout mouse model, we show that TrIP-deficient T cells exhibit more robust activation and can mediate clearance of Listeria monocytogenes infection faster than WT mice. Thus, TrIP is a negative regulator of T cell activation and may represent a novel target for immune modulation.
Project description:RATIONALE:The let-7 family of microRNAs (miRs) regulates critical cell functions, including survival signaling, differentiation, metabolic control and glucose utilization. These functions may be important during myocardial ischemia. MiR-let-7 expression is under tight temporal and spatial control through multiple redundant mechanisms that may be stage-, isoform- and tissue-specific. OBJECTIVE:To determine the mechanisms and functional consequences of miR-let-7 regulation by hypoxia in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS:MiR-let-7a, -7c and -7g were downregulated in the adult mouse heart early after coronary occlusion, and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes subjected to hypoxia. Let-7 repression did not require glucose depletion, and occurred at a post-transcriptional level. Hypoxia also induced the RNA binding protein Lin28, a negative regulator of let-7. Hypoxia ineither induced Lin28 nor repressed miR-let-7 in cardiac fibroblasts. Both changes were abrogated by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Restoration of let-7g to hypoxic myocytes and to ischemia-reperfused mouse hearts in vivo via lentiviral transduction potentiated the hypoxia-induced phosphorylation and activation of Akt, and prevented hypoxia-dependent caspase activation and death. Mechanistically, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase interacting protein 1 (Pik3ip1), a negative regulator of PI3K, was identified as a novel target of miR-let-7 by a crosslinking technique showing that miR-let-7g specifically targets Pik3ip1 to the cardiac myocyte Argonaute complex RISC. Finally, in non-failing and failing human myocardium, we found specific inverse relationships between Lin28 and miR-let-7g, and between miR-let-7g and PIK3IP1. CONCLUSION:A conserved hypoxia-responsive Lin28-miR-let-7-Pik3ip1 regulatory axis is specific to cardiac myocytes and promotes apoptosis during myocardial ischemic injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The Hippo pathway has emerged as a potential therapeutic target to control pathological cardiac remodelling. The core components of the Hippo pathway, mammalian Ste-20 like kinase 1 (Mst1) and mammalian Ste-20 like kinase 2 (Mst2), modulate cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Here, we study the effects of pharmacological inhibition of Mst1/2 using a novel inhibitor XMU-MP-1 in controlling the adverse effects of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We used cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and C57Bl/6 mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively, to test the effects of XMU-MP-1 treatment. We used luciferase reporter assays, western blots and immunofluorescence assays in vitro, with echocardiography, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods in vivo. KEY RESULTS:XMU-MP-1 treatment significantly increased activity of the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein and inhibited phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in NRCM. XMU-MP-1 improved cardiomyocyte survival and reduced apoptosis following oxidative stress. In vivo, mice 3 weeks after TAC, were treated with XMU-MP-1 (1 mg·kg-1 ) every alternate day for 10 further days. XMU-MP-1-treated mice showed better cardiac contractility than vehicle-treated mice. Cardiomyocyte cross-sectional size and expression of the hypertrophic marker, brain natriuretic peptide, were reduced in XMU-MP-1-treated mice. Improved heart function in XMU-MP-1-treated mice with TAC, was accompanied by fewer TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and lower levels of fibrosis, suggesting inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and decreased fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The Hippo pathway inhibitor, XMU-MP-1, reduced cellular hypertrophy and improved survival in cultured cardiomyocytes and, in vivo, preserved cardiac function following pressure overload.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is associated with a greater risk of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, no specific treatment has been suggested for DCM treatment. This study demonstrated that myricetin (M) attenuated DCM-associated cardiac injury in mice subjected to streptozotocin (SZT) and in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) challenged with high glucose. In vivo investigation demonstrated 6 months of M treatment (200?mg/kg/d) significantly alleviated cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanically, M treatment significantly increased the activity of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, strengthening antioxidative stress capacity evidenced by reversed activities of GPx and SOD, and decreased MDA production. M treatment also inhibited I?B?/NF-?B pathway, resulting in reduced secretion of inflammation cytokines including IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6. Besides, the TGF?/Smad3 signaling was also blunted in DCM mice treated with M. These beneficial effects of M treatment protected cardiomyocytes from apoptosis as shown by decreased TUNEL-positive nucleus, c-caspase 3, and Bax. Similar effects of M treatment could be reproduced in NRCM treated with high glucose. Furthermore, through silencing Nrf2 in NRCM, we found that the regulation of I?B?/NF?B by M was independent on its function on Nrf2. Thus, we concluded that M possesses potential protective effects on DCM through inhibiting I?B?/NF?B and enhancing Nrf2/HO-1.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that Bailcalin (BAI) prevented cardiac injuries under different disease models. Whether BAI protected against type 2 diabetes mellitus- (T2DM-) associated cardiomyopathy was investigated in this study. T2DM was established by the combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet in mice. BAI was administered daily for 6 months. After evaluating cardiac functions, mice hearts were removed and processed for morphological, biochemical, and molecular mechanism analyses. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were isolated and treated with high glucose and palmitate (HG/Pal) for in vitro investigation. BAI significantly ameliorated T2DM-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lipid accumulation accompanied by markedly improved cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mechanically, BAI restored decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and enhanced expression and nuclei translocation of Nrf2. In in vitro experiments, BAI also prevented NRCM from HG/Pal-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress injuries by increasing p-AMPK and Nrf2 accumulation. The means by which BAI restored p-AMPK seemed to be related to the antioxidative effects of Nrf2 after silencing AMPK or Nrf2 in NRCM. Furthermore, BAI regulated Nrf2 by inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and consequent degradation mediated by Keap1. This study showed that BAI alleviated diabetes-associated cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte injuries in vivo and in vitro via Keap1/Nrf2/AMPK-mediated antioxidation and lipid-lowering effects. BAI might be a potential adjuvant drug for diabetes cardiomyopathy treatment.