Associations between renal hyperfiltration and serum alkaline phosphatase.
ABSTRACT: Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011) was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): >120, 90-119, 60-89, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The participants with eGFR >120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876-7.892), compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084-4.329). ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ? 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005). After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204-2.192, P = 0.002). In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05). The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population.
Project description:Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal hyperfiltration also exhibit systemic microvascular abnormalities, including endothelial dysfunction. The effect of renal hyperfiltration on systemic blood pressure (BP) is less clear. We therefore measured BP, renal hemodynamic function and circulating renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) mediators in type 1 DM patients with hyperfiltration (n = 36, DM-H, GFR≥135 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) or normofiltration (n = 40, DM-N), and 56 healthy controls (HC). Since renal hyperfiltration represents a state of intrarenal RAAS activation, we hypothesized that hyperfiltration would be associated with higher BP and elevated levels of circulating RAAS mediators.BP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR - inulin), effective renal plasma flow (paraaminohippurate) and circulating RAAS components were measured in DM-H, DM-N and HC during clamped euglycemia (4-6 mmol/L). Studies were repeated in DM-H and DM-N during clamped hyperglycemia (9-11 mmol/L).Baseline GFR was elevated in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC (167±6 vs. 115±2 and 115±2 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p<0.0001). Baseline systolic BP (SBP, 117±2 vs. 111±2 vs. 109±1, p = 0.004) and heart rate (76±1 vs. 67±1 vs. 61±1, p<0.0001) were higher in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC. Despite higher SBP in DM-H, plasma aldosterone was lower in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC (42±5 vs. 86±14 vs. 276±41 ng/dl, p = 0.01). GFR (p<0.0001) and SBP (p<0.0001) increased during hyperglycemia in DM-N but not in DM-H.DM-H was associated with higher heart rate and SBP values and an exaggerated suppression of systemic aldosterone. Future work should focus on the mechanisms that explain this paradox in diabetes of renal hyperfiltration coupled with systemic RAAS suppression.
Project description:Despite the potential relationship with metabolic derangements, the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and renal function remains unknown. The present study investigated the impact of dietary carbohydrate intake on the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a large-scale prospective cohort with normal renal function. A total of 6746 and 1058 subjects without and with diabetes mellitus (DM) were analyzed, respectively. Carbohydrate intake was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall food frequency questionnaire. The primary endpoint was CKD development, defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the development of proteinuria. CKD newly developed in 20.1% and 36.0% of subjects during median follow-ups of 140 and 119 months in the non-DM and DM subjects, respectively. Categorization of non-DM subjects into dietary carbohydrate density quartiles revealed a significantly higher risk of CKD development in the third and fourth quartiles than in the first quartile (P = 0.037 for first vs. third; P = 0.001 for first vs. fourth). A significant risk elevation was also found with increased carbohydrate density when carbohydrate density was treated as a continuous variable (P = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among those with DM according to dietary carbohydrate density quartiles. Carbohydrate-rich diets may increase the risk of CKD development in non-DM subjects.
Project description:Both serum creatinine (sCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been used to assess kidney function in public health check-ups. However, when the sCr is within the normal levels but the eGFR is <60 mL/min/1.73 m², a dilemma arises, as the patients might progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD) after several years. We aimed to evaluate the association between normal sCr and the risk of incident CKD in the general population. For this, 9445 subjects from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, with normal sCr and eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m² were analyzed. The subjects were classified into quartiles based on sCr levels. The primary outcome was the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m² on two consecutive measures. During a mean follow-up of 8.4 ± 4.3 years, 779 (8.2%) subjects developed eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m². The incidence of the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m² was higher in the higher quartiles than in the lowest quartile. In multivariable Cox analysis, the highest quartile was associated with an increased risk for the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m² (hazard ratio (HR), 4.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.29?6.74 in females; HR, 12.77; 95% CI, 7.69?21.23 in males). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, adding sCr to the traditional risk factors for CKD improved the accuracy of predicting the development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m² (area under the curve, 0.83 vs. 0.80 in females and 0.85 vs. 0.78 in males), and the cutoff value of sCr was 0.75 mg/dL and 0.78 mg/dL in females and males. Cautious interpretation is necessary when sCr is within the normal range, considering that the upper normal range of sCr has a higher risk of CKD development.
