Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT: Three long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are now available in Europe, providing clinicians and patients with a choice of interventions, which is important in COPD, which is clinically a heterogeneous disease. The first LAMA, tiotropium, has been widely used over the last decade as a once-daily maintenance therapy in stable COPD to improve patients' health-related quality of life and to reduce the risk of exacerbations. Administered via the HandiHaler(®) device, it is safe and well tolerated. Another new once-daily LAMA, glycopyrronium, has also been shown to improve health status and reduce exacerbations, and is well tolerated. The subject of this review is a third LAMA, aclidinium bromide, which was approved as a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trials, patients receiving aclidinium achieved significantly greater improvements in lung function, reductions in breathlessness, and improvements in health status compared with placebo, for up to 24 weeks. In continuation studies, these improvements were sustained for up to 52 weeks. Pooled data showed exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced with aclidinium versus placebo. Preclinical and pharmacological studies demonstrating low systemic bioavailability and a low propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias were translated into a favorable tolerability profile in the clinical trial program - the adverse event profile of aclidinium was similar to placebo, with a low incidence of anticholinergic and cardiac adverse events. While additional studies are needed to evaluate its full clinical potential, aclidinium is an important part of this recent expansion of LAMA therapeutic options, providing clinicians and patients with an effective and well-tolerated COPD treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The combination of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic, and formoterol fumarate, a long-acting beta2-agonist (400/12 ?g twice daily) achieves improvements in lung function greater than either monotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is approved in the European Union as a maintenance treatment. The effect of this combination on symptoms of COPD and exacerbations is less well established. We examined these outcomes in a pre-specified analysis of pooled data from two 24-week, double-blind, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, multicentre, randomised Phase III studies (ACLIFORM and AUGMENT). METHODS:Patients ?40 years with moderate to severe COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity <70 % and FEV1??30 % but <80 % predicted normal) were randomised (ACLIFORM: 2:2:2:2:1; AUGMENT: 1:1:1:1:1) to twice-daily aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g or 400/6 ?g, aclidinium 400 ?g, formoterol 12 ?g or placebo via Genuair™/Pressair®. Dyspnoea (Transition Dyspnoea Index; TDI), daily symptoms (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool [EXACT]-Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS] questionnaire), night-time and early-morning symptoms, exacerbations (Healthcare Resource Utilisation [HCRU] and EXACT definitions) and relief-medication use were assessed. RESULTS:The pooled intent-to-treat population included 3394 patients. Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g significantly improved TDI focal score versus placebo and both monotherapies at Week 24 (all p?<?0.05). Over 24 weeks, significant improvements in E-RS total score, overall night-time and early-morning symptom severity and limitation of early-morning activities were observed with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo and both monotherapies (all p?<?0.05). The rate of moderate or severe HCRU exacerbations was significantly reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g compared with placebo (p?<?0.05) but not monotherapies; the rate of EXACT-defined exacerbations was significantly reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo (p?<?0.01) and aclidinium (p?<?0.05). Time to first HCRU or EXACT exacerbation was longer with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g compared with placebo (all p?<?0.05) but not the monotherapies. Relief-medication use was reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo and aclidinium (p?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g significantly improves 24-hour symptom control compared with placebo, aclidinium and formoterol in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Furthermore, aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g reduces the frequency of exacerbations compared with placebo. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01462942 and NCT01437397 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Project description:This randomized, double-blind, Phase IIIb study evaluated the 24-hour bronchodilatory efficacy of aclidinium bromide versus placebo and tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Patients received aclidinium 400 ?g twice daily (morning and evening), tiotropium 18 ?g once daily (morning), or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second area under the curve for the 24-hour period post-morning dose (FEV1 AUC0-24) at week 6. Secondary and additional endpoints included FEV1 AUC12-24, COPD symptoms (EXAcerbations of chronic pulmonary disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS] total score and additional symptoms questionnaire), and safety.Overall, 414 patients were randomized and treated (FEV1 1.63 L [55.8% predicted]). Compared with placebo, FEV1 AUC0-24 and FEV1 AUC12-24 were significantly increased from baseline with aclidinium (? = 150 mL and 160 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) and tiotropium (? = 140 mL and 123 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) at week 6. Significant improvements in E-RS total scores over 6 weeks were numerically greater with aclidinium (p < 0.0001) than tiotropium (p < 0.05) versus placebo. Only aclidinium significantly reduced the severity of early-morning cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, and phlegm, and of nighttime symptoms versus placebo (p < 0.05). Adverse-event (AE) incidence (28%) was similar between treatments. Few anticholinergic AEs (<1.5%) or serious AEs (<3%) occurred in any group.Aclidinium provided significant 24-hour bronchodilation versus placebo from day 1 with comparable efficacy to tiotropium after 6 weeks. Improvements in COPD symptoms were consistently numerically greater with aclidinium versus tiotropium. Aclidinium was generally well tolerated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cough and sputum are troublesome symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are associated with adverse outcomes. The efficacy of aclidinium bromide 400 µg twice daily in patients with stable COPD has been established in two phase III studies (ACCORD COPD I and ATTAIN) and a phase IIIb active-comparator study. This analysis evaluated cough-related symptoms across these studies. METHOD:Patients were randomised to placebo, aclidinium 200 µg or 400 µg twice daily in ACCORD (12 weeks) and ATTAIN (24 weeks), or to placebo, aclidinium 400 µg twice daily or tiotropium 18 µg once daily (6-week active-comparator study). Analysed end points included changes from baseline in Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms (E-RS; formerly known as EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool), total and cough/sputum scores and frequency/severity of morning and night-time cough and sputum symptoms. RESULTS:Data for 1792 patients were evaluated. E-RS cough/sputum domain scores were significantly reduced with aclidinium 400 µg versus placebo in ATTAIN (-0.7 vs -0.3, respectively; p<0.01) and the active-comparator study (-0.6 vs -0.2, respectively; p<0.01). In the active-comparator study, significantly greater improvements were observed with aclidinium versus placebo for severity of morning cough (-0.19 vs -0.02; p<0.01) and phlegm (-0.19 vs -0.02; p<0.05). In ACCORD, aclidinium reduced night-time cough frequency (-0.36 vs 0.1 for placebo; p<0.001) and severity (-0.24 vs -0.1 for placebo; p<0.05), and frequency of night-time sputum production (-0.37 vs 0.05 for placebo; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Aclidinium 400 µg twice daily improves cough and sputum expectoration versus placebo in stable COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS:NCT00891462; NCT01001494; NCT01462929.
Project description:Aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate (AB/FF) 400/12 µg is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist and long-acting ?2 agonist (LAMA/LABA) dual-bronchodilator maintenance therapy used to relieve symptoms and reduce future risk of exacerbations in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To date, there have been several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of AB/FF, assessing treatment outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. These studies have looked at a range of outcomes, including lung function parameters, patient-reported symptom scores, quality-of-life measures assessing impaired health and perceived well-being, and the frequency, duration, and severity of exacerbations. In light of the major 2017 revision to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommendations, and the subsequent updates, we present an update on the latest evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of AB/FF. This review discusses the clinical relevance of the improvements in lung function, symptoms, quality of life, and exacerbations in patients with COPD reported in the phase III and IV trials of AB/FF. Given the current concerns over unnecessary inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in COPD, we also touch briefly on the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker for identifying those patients with COPD already using LAMA/LABA therapy for whom the addition of ICS might be of benefit.
Project description:Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous illness characterized by persistent airflow obstruction and exacerbations. Patients typically experience a decline in lung function, increasingly impaired health-related quality of life, and high mortality. Poor lung function and exacerbations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular events, and approximately 30% of patients with COPD die from CV?related disease. Treatment with inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, such as long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), is recommended; however, some studies have suggested that LAMAs may increase the risk of CV events. As patients with CV and cerebrovascular conditions are often excluded from clinical trials, an evaluation of the safety of COPD treatments in an at-risk population is vital. Aclidinium bromide is a LAMA approved for the long-term maintenance treatment of COPD. Methods and Objectives: The Phase 4, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group Aclidinium Bromide on Long-Term Cardiovascular Safety and COPD Exacerbations in PatieNTs with Moderate to Very Severe COPD (ASCENT COPD) study (NCT01966107) is being conducted at 500 sites in the United States and Canada. The primary objectives are to evaluate the long-term effects of twice-daily aclidinium bromide 400 µg on CV safety and exacerbations in patients with moderate to very severe COPD with a history of cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral artery disease, or the presence of ?2 atherothrombotic risk factors. The primary safety and efficacy variables are time to first major adverse CV event (MACE) (on-study analysis) and rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations during the first year of treatment (on-treatment analysis), respectively. The study will be terminated after approximately 122 MACE have occurred.
Project description:Combining two long-acting bronchodilators with complementary mechanisms of action may provide treatment benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are greater than those derived from either treatment alone. The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and formoterol fumarate, a long-acting ?2-agonist, in patients with moderate to severe COPD are presented.In this 24-week double-blind study, 1692 patients with stable COPD were equally randomized to twice-daily treatment with FDC aclidinium 400 ?g/formoterol 12 ?g (ACL400/FOR12 FDC), FDC aclidinium 400 ?g/formoterol 6 ?g (ACL400/FOR6 FDC), aclidinium 400 ?g, formoterol 12 ?g, or placebo administered by a multidose dry powder inhaler (Genuair®/Pressair®)*. Coprimary endpoints were change from baseline to week 24 in 1-hour morning postdose FEV1 (FDCs versus aclidinium) and change from baseline to week 24 in morning predose (trough) FEV1 (FDCs versus formoterol). Secondary endpoints were change from baseline in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score and improvement in Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score at week 24. Safety and tolerability were also assessed.At study end, improvements from baseline in 1-hour postdose FEV1 were significantly greater in patients treated with ACL400/FOR12 FDC or ACL400/FOR6 FDC compared with aclidinium (108 mL and 87 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001). Improvements in trough FEV1 were significantly greater in patients treated with ACL400/FOR12 FDC versus formoterol (45 mL; p = 0.0102), a numerical improvement of 26 mL in trough FEV1 over formoterol was observed with ACL400/FOR6 FDC. Significant improvements in both SGRQ total and TDI focal scores were observed in the ACL400/FOR12 FDC group at study end (p < 0.0001), with differences over placebo exceeding the minimal clinically important difference of ?4 points and ?1 unit, respectively. All treatments were well tolerated, with safety profiles of the FDCs similar to those of the monotherapies.Treatment with twice-daily aclidinium 400 ?g/formoterol 12 ?g FDC provided rapid and sustained bronchodilation that was greater than either monotherapy; clinically significant improvements in dyspnea and health status were evident compared with placebo. Aclidinium/formoterol FDC may be an effective and well tolerated new treatment option for patients with COPD.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01437397.
Project description:We investigated the effect of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist aclidinium bromide on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations by pooling data from five randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group Phase III studies of 3-6 months' duration. Data were pooled from the aclidinium 400 ?g twice-daily (BID) and placebo arms (N = 2,521) and stratified by Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group (A, B, C and D). Results showed that fewer patients experienced ?1 exacerbation with aclidinium (any severity: 12.5%; moderate to severe: 10.9%) compared with placebo (any severity: 15.7%; moderate to severe: 13.3%) and the odds of experiencing ?1 exacerbation of any severity were reduced in patients receiving aclidinium (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.039). Furthermore, aclidinium reduced the rate of exacerbations compared with placebo (any severity: rate ratio = 0.79, p = 0.026; moderate to severe: 0.80, p = 0.044). The time to first exacerbation of any severity was delayed with aclidinium compared with placebo (hazard ratio = 0.79, p = 0.026) and there was a numerical delay in time to first moderate-to-severe exacerbation. Finally, the effects of aclidinium on exacerbations versus placebo were greater in patients in GOLD Groups B and D; however, it is of note that only 10.7% of patients were classified in Group A or C. In summary, the results indicate that aclidinium 400 ?g BID reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations compared with placebo and that these effects are greater in symptomatic patients.
Project description:Background:Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 µg is a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator for COPD. This post hoc study evaluated aclidinium/formoterol vs aclidinium 400 µg, formoterol 12 µg, or placebo in patient subgroups. Patients and methods:Data were pooled from two 24-week Phase III clinical trials (ACLIFORM and AUGMENT). Patients (N=3,394) were analyzed by baseline airflow obstruction severity (moderate/severe), age (<65/?65 years), sex, and exacerbation history (0/?1 exacerbation in the previous 12 months). Changes from baseline vs placebo and mono-therapies were evaluated: morning pre-dose (trough) and morning 1-hour post-dose FEV1, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), and moderate/severe exacerbation rates (healthcare resource utilization [HCRU] and EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool [EXACT] criteria). Results:Aclidinium/formoterol improved the post-dose FEV1 vs placebo and monotherapy in all subgroups (all P<0.01) and trough FEV1 vs placebo (P<0.001) and formoterol (P<0.05) across all subgroups. Improvements in trough FEV1 were observed vs aclidinium in patients with severe airflow obstruction, patients aged <65 years, males, and patients with exacerbation history (P<0.05). Improvements in TDI were observed vs placebo in all subgroups (all P<0.001), monotherapies for patients with moderate (formoterol P<0.05) or severe airflow obstruction (aclidinium P<0.05), patients aged <65 years (aclidinium P<0.01, formoterol P<0.05), males (formoterol P<0.05), and patients with no exacerbation history (formoterol P<0.05). HCRU exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol vs placebo in patients with no exacerbation history (P<0.01). EXACT exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol in patients with moderate airflow obstruction vs placebo and aclidinium, patients aged <65 years vs placebo and ?65 years vs formoterol, males vs placebo, and patients with no exacerbation history vs placebo (all P<0.05). Conclusion:Aclidinium/formoterol significantly improved post-dose FEV1, trough FEV1, and TDI vs placebo across all subgroups and vs monotherapy in many subgroups. These findings further support the benefits of aclidinium/formoterol for all patients with COPD.
Project description:Importance:There is concern that long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective:To determine the cardiovascular safety (noninferiority) and efficacy (superiority) of aclidinium bromide, 400 ?g twice daily, in patients with COPD and cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design study conducted at 522 sites in North America. A total of 3630 patients with moderate to very severe COPD and either a history of cardiovascular disease or at least 2 atherothrombotic risk factors were randomized; follow-up occurred for up to 3 years until at least 122 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred. The first patient was enrolled on October 16, 2013 and the last on August 22, 2016. The final patient completed follow-up on September 21, 2017. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive aclidinium (n = 1812) or placebo (n = 1818) by dry-powder inhaler, twice daily for up to 3 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary safety end point was time to first MACE over up to 3 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1-sided 97.5% CI noninferiority margin?=?1.8). The primary efficacy end point was the annual COPD exacerbation rate during the first year of treatment. Secondary outcomes included an expanded MACE definition (time to first MACE or serious cardiovascular event of interest) and annual rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Results:Among 3589 patients analyzed (mean age, 67.2 years; 58.7% male), 2537 (70.7%) completed the study. Of these, 69 (3.9%) aclidinium and 76 (4.2%) placebo patients had a MACE (HR, 0.89; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 0-1.23); the expanded MACE definition included 168 (9.4%) aclidinium vs 160 (8.9%) placebo patients with events (HR, 1.03; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 0-1.28). Annual moderate to severe exacerbation rates (aclidinium, 0.44; placebo, 0.57; rate ratio, 0.78; 2-sided 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P?<?.001) and rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (aclidinium, 0.07; placebo, 0.10; rate ratio, 0.65; 2-sided 95% CI, 0.48-0.89; P?=?.006) decreased significantly with aclidinium vs placebo. The most common adverse events were pneumonia (aclidinium, 109 events [6.1%]; placebo, 105 events [5.8%]), urinary tract infection (aclidinium, 93 events [5.2%]; placebo, 89 events [5.0%]), and upper respiratory tract infection (aclidinium, 86 events [4.8%]; placebo, 101 events [5.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with COPD and increased cardiovascular risk, aclidinium was noninferior to placebo for risk of MACE over 3 years. The rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations was reduced over the first year. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01966107.
Project description:A previous Phase IIIb study (NCT01462929) in patients with moderate to severe COPD demonstrated that 6 weeks of treatment with aclidinium led to improvements in 24-hour bronchodilation comparable to those with tiotropium, and improvement of symptoms versus placebo. This post hoc analysis was performed to assess the effect of treatment in the symptomatic patient group participating in the study.Symptomatic patients (defined as those with Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS™] in COPD baseline score ?10 units) received aclidinium bromide 400 ?g twice daily (BID), tiotropium 18 ?g once daily (QD), or placebo, for 6 weeks. Lung function, COPD respiratory symptoms, and incidence of adverse events (AEs) were assessed.In all, 277 symptomatic patients were included in this post hoc analysis. Aclidinium and tiotropium treatment improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline to week 6 at all time points over 24 hours versus placebo. In addition, improvements in FEV1 from baseline during the nighttime period were observed for aclidinium versus tiotropium on day 1 (aclidinium 157 mL, tiotropium 67 mL; P<0.001) and week 6 (aclidinium 153 mL, tiotropium 90 mL; P<0.05). Aclidinium improved trough FEV1 from baseline versus placebo and tiotropium at day 1 (aclidinium 136 mL, tiotropium 68 mL; P<0.05) and week 6 (aclidinium 137 mL, tiotropium 71 mL; P<0.05). Aclidinium also improved early-morning and nighttime symptom severity, limitation of early-morning activities, and E-RS Total and domain scores versus tiotropium (except E-RS Chest Symptoms) and placebo over 6 weeks. Tolerability showed similar incidence of AEs in each arm.In this post hoc analysis of symptomatic patients with moderate to severe COPD, aclidinium 400 ?g BID provided additional improvements compared with tiotropium 18 ?g QD in: 1) bronchodilation, particularly during the nighttime, 2) daily COPD symptoms (E-RS), 3) early-morning and nighttime symptoms, and 4) early-morning limitation of activity.