AMPK modulates Hippo pathway activity to regulate energy homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: The Hippo pathway was discovered as a conserved tumour suppressor pathway restricting cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the upstream signals that regulate the Hippo pathway in the context of organ size control and cancer prevention are largely unknown. Here, we report that glucose, the ubiquitous energy source used for ATP generation, regulates the Hippo pathway downstream effector YAP. We show that both the Hippo pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were activated during glucose starvation, resulting in phosphorylation of YAP and contributing to its inactivation. We also identified glucose-transporter 3 (GLUT3) as a YAP-regulated gene involved in glucose metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that glucose-mediated energy homeostasis is an upstream event involved in regulation of the Hippo pathway and, potentially, an oncogenic function of YAP in promoting glycolysis, thereby providing an exciting link between glucose metabolism and the Hippo pathway in tissue maintenance and cancer prevention.
Project description:Hippo signaling is a tumor-suppressor pathway involved in organ size control and tumorigenesis through the inhibition of YAP and TAZ. Here, we show that energy stress induces YAP cytoplasmic retention and S127 phosphorylation and inhibits YAP transcriptional activity and YAP-dependent transformation. These effects require the central metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the upstream Hippo pathway components Lats1/Lats2 and angiomotin-like 1 (AMOTL1). Furthermore, we show that AMPK directly phosphorylates S793 of AMOTL1. AMPK activation stabilizes and increases AMOTL1 steady-state protein levels, contributing to YAP inhibition. The phosphorylation-deficient S793Ala mutant of AMOTL1 showed a shorter half-life and conferred resistance to energy-stress-induced YAP inhibition. Our findings link energy sensing to the Hippo-YAP pathway and suggest that YAP may integrate spatial (contact inhibition), mechanical, and metabolic signals to control cellular proliferation and survival.
Project description:The Hippo pathway plays essential roles in organ size control and cancer prevention via restricting its downstream effector, Yes-associated protein (YAP). Previous studies have revealed an oncogenic function of YAP in reprogramming glucose metabolism, while the underlying mechanism remains to be fully clarified. Accumulating evidence suggests long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as attractive therapeutic targets, given their roles in modulating various cancer-related signaling pathways. In this study, we report that lncRNA breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 4 (BCAR4) is required for YAP-dependent glycolysis. Mechanistically, YAP promotes the expression of BCAR4, which subsequently coordinates the Hedgehog signaling to enhance the transcription of glycolysis activators HK2 and PFKFB3. Therapeutic delivery of locked nucleic acids (LNAs) targeting BCAR4 attenuated YAP-dependent glycolysis and tumor growth. The expression levels of BCAR4 and YAP are positively correlated in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, where high expression of both BCAR4 and YAP is associated with poor patient survival outcome. Taken together, our study not only reveals the mechanism by which YAP reprograms glucose metabolism, but also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting YAP-BCAR4-glycolysis axis for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression. Loss-of-function studies show that lic regulates Hippo signalling in ovary follicle cells and in the wing disc. Epistasis analysis indicates that Mekk1 and lic affect Hippo signalling via p38b and wts We further demonstrate that the Mekk1-Lic-p38b cascade inhibits Hippo signalling by promoting F-actin accumulation and Jub phosphorylation. In addition, p38 signalling modulates actin filaments and Hippo signalling in parallel to small GTPases Ras, Rac1, and Rho1. Lastly, we show that p38 signalling regulates Hippo signalling in mammalian cell lines. The Lic homologue MKK3 promotes nuclear localization of YAP via the actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. Our work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and hepatoblastoma (HB) are the main hepatic malignancies with limited treatment options and high mortality. Recent studies have implicated Hippo kinase pathway in cancer development, but detailed analysis of Hippo kinase signalling in human hepatic malignancies, especially CC and HB, is lacking. METHODS:We investigated Hippo kinase signalling in HCC, CC and HB using cells and patient samples. RESULTS:Increased expression of yes-associated protein (Yap), the downstream effector of the Hippo kinase pathway, was observed in HCC cells, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Yap resulted in decreased survival of HCC cells. The density-dependent activation of Hippo kinase pathway characteristic of normal cells was not observed in HCC cells and CCLP cells, a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Immunohistochemistry of Yap in HCC, CC and HB tissues indicated extensive nuclear localization of Yap in majority of tissues. Western blot analysis performed using total cell extracts from patient samples and normal livers showed extensive activation of Yap. Marked induction of Glypican-3, CTGF and Survivin, the three Yap target genes was observed in the tumour samples. Further analysis revealed significant decrease in expression and activity of Lats kinase, the main upstream regulator of Yap. However, no change in activation of Mst-2 kinase, the upstream regulator of Lats kinase was observed. CONCLUSIONS:These data show that Yap induction mediated by inactivation of Lats is observed in hepatic malignancies. These studies highlight Hippo kinase pathway as a novel therapeutic target for hepatic malignancies.
