Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.
ABSTRACT: Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation.
Project description:Varenicline (Chantix) is a first-line treatment for smoking cessation but does not produce cessation in many individuals. It may be possible to improve abstinence by co-administering varenicline with other medications. Zonisamide (Zonegran) has a similar pharmacologic profile to topiramate, which has been shown to reduce smoking, but is better tolerated. This study evaluated whether combined zonisamide and varenicline reduced tobacco withdrawal and increased abstinence among smokers trying to quit, relative to varenicline and placebo.This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of zonisamide + varenicline versus placebo + varenicline for smoking cessation. Smokers received brief counseling and study medications, and completed weekly assessments for 10 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence rates (biochemically verified) during the final 4 weeks of treatment.Results are presented as intent-to-treat and completer analyses. Seventy-four individuals were enrolled; 45 completed the study. Overall, 14.9% (intent-to-treat) and 25.0% (completer) of participants maintained sustained abstinence during the final 4 weeks of treatment. There were no differences between groups for biochemically-verified smoking, but zonisamide + varenicline reduced self-reported smoking, nicotine withdrawal, and craving compared to placebo + varenicline.Zonisamide decreased nicotine withdrawal and craving, though not of sufficient magnitude to modify smoking behavior. The sample size was small and low rates of abstinence across groups suggest the study population was difficult to treat. Additional evaluation of zonisamide or other medications that increase GABA or decrease glutamate in larger or more diverse populations may yield positive clinical benefit for nicotine/tobacco cessation.This study provides support for layering novel medications with varenicline for smoking cessation, for investigating medications that target the GABA and glutamate system, and for assessing the contribution that reductions in nicotine withdrawal have on ultimate cessation outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transdermal nicotine, with behavioral counseling, is among the most popular approaches used to quit smoking. Yet, 6-month cessation rates rarely exceed 20-25%. Identifying factors associated with cessation success may help researchers and clinicians develop enhanced interventions that can improve quit rates. This study examined longitudinal changes in withdrawal, craving, depression and anxiety symptoms, and alternative reinforcers, from a baseline assessment to a 6-month outcome, as predictors of 6-month smoking cessation outcomes following 8 weeks of nicotine patch treatment and counseling. METHODS:A sample of 180 smokers, who completed an effectiveness trial that provided counseling and 8 weeks of 21mg nicotine patches, was analyzed. Generalized estimating equations evaluated changes in withdrawal and craving, depression and anxiety symptoms, and alternative reinforcers over time, between participants who were smoking at 6-months and participants who were abstinent (confirmed with carbon monoxide) at 6-months. Multiple logistic regression assessed changes in these variables as predictors of relapse. RESULTS:Controlling for covariates associated with cessation (i.e., nicotine dependence, patch adherence, and rate of nicotine metabolism), participants who were abstinent at 6 months showed significantly lower craving and withdrawal and significantly higher substitute reinforcers from baseline to 6 months, vs. those who were smoking at 6 months (p<0.001). An increase in craving predicted relapse to smoking (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These results support continued efforts to strengthen interventions that reduce withdrawal and craving and the development of interventions to address alternative reinforcers in order to promote long-term smoking abstinence following nicotine patch treatment.
