Role of miR-155 in the pathogenesis of herpetic stromal keratitis.
ABSTRACT: Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus 1 can result in a chronic immunoinflammatory stromal keratitis (SK) lesion that is a significant cause of human blindness. A key to controlling SK lesion severity is to identify cellular and molecular events responsible for tissue damage and to manipulate them therapeutically. Potential targets for therapy are miRNAs, but these are minimally explored especially in responses to infection. Here, we demonstrated that Mir155 expression was up-regulated after ocular herpes simplex virus 1 infection, with the increased Mir155 expression occurring mainly in macrophages and CD4(+) T cells and to a lesser extent in neutrophils. In vivo studies indicated that Mir155 knockout mice were more resistant to herpes SK with marked suppression of T helper cells type 1 and 17 responses both in the ocular lesions and the lymphoid organs. The reduced SK lesion severity was reflected by increased phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase 1 and interferon-? receptor ?-chain levels in activated CD4(+) T cells in the lymph nodes. Finally, in vivo silencing of miR-155 by the provision of antagomir-155 nanoparticles to herpes simplex virus 1-infected mice led to diminished SK lesions and corneal vascularization. In conclusion, our results indicate that miR-155 contributes to the pathogenesis of SK and represents a promising target to control SK severity.
Project description:Ocular herpes simplex virus infection can cause a blinding CD4⁺ T cell orchestrated immuno-inflammatory lesion in the cornea called Stromal Keratitis (SK). A key to controlling the severity of SK lesions is to suppress the activity of T cells that orchestrate lesions and enhance the representation of regulatory cells that inhibit effector cell function. In this report we show that a single administration of TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a non-physiological ligand for the AhR receptor, was an effective means of reducing the severity of SK lesions. It acted by causing apoptosis of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells but had no effect on Foxp3⁺ CD4⁺ Tregs. TCDD also decreased the proliferation of Foxp3⁻ CD4⁺ T cells. The consequence was an increase in the ratio of Tregs to T effectors which likely accounted for the reduced inflammatory responses. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that TCDD addition to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated naïve CD4⁺ T cells caused a significant induction of Tregs, but inhibited the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Since a single TCDD administration given after the disease process had been initiated generated long lasting anti-inflammatory effects, the approach holds promise as a therapeutic means of controlling virus induced inflammatory lesions.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules that control diverse biological processes that include angiogenesis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes a chronic immuno-inflammatory response in the eye that may result in corneal neovascularization during blinding immunopathological lesion stromal keratitis (SK). miR-132 is a highly conserved miRNA that is induced in endothelial cells in response to growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we show that miR-132 expression was up-regulated (10- to 20-fold) after ocular infection with HSV, an event that involved the production of both VEGF-A and IL-17. Consequently, blockade of VEGF-A activity using soluble VEGF receptor 1 resulted in significantly lower levels of corneal miR-132 after HSV infection. In addition, low levels of corneal miR-132 were detected in IL-17 receptor knockout mice after HSV infection. In vivo silencing of miR-132 by the provision of anti-miR-132 (antagomir-132) nanoparticles to HSV-infected mice led to reduced corneal neovascularization and diminished SK lesions. The anti-angiogenic effect of antagomir-132 was reflected by a reduction in angiogenic Ras activity in corneal CD31-enriched cells (presumably blood vessel endothelial cells) during SK. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of miRNA involvement in an infectious ocular disease. Manipulating miRNA expression holds promise as a therapeutic approach to control an ocular lesion that is an important cause of human blindness.
Project description:Eye disease due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and the number one infectious cause of unilateral corneal blindness in the developed parts of the globe. Recurrent keratitis can result in progressive corneal scarring, thinning, and vascularization. Antiviral agents employed against HSV have primarily been nucleoside analogs. Early generation drugs included idoxuridine, iododesoxycytidine, vidarabine, and trifluridine. While effective, they tended to have low bioavailability and measurable local cellular toxicity due to their nonselective mode of action. Acyclovir 0.3% ointment is a more selective agent, and had become a first-line topical drug for acute HSV keratitis in Europe and other places outside of the US. Ganciclovir 0.15% gel is the most recently approved topical treatment for herpes keratitis. Compared to acyclovir 0.3% ointment, ganciclovir 0.15% gel has been shown to be better tolerated and no less effective in several Phase II and III trials. Additionally, topical ganciclovir does not cause adverse systemic side effects and is therapeutic at lower concentrations. Based on safety, efficacy, and tolerability, ganciclovir 0.15% gel should now be considered a front-line topical drug in the treatment of dendritic herpes simplex epithelial keratitis. Topics of future investigation regarding other potential uses for ganciclovir gel may include the prophylaxis of recurrent HSV epithelial keratitis, treatment of other forms of ocular disease caused by herpesviruses and adenovirus, and ganciclovir gel as an adjunct to antitumor therapy.
Project description:To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease.A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon. Initially, eyelid biopsy revealed findings consistent with IgG4-related disease, and the patient was treated with high dose oral prednisone. After one week of therapy, there was no improvement in the patient's symptoms, and she subsequently developed a corneal epithelial defect which progressed to chronic ulceration. Repeat biopsy and corneal cultures revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The patient was treated with high dose acyclovir, and the lid lesion improved. The conjunctival inflammation and corneal epithelial defect resolved but symblepharon restricting her eye movement remained. She also developed corneal vascularization and opacification causing severe vision loss.Chronic hypertrophic herpes simplex virus infection is a rare condition reported in patients with HIV. While there have been few reports of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eyelid, this is the first reported case of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eye, resulting in severe vision loss.