Project description:The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. The core Hippo components in mammals are composed of the upstream serine/threonine kinases Mst1/2, MAPK4Ks and Lats1/2. Inactivation of these upstream kinases leads to dephosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and thus activation of the major functional transducers of the Hippo pathway, YAP and its paralogue TAZ. YAP/TAZ are transcription co-activators that regulate gene expression primarily through interaction with the TEA domain DNA-binding family of transcription factors (TEAD). The current paradigm for regulation of this pathway centres on phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ through a complex network of upstream components. However, unlike other transcription factors, such as SMAD, NF-?B, NFAT and STAT, the regulation of TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we show that environmental stress promotes TEAD cytoplasmic translocation via p38 MAPK in a Hippo-independent manner. Importantly, stress-induced TEAD inhibition predominates YAP-activating signals and selectively suppresses YAP-driven cancer cell growth. Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. However, upstream signals that regulate the mammalian Hippo pathway have remained elusive. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway is regulated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Serum-borne lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphophate (S1P) act through G12/13-coupled receptors to inhibit the Hippo pathway kinases Lats1/2, thereby activating YAP and TAZ transcription coactivators, which are oncoproteins repressed by Lats1/2. YAP and TAZ are involved in LPA-induced gene expression, cell migration, and proliferation. In contrast, stimulation of Gs-coupled receptors by glucagon or epinephrine activates Lats1/2 kinase activity, thereby inhibiting YAP function. Thus, GPCR signaling can either activate or inhibit the Hippo-YAP pathway depending on the coupled G protein. Our study identifies extracellular diffusible signals that modulate the Hippo pathway and also establishes the Hippo-YAP pathway as a critical signaling branch downstream of GPCR.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is important for regulating tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in human cancer. However, it is not well understood how the Hippo pathway becomes dysregulated because few mutations in core Hippo pathway components have been identified. Therefore, much work in the Hippo field has focused on identifying upstream regulators, and a complex Hippo interactome has been identified. Nevertheless, it is not always clear which components are the most physiologically relevant in regulating YAP/TAZ. To provide an overview of important Hippo pathway components, we created knockout cell lines for many of these components and compared their relative contributions to YAP/TAZ regulation in response to a wide range of physiological signals. By this approach, we provide an overview of the functional importance of many Hippo pathway components and demonstrate NF2 and RHOA as important regulators of YAP/TAZ and TAOK1/3 as direct kinases for LATS1/2.
Project description:The Hippo pathway regulates tissue growth and organ size, and inactivation contributes to cancer. Signals flow through Mst/Lats kinases, which phosphorylate and promote cytoplasmic localization of the transcriptional regulators Yap and Taz to inhibit transcription. Here, we identify the multidomain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Arhgef7, or ?Pix, as a positive Hippo pathway regulator. We show that ?Pix, which localizes to the cytoplasm, binds both Lats and Yap/Taz and thereby promotes Lats-mediated phosphorylation of Yap/Taz in a GEF-independent manner. ?Pix is required downstream of both cell density sensing and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, and we demonstrate that loss of ?Pix expression in normal mammary epithelial cells strongly reduces Yap/Taz phosphorylation, promotes nuclear localization and increases target gene expression. Conversely, increased expression of ?PIX in breast cancer cell lines re-couples the Hippo kinase cassette to Yap/Taz, promoting localization of Yap/Taz to the cytoplasm and inhibiting cell migration and proliferation. These studies thus define ?Pix as a key component that links the Hippo kinase cassette to Yap/Taz in response to multiple upstream Hippo pathway activators.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is involved in the regulation of contact inhibition of proliferation and responses to various physical and chemical stimuli. Recently, several upstream negative regulators of Hippo signaling, including epidermal growth factor receptor ligands and lysophosphatidic acid, have been identified. We show that fibronectin adhesion stimulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Src signaling is another upstream negative regulator of the Hippo pathway. Inhibition of FAK or Src in MCF-10A cells plated at low cell density prevented the activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in a large tumor suppressor homologue (Lats)-dependent manner. Attachment of serum-starved MCF-10A cells to fibronectin, but not poly-d-lysine or laminin, induced YAP nuclear accumulation via the FAK-Src-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. Attenuation of FAK, Src, PI3K, or PDK1 activity blocked YAP nuclear accumulation stimulated by adhesion to fibronectin. This negative regulation of the Hippo pathway by fibronectin adhesion signaling can, at least in part, explain the effects of cell spreading on YAP nuclear localization and represents a Lats-dependent component of the response to cell adhesion.
Project description:The Hippo pathway significantly correlates with organ size control and tumorigenesis. The activity of YAP/TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway, is required to sustain self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacities in cancer stem cells (CSCs). But, upstream signals that control the mammalian Hippo pathway have not been well understood. Here, we reveal a connection between the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling pathway and the Hippo-YAP pathway in gastric cancer stem-like cells. The selective PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2 induces an increase in the fraction of side population cells which is enriched in CSCs, and promotes tumorigenesis, multi cancer drug resistance, cell morphological change, and cell invasion which are characteristics of CSCs. In addition, PAR1 activation inhibits the Hippo-YAP pathway kinase Lats via Rho GTPase. Lats kinase inhibition in turn results in increased nuclear localization of dephosphorylated YAP. Furthermore, PAR1 activation confers CSCs related traits via the Hippo-YAP pathway, and the Hippo-YAP pathway correlates with epithelial mesenchymal transition which is induced by PAR1 activation. Our research suggests that the PAR1 signaling deeply participates in the ability of multi drug resistance and tumorigenesis through interactions with the Hippo-YAP pathway signaling in gastric cancer stem-like cells. We presume that inhibited YAP is a new therapeutic target in the treatment human gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by dysregulated PAR1 or its agonists.