Project description:In samples from controlled randomized clinical trials, a smoker's rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the 3-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (NMR), predicts response to transdermal nicotine. Replication of this relationship in community-based samples of treatment-seeking smokers may help guide the implementation of the NMR for personalized treatment for nicotine dependence.Data from a community-based sample of treatment seeking smokers (N=499) who received 8weeks of transdermal nicotine and 4 behavioral counseling sessions were used to evaluate associations between the NMR and smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes included withdrawal and craving, depression and anxiety, side effects, and treatment adherence.The NMR was a significant predictor of abstinence (OR=.56, 95% CI: 0.33-0.95, p=.03), with faster metabolizers showing lower quit rates than slower metabolizers (24% vs. 33%). Faster nicotine metabolizers exhibited significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms over time during treatment, vs. slower metabolizers (NMR x Time interaction: F[3,357]=3.29, p=.02). NMR was not associated with changes in withdrawal, craving, depression, side effects, and treatment adherence (p's>.05).In a community-based sample of treatment-seeking smokers, faster nicotine metabolizers were significantly less likely to quit smoking and showed higher rates of anxiety symptoms during a smoking cessation treatment program, vs. slower nicotine metabolizers. These results provide further evidence that transdermal nicotine is less effective for faster nicotine metabolizers and suggest the need to address cessation-induced anxiety symptoms among these smokers to increase the chances for successful smoking cessation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the associations of individual trajectories of three types of negative affect (NA: anxiety, depression, and anger) and craving during a 44-day period of incentivized smoking abstinence period with cessation outcome at 3 months and at 1 year. METHODS:Adult smokers (N = 140) completed questionnaire assessments of NA and craving during pre-quit baseline sessions and 15 postquit sessions over the 45 days of biochemically verified abstinence while on nicotine or placebo patch treatment. Growth curve and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of trajectory parameters of the individual NA states and craving with the abstinence outcomes at 3 months and 1 year postquit. RESULTS:Greater declines in anxiety, depression, and anger symptoms over the first 44 days of smoking cessation were predictive of higher odds of abstinence at both 3 months and 1 year. Moreover, the greater declines in anxiety and anger remained as significant predictors of abstinence at both time points, independent of the predictive ability of the trajectory profiles of craving. CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that slower dissipation of NA, especially anxiety and anger, represents a greater risk for relapse to smoking beyond that predicted by craving during early abstinence. Thus, temporal profiles of the affective symptoms convey unique motivational significance in relapse. Reduction in NA during early abstinence may be a valid target for interventions to increase long-term cessation success rates particularly among individuals with refractory affective symptoms.
Project description:Smokers attempting to quit often attribute smoking relapse to negative affect, craving, and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. In addition, there is evidence that smoking relapse can increase these symptoms, particularly negative affect. To address this issue, we analyzed data from an 11-week smoking cessation clinical trial in which smokers (n = 1,246) were randomized to receive either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline, or placebo, combined with behavioral counseling. Using cross-lagged analyses, we examined the temporal bidirectional relationships between self-reported measures of affect, craving, and composite withdrawal symptoms and biochemically verified smoking abstinence. The relative strength of these temporal relationships was examined by comparing the explained variances of the models. The results showed that higher negative affect, craving, and composite withdrawal symptoms increased the likelihood of subsequent smoking relapse, and that smoking relapse led to subsequent increases in these same symptoms. A comparison of the explained variances found symptom predicting subsequent relapse models to be stronger than those where relapse predicted subsequent symptoms. Although the explained variance findings generally support a negative reinforcement conceptualization of nicotine dependence, the bidirectional relationship between symptoms and smoking relapse suggests that struggling with quitting smoking leads to significant negative affect, craving, and other withdrawal symptoms that do not quickly resolve. These findings highlight the importance of addressing specific symptoms within the context of smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:The goal of this study was to compare lifetime cigarette smoking, severity of nicotine dependence, and subjective effects of short-term tobacco abstinence in abstinent alcohol dependent (AD) and control smokers.AD (n=119) and control (n=55) ever-smokers were compared on tobacco use history and nicotine dependence. Negative affect and craving to smoke were examined in a subsample of currently smoking AD (N=34) and control (N=19) participants during a 6-h period of tobacco abstinence using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B).Although AD smokers did not differ from controls on heaviness of smoking, they were more likely to meet lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. AD smokers also reported more withdrawal symptoms and were more likely to endorse withdrawal-related depressed mood during past smoking reduction or abstinence periods. During short-term abstinence, AD smokers were more likely to report high craving to smoke for negative affect relief within the first 150 min of tobacco abstinence, but did not differ from controls on overall craving to smoke or withdrawal-related negative affect on the POMS.Results support previous findings that AD smokers have a greater prevalence of nicotine dependence and more severe nicotine withdrawal, with a greater propensity toward withdrawal-related depressed mood. These results, along with our novel finding that greater craving to smoke in abstaining smokers with AD is specific to negative affect-related craving, suggest that negative reinforcement may be a particularly salient factor in the maintenance of tobacco use among individuals with AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Negative-reinforcement based cognitive processes have been implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking. Given the expectation that smoking will attenuate aversive internal experiences, smokers may be particularly unwilling to experience or remain in contact with smoking-related distress (i.e., experiential avoidance). Yet, there is little known about a cognitive-based process termed smoking-specific experiential avoidance with regard to withdrawal, craving, or negative affect during a quit attempt. METHOD:Data were collected from adult daily smokers (n = 259) participating in a larger smoking cessation trial. Pre- and post-quit experiences of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect were examined in terms of cognitive-based smoking-specific experimental avoidance, measured by the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS). RESULTS:Results indicated that baseline smoking-specific experiential avoidance was associated with greater overall levels of withdrawal, craving, and negative affect at treatment initiation (pre-cessation). Reductions in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to quit day were associated with increased likelihood of quit day abstinence. Such reductions were also predictive of lower levels of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect on quit day. Also, less reduction in experiential avoidance was associated with experiencing greater withdrawal in the early phase of quitting. DISCUSSION:The impact of cognitive-based experiential avoidance pertaining to smoking impacts both pre- and post-cessation experiences in terms of negative affect, withdrawal, and smoking cravings and may represent an important treatment target.
Project description:Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F[1, 63] = 7.31, p < .001). Withdrawal scores in both groups decreased over the subsequent 2-week period with no group differences, F(1, 910) = 0.50, p = .48. A similar pattern was observed on craving (i.e., Desire to Smoke item of MNWS), although the trajectory of decrease over time on this item was also moderated by gender. Overall, there was no difference in withdrawal during biochemically verified smoking abstinence between OD and non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Heavy drinking is common among smokers and is associated with especially poor health outcomes. Varenicline may affect mechanisms and clinical outcomes that are relevant for both smoking cessation and alcohol use. The current study examines whether varenicline, relative to nicotine replacement therapy, yields better smoking cessation outcomes among binge drinking smokers.<h4>Method</h4>Secondary data analyses of a comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of three smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (12 weeks of varenicline, nicotine patch, or nicotine patch and lozenge) paired with six counseling sessions were conducted. Adult daily cigarette smokers (N = 1,078, 52% female) reported patterns of alcohol use, cigarette craving, and alcohol-related cigarette craving at baseline and over 4 weeks after quitting. Smoking cessation outcome was 7-day biochemically confirmed point-prevalence abstinence.<h4>Results</h4>Binge drinkers had higher relapse rates than moderate drinkers at 4-week post-target quit day but not at the end of treatment or long-term follow up (12 and 26 weeks). Varenicline did not yield superior smoking cessation outcomes among binge drinkers, nor did it affect alcohol use early in the quit attempt. Varenicline did produce relatively large reductions in alcohol-related cigarette craving and overall cigarette craving during the first 4 weeks after quitting.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Varenicline did not yield higher smoking abstinence rates or reduce alcohol use among binge drinkers. Varenicline did reduce alcohol-related cigarette craving but this did not translate to meaningful differences in smoking abstinence. Varenicline's effects on smoking abstinence do not appear to vary significantly as a function of drinking status.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study examined relations of two affective vulnerabilities, high anxiety sensitivity (AS) and low distress tolerance (DT), with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, smoking cessation, and pharmacotherapy response. METHODS:Smokers interested in quitting (N = 1067; 52.2% female, 28.1% African American) were randomized to 12 weeks of nicotine patch, nicotine patch plus nicotine lozenge, or varenicline. Baseline questionnaires assessed AS, DT, negative affect, anxiety, and dependence. Withdrawal was assessed the first-week post-quit via ecological momentary assessment. RESULTS:DT, but not AS, predicted biochemically confirmed point-prevalence abstinence at multiple endpoints: weeks 4, 12, 26, and 52 post-quit (ps < .05); relations remained after controlling for pharmacotherapy treatment, AS, baseline negative affect, anxiety, and anxiety disorder history (ps < .05). Additional exploratory analyses examining week 4 abstinence showed DT predicted abstinence (p = .004) even after controlling for baseline dependence, post-quit withdrawal (craving and negative affect), and treatment. DT moderated treatment effects on abstinence in exploratory analyses (interaction p = .025); those with high DT were especially likely to be abstinent at week 4 with patch plus lozenge versus patch alone. CONCLUSIONS:DT, but not AS, predicted abstinence over 1 year post-quit (higher DT was associated with higher quit rates), with little overlap with other affective measures. DT also predicted early abstinence independent of dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Results suggest low DT may play a meaningful role in motivation to use tobacco and constitute an additional affective risk factor for tobacco cessation failure beyond negative affect or clinical affective disorders. IMPLICATIONS:People in a stop-smoking study who reported a greater ability to tolerate distress were more likely to quit smoking and remain smoke-free 1 year later. Smokers with high DT were more likely to be smoke-free 4 weeks after their target quit day if they received nicotine patch plus nicotine lozenge rather than nicotine patch alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01553084.