Project description:This report deals with the possible mechanism by which IL-18 can contribute to the control and resolution of inflammatory lesions in the cornea caused by herpes simplex virus infection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the IL-18R by both regulatory T cells (Treg) and effector T cells was a pivotal event that influenced lesion pathogenesis. The engagement of IL-18R on Treg with its cytokine ligand resulted in Amphiregulin expression a molecule associated with tissue repair. In support of this scheme of events, lesion severity became more severe in animals unable to express the IL-18R because of gene knockout and was reduced in severity when IL-18 was overexpressed in the cornea. These changes in lesion severity correlated with the frequency and number of both Treg and Teff that expressed Amphiregulin. Additional experiments indicated that IL-12 and IL-18 acted synergistically to enhance Amphiregulin expression in Treg, an event partly dependent on P38 MAPK activity. Finally, sub-conjunctival administration of Amphiregulin resulted in resolution of both developing and developed lesions. Thus, overall our results imply that IL-18 may participate in controlling the severity of SK and contribute to tissue repair by converting both Treg and effector T cells into those that produce Amphiregulin.
Project description:Stromal keratitis (SK) is a chronic immunopathological lesion of the eye, caused by HSV-1 infection, and a common cause of vision impairment in humans. The inflammatory lesions in the cornea are primarily caused by neutrophils with the active participation of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells. Therefore, the targeting of these immune cell types and their products represents a potentially valuable form of therapy to reduce the severity of disease. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its epimer aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) are lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and were shown to promote resolution in several inflammatory disease models. In this report, we examined whether AT-RvD1 administration, begun before infection or at a later stage after ocular infection of mice with HSV-1, could control the severity of SK lesions. Treatment with AT-RvD1 significantly diminished the extent of corneal neovascularization and the severity of SK lesions. AT-RvD1-treated mice had fewer numbers of inflammatory cells that included neutrophils as well as Th1 and Th17 cells in the infected cornea. The mechanisms by which AT-RvD1 acts appear to be multiple. These include inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, CXCL1, MCP-1, MIP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and proinflammatory miRNA, such as miR-155, miR-132, and miR-223, which are involved in SK pathogenesis and corneal neovascularization. In addition, AT-RvD1 attenuated STAT1, which plays an important role in Th1 cell differentiation and IFN-? expression. These findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 treatment could represent a useful strategy for the management of virus-induced immunopathological lesions.
Project description:Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model.Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug.Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication.Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo.
Project description:Blinding ocular herpetic disease in humans is due to spontaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) from latency, rather than to primary acute infection. Mice latently infected with HSV-1 undergo little or no in vivo spontaneous reactivation with accompanying virus shedding in tears. HSV-1 reactivation can be induced in latently infected mice by several in vivo procedures, with UV-B-induced reactivation being one commonly used method. In the UV-B model, corneas are scarified (lightly scratched) just prior to ocular infection to increase efficiency of the primary infection and immune serum containing HSV-1 neutralizing antibodies is injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to increase survival and decrease acute corneal damage. Since scarification can significantly alter host gene transcription in the cornea and in the trigeminal ganglia (TG; the site of HSV-1 latency) and since injection of immune serum likely modulates innate and adaptive herpes immunity, we investigated eliminating both treatments.Mice were infected with HSV-1 with or without corneal scarification and immune serum. HSV-1 reactivation and recurrent disease were induced by UV-B irradiation.When corneal scarification and immune serum were both eliminated, UV-B irradiation still induced both HSV-1 reactivation, as measured by shedding of reactivated virus in tears and herpetic eye disease, albeit at reduced levels compared to the original procedure.Despite the reduced reactivation and disease, avoidance of both corneal scarification and immune serum should improve the clinical relevance of the UV-B mouse model.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 causes several infections in humans including cold sores and encephalitis. Previous antiviral studies on herpes viruses have focussed on developing nucleoside analogues that can inhibit viral polymerase and terminate the replicating viral DNA. However, these drugs bear an intrinsic non-specificity as they can also inhibit cellular polymerase apart from the viral one. The present study is an attempt to elucidate the action mechanism of naturally occurring withaferin A in inhibiting viral DNA polymerase, thus providing an evidence for its development as a novel anti-herpetic drug. RESULTS: Withaferin A was found to bind very similarly to that of the previously reported 4-oxo-DHQ inhibitor. Withaferin A was observed binding to the residues Gln 617, Gln 618, Asn 815 and Tyr 818, all of which are crucial to the proper functioning of the polymerase. A comparison of the conformation obtained from docking and the molecular dynamics simulations shows that substantial changes in the binding conformations have occurred. These results indicate that the initial receptor-ligand interaction observed after docking can be limited due to the receptor rigid docking algorithm and that the conformations and interactions observed after simulation runs are more energetically favoured. CONCLUSIONS: We have performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies to elucidate the binding mechanism of prospective herbal drug withaferin A onto the structure of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus. Our docking simulations results give high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor. Long de novo MD simulations for 10 ns performed allowed us to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system studied and corroborate the docking results, as well as identify key residues in the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. The present MD simulations support the hypothesis that withaferin A is a potential ligand to target/inhibit DNA polymerase of the Herpes simplex virus. Results of these studies will also guide the design of selective inhibitors of DNA POL with high specificity and potent activity in order to strengthen the therapeutic arsenal available today against the dangerous biological warfare agent represented by Herpes Simplex Virus.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects.