A large-scale genetic analysis reveals a strong contribution of the HLA class II region to giant cell arteritis susceptibility.
ABSTRACT: We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10(-40), OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DR?1 and HLA-DQ?1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1(?)04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DR?1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10(-43)) and HLA-DQ?1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10(-46)), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10(-45)) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10(-6), OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10(-5), OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function.
Project description:The incidence of type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) has increased steadily in Kuwait during recent years and it is now considered amongst the high-incidence countries. An interaction between susceptibility genes, immune system mediators and environmental factors predispose susceptible individuals to T1DM. We have determined the prevalence of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene functional variant (C1858T; R620W, rs2476601), HLA-DQ and DR alleles and three autoantibodies in Kuwaiti children with T1DM to evaluate their impact on genetic predisposition of the disease. This study included 253 Kuwaiti children with T1DM and 214 ethnically matched controls. The genotypes of PTPN22 gene functional variant C1858T (R620W; rs2476601) were detected by PCR-RFLP method and confirmed by DNA sequencing. HLA-DQ and DR alleles were determined by sequence-specific PCR. Three autoantibodies were detected in the T1DM patients using radio-immunoassays. A significant association was detected between the variant genotype of the PTPN22 gene (C1858T, rs2476601) and T1DM in Kuwaiti Arabs. HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 alleles showed a strong association with T1DM. In T1DM patients which carried the variant TT-genotype of the PTPN22 gene, 93% had at least one DQ2 allele and 60% carried either a DQ2 or a DQ8 allele. Amongst the DR alleles, the DR3-DRB5, DR3-3, DR3-4 and DR4-4 showed a strong association with T1DM. Majority of T1DM patients who carried homozygous variant (TT) genotype of the PTPN22 gene had either DR3-DRB5 or DRB3-DRB4 genotypes. In T1DM patients who co-inherited the high risk HLA DQ, DR alleles with the variant genotype of PTPN22 gene, the majority were positive for three autoantibodies. Our data demonstrate that the variant T-allele of the PTPN22 gene along with HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 alleles constitute significant determinants of genetic predisposition of T1DM in Kuwaiti children.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to explore whether non-human leukocyte antigen (non-HLA) genetic markers can improve type 1 diabetes(T1D) prediction in a prospective cohort with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes. METHODS:The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) follows prospectively for the development of T1D and islet autoimmunity (IA)children at increased genetic risk. A total of 1709 non-Hispanic White DAISY participants have been genotyped for 27 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one microsatellite. RESULTS:In multivariate analyses adjusting for family history and HLA-DR3/4 genotype, PTPN22 (rs2476601) and two UBASH3A (rs11203203 and rs9976767) SNPs were associated with development of IA [hazard ratio(HR)=1.87, 1.55, and 1.54, respectively, all p ? 0.003], while GLIS3 and IL2RA showed borderline association with development of IA. INS,UBASH3A, and IFIH1 were significantly associated with progression from IA to diabetes (HR=1.65, 1.44, and 1.47, respectively, all p ? 0.04), while PTPN22 and IL27 showed borderline association with progression from IA to diabetes. In survival analysis, 45% of general population DAISY children with PTPN22 rs2476601 TT or HLA-DR3/4 and UBASH3A rs11203203 AA developed diabetes by age 15, compared with 3% of children with all other genotypes (p<0.0001). Addition of non-HLA markers to HLA-DR3/4,DQ8 did not improve diabetes prediction in first-degree relatives. CONCLUSION:Addition of PTPN22 and UBASH3A SNPs to HLA-DR,DQ genotyping can improve T1D risk prediction.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is the third major locus affecting risk of type I diabetes (T1D), after HLA-DR/DQ and INS. The most associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2476601, has a C->T variant and results in an arginine (R) to tryptophan (W) amino acid change at position 620. To assess whether this, or other specific variants, are responsible for T1D risk, the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium analyzed 28 PTPN22 SNPs in 2295 affected sib-pair (ASP) families. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses of haplotypes revealed that all three haplotypes with a T allele at rs2476601 were overtransmitted to affected children, and two of these three haplotypes showed statistically significant overtransmission (P=0.003 to P=5.9E-12). Another haplotype had decreased transmission to affected children (P=3.5E-05). All haplotypes containing the rs2476601 T allele were identical for all SNPs across PTPN22 and only varied at centromeric SNPs. When considering rs2476601 'C' founder chromosomes, a second haplotype (AGGGGC) centromeric of PTPN22 in the C1orf178 region was associated with protection from T1D (odds ratio=0.81, P=0.0005). This novel finding requires replication in independent populations. We conclude the major association of PTPN22 with T1D is likely due to the recognized non-synonymous SNP rs2476601 (R620W).
Project description:Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is one of the commonest forms of vasculitis in the elderly, and may result in blindness and stroke. The pathogenesis of GCA is not understood, although environmental, infectious and genetic risk factors are implicated. One gene of interest is PTPN22, encoding lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), expressed exclusively in immune cells, which is proposed to be an 'archetypal non-HLA autoimmunity gene'. The minor allele of a functional PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2476601, R620W), which disrupts an interaction motif in the protein, was originally reported to be associated with biopsy-proven GCA in Spanish patients, with supporting data from three replicate Northern European studies. Recently, this observation was extended with additional patients and controls, and studies encompassing European, Scandinavian, UK and American patients. The aim of our study was to determine the association between PTPN22 rs2476601 (R620W) and biopsy-proven GCA in an Australian case cohort.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyse the role of the PTPN22 and CSK genes, previously associated with autoimmunity, in the predisposition and clinical phenotypes of giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS:Our study population was composed of 911 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA and 8136 unaffected controls from a Spanish discovery cohort and three additional independent replication cohorts from Germany, Norway and the UK. Two functional PTPN22 polymorphisms (rs2476601/R620W and rs33996649/R263Q) and two variants of the CSK gene (rs1378942 and rs34933034) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan assays. RESULTS:The analysis of the discovery cohort provided evidence of association of PTPN22 rs2476601/R620W with GCA (PFDR=1.06E-04, OR=1.62, CI 95% 1.29 to 2.04). The association did not appear to follow a specific GCA subphenotype. No statistically significant differences between allele frequencies for the other PTPN22 and CSK genetic variants were evident either in the case/control or in stratified case analysis. To confirm the detected PTPN22 association, three replication cohorts were genotyped, and a consistent association between the PTPN22 rs2476601/R620W variant and GCA was evident in the overall meta-analysis (PMH=2.00E-06, OR=1.51, CI 95% 1.28 to 1.79). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the PTPN22 polymorphism rs2476601/R620W plays an important role in the genetic risk to GCA.
Project description:The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) locus encodes a cluster of highly polymorphic genes HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP that are co-expressed in mature B lymphocytes. Two cell lines were established over 30 years ago from a patient diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Laz221 represented the leukemic cells of the patient; whereas Laz388 represented the normal B cells of the patient. Although Laz388 expressed both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ surface and gene products, Laz221 expressed only HLA-DR genes. The discordant expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes was due to epigenetic silencing of the HLA-DQ region CCCTC transcription factor (CTCF)-binding insulators that separate the MHC-II sub-regions by DNA methylation. These epigenetic modifications resulted in the loss of binding of the insulator protein CTCF to the HLA-DQ flanking insulator regions and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors to the HLA-DQ promoter regions. These events led to the inability of the HLA-DQ promoter regions to interact with flanking insulators that control HLA-DQ expression. Inhibition of DNA methylation by treatment with 5'-deoxyazacytidine reversed each of these changes and restored expression of the HLA-DQ locus. These results highlight the consequence of disrupting an insulator within the MHC-II region and may be a normal developmental mechanism or one used by tumor cells to escape immune surveillance.
Project description:Specific alleles of non-HLA genes INS, CTLA-4, and PTPN22 have been associated with type 1 diabetes. We examined whether some of these alleles influence development of islet autoimmunity or progression from persistent islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes.Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,449 young children carrying HLA-DR,DQ genotypes associated with type 1 diabetes. Of those, 112 have developed islet autoimmunity (persistent autoantibodies to insulin, GAD65, and/or IA-2), and 47 of these have progressed to type 1 diabetes. The influence of polymorphisms of INS(-23Hph1), CTLA-4(T17A), and PTPN22(R620W) on development of persistent islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes was evaluated by parametric models and by survival analyses.PTPN22(R620W) allele T was associated with development of persistent islet autoimmunity (hazard ratio 1.83 [95% CI 1.27-2.63]) controlling for ethnicity, presence of HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302, and having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. Survival analyses showed a significantly (P = 0.002) higher risk of persistent islet autoimmunity by age 10 years for the TT genotype (27.3%) than for the CT or CC genotype (7.9 and 5.3%, respectively). Cumulative risk of persistent islet autoimmunity was slightly higher (P = 0.02) for the INS(-23Hph1) AA genotype (7.8%) than for the AT or TT genotype (4.2 and 6.4% risk by age 10 years, respectively).Whereas the HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302 genotype had a dramatic influence on both development of islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes, the PTPN22(R620W) T allele significantly influences progression to persistent islet autoimmunity in the DAISY cohort.
Project description:Context:A declining first-phase insulin response (FPIR) is characteristic of the disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes. It is not known whether reduced FPIR depends on class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, islet autoimmunity, or both. Objective:To dissect the role of class II HLA DR-DQ genotypes and biochemical islet autoantibodies in the compromised FPIR. Design, Setting, Participants:A total of 438 children with defined HLA DR-DQ genotype in the prospective Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study were analyzed for FPIR in a total of 1149 intravenous glucose tolerance tests and were categorized by their HLA DR-DQ genotype and the number of biochemical islet autoantibodies at the time of the first FPIR. Age-adjusted hierarchical linear mixed models were used to analyze repeated measurements of FPIR. Main Outcome Measure:The associations between class II HLA DR-DQ genotype, islet autoantibody status, and FPIR. Results:A strong association between the degree of risk conferred by HLA DR-DQ genotype and positivity for islet autoantibodies existed (P < 0.0001). FPIR was inversely associated with the number of biochemical autoantibodies (P < 0.0001) irrespective of HLA DR-DQ risk group. FPIR decreased over time in children with multiple autoantibodies and increased in children with no biochemical autoantibodies (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0013, respectively). Conclusions:The class II HLA DR-DQ genotype association with FPIR was secondary to the association between HLA and islet autoimmunity. Declining FPIR was associated with positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies irrespective of class II HLA DR-DQ genotype.
Project description:Type 1 narcolepsy, a disorder caused by a lack of hypocretin (orexin), is so strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II HLA-DQA1(?)01:02-DQB1(?)06:02 (DQ0602) that very few non-DQ0602 cases have been reported. A known triggering factor for narcolepsy is pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1, suggesting autoimmunity triggered by upper-airway infections. Additional effects of other HLA-DQ alleles have been reported consistently across multiple ethnic groups. Using over 3,000 case and 10,000 control individuals of European and Chinese background, we examined the effects of other HLA loci. After careful matching of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in case and control individuals, we found strong protective effects of HLA-DPA1(?)01:03-DPB1(?)04:02 (DP0402; odds ratio [OR] = 0.51 [0.38-0.67], p = 1.01 × 10(-6)) and HLA-DPA1(?)01:03-DPB1(?)04:01 (DP0401; OR = 0.61 [0.47-0.80], p = 2.07 × 10(-4)) and predisposing effects of HLA-DPB1(?)05:01 in Asians (OR = 1.76 [1.34-2.31], p = 4.71 × 10(-05)). Similar effects were found by conditional analysis controlling for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ with DP0402 (OR = 0.45 [0.38-0.55] p = 8.99 × 10(-17)) and DP0501 (OR = 1.38 [1.18-1.61], p = 7.11 × 10(-5)). HLA-class-II-independent associations with HLA-A(?)11:01 (OR = 1.32 [1.13-1.54], p = 4.92 × 10(-4)), HLA-B(?)35:03 (OR = 1.96 [1.41-2.70], p = 5.14 × 10(-5)), and HLA-B(?)51:01 (OR = 1.49 [1.25-1.78], p = 1.09 × 10(-5)) were also seen across ethnic groups in the HLA class I region. These effects might reflect modulation of autoimmunity or indirect effects of HLA class I and HLA-DP alleles on response to viral infections such as that of influenza.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most widely studied complex genetic disorders, and the genes in HLA are reported to account for approximately 40-50% of the familial aggregation of T1D. The major genetic determinants of this disease are polymorphisms of class II HLA genes encoding DQ and DR. The DR-DQ haplotypes conferring the highest risk are DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (abbreviated "DR3") and DRB1*04:01/02/04/05/08-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02/04 (or DQB1*02; abbreviated "DR4"). The risk is much higher for the heterozygote formed by these two haplotypes (OR?=?16.59; 95% CI, 13.7-20.1) than for either of the homozygotes (DR3/DR3, OR?=?6.32; 95% CI, 5.12-7.80; DR4/DR4, OR?=?5.68; 95% CI, 3.91). In addition, some haplotypes confer strong protection from disease, such as DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 (abbreviated "DR2"; OR?=?0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.07). After adjusting for the genetic correlation with DR and DQ, significant associations can be seen for HLA class II DPB1 alleles, in particular, DPB1*04:02, DPB1*03:01, and DPB1*02:02. Outside of the class II region, the strongest susceptibility is conferred by class I allele B*39:06 (OR =10.31; 95% CI, 4.21-25.1) and other HLA-B alleles. In addition, several loci in the class III region are reported to be associated with T1D, as are some loci telomeric to class I. Not surprisingly, current approaches for the prediction of T1D in screening studies take advantage of genotyping HLA-DR and HLA-DQ loci, which is then combined with family history and screening for autoantibodies directed against islet-cell antigens. Inclusion of additional moderate HLA risk haplotypes may help identify the majority of children with T1D before the onset of the disease.