Project description:Rapid glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline (>3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) is an increasingly recognized high-risk diabetic nephropathy (DN) phenotype in Type 1 diabetes. Rapid GFR decline is a recognized predictor of impaired GFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). However, the association between rapid GFR decline and renal hyperfiltration is not well described in Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that renal hyperfiltration (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR ? 120 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) would predict rapid GFR decline over 6 years and that rapid GFR decline would predict impaired GFR at 6 years in adults with Type 1 diabetes.GFR was calculated by chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) creatinine in 646 adults with Type 1 diabetes in the coronary artery calcification in Type 1 diabetes study. Logistic multivariable models were employed to investigate the relationships between renal hyperfiltration and rapid GFR decline, and rapid GFR decline and incident impaired GFR over 6 years.Renal hyperfiltration predicted greater odds of rapid GFR decline over 6 years [odds ratio (OR): 5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.03-8.25, P < 0.0001] adjusting for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), sex, duration, log of albumin/creatinine ratio and estimated insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, rapid GFR decline predicted greater odds of incident impaired eGFR (OR: 15.99, 95% CI 2.34-114.37, P = 0.006) in a similarly adjusted model. Sensitivity analyses with GFR calculated by CKD-EPI combined creatinine and cystatin C, and renal hyperfiltration defined as ?135 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yielded similar results.In adults with Type 1 diabetes, rapid GFR decline over 6 years was associated with baseline renal hyperfiltration and incident GFR impairment. These observations may suggest an intermediate and predictive role of rapid GFR decline in the progression of DN.
Project description:Increases in fibroblast growth factor 23 precede kidney function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; however, the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease has not been well characterized.We measured intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in baseline serum samples from 1002 participants in the HALT-PKD Study A (n=540; mean eGFR =91±17 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and B (n=462; mean eGFR =48±12 ml/min per 1.73 m2). We used linear mixed and Cox proportional hazards models to test associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 and eGFR decline, percentage change in height-adjusted total kidney volume, and composite of time to 50% reduction in eGFR, onset of ESRD, or death.Median (interquartile range) intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was 44 (33-56) pg/ml in HALT-PKD Study A and 69 (50-93) pg/ml in Study B. In adjusted models, annualized eGFR decline was significantly faster in the upper fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile (Study A: quartile 4, -3.62; 95% confidence interval, -4.12 to -3.12 versus quartile 1, -2.51; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to -2.30 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P for trend <0.001; Study B: quartile 4, -3.74; 95% confidence interval, -4.14 to -3.34 versus quartile 1, -2.78; 95% confidence interval, -2.92 to -2.63 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P for trend <0.001). In Study A, higher fibroblast growth factor 23 quartiles were associated with greater longitudinal percentage increase in height-adjusted total kidney volume in adjusted models (quartile 4, 6.76; 95% confidence interval, 5.57 to 7.96 versus quartile 1, 6.04; 95% confidence interval, 5.55 to 6.54; P for trend =0.03). In Study B, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile was associated with elevated risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 5.25). Addition of fibroblast growth factor 23 to a model of annualized decline in eGFR?3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 did not improve risk prediction.Higher serum fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was associated with kidney function decline, height-adjusted total kidney volume percentage increase, and death in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. However, fibroblast growth factor 23 did not substantially improve prediction of rapid kidney function decline.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Our aims were to assess whether arterial stiffness is associated with a higher risk for kidney dysfunction among persons without chronic kidney disease (CKD).<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed data from the national health checkup system in Japan; for our analyses, we selected records of individuals who completed assessments of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and kidney function from 2005 to 2016. We excluded participants who had CKD at baseline, defined as the presence of proteinuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. We compared 2 groups of CAVI measurements-the highest quartile (?8.1) and the combined lower 3 quartiles (<8.1). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations between these 2 groups and subsequent CKD events, proteinuria, eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and rapid eGFR decline (greater than or equal to -3 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year).<h4>Results</h4>The mean age of the 24,297 included participants was 46.2 years, and 60% were female. Over a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, 1,435 CKD events occurred. In a multivariable analysis, the hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest vs. combined lower quartiles of CAVI measurements were 1.3 (1.1, 1.5) for CKD events, 1.3 (0.96, 1.62) for proteinuria, 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and the odds ratio with 95% CI was 1.3 (1.1, 1.4) for rapid eGFR decline.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Persons with CAVI measurements ?8.1 had a higher risk for CKD events compared with their counterparts with CAVI measurements <8.1. Greater arterial stiffness among adults without CKD may be associated with kidney dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Glomerular hyperfiltration has been considered to be a contributing factor to the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). To address this issue, we analyzed GFR follow-up data on participants with type 1 diabetes undergoing 125I-iothalamate clearance on entry into the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:This was a cohort study of DCCT participants with type 1 diabetes who underwent an 125I-iothalamate clearance (iGFR) at DCCT baseline. Presence of hyperfiltration was defined as iGFR levels ?140 ml/min per 1.73 m2, with secondary thresholds of 130 or 150 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between the baseline hyperfiltration status and the subsequent risk of reaching an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. RESULTS:Of the 446 participants, 106 (24%) had hyperfiltration (iGFR levels ?140 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 28 (interquartile range, 23, 33) years, 53 developed an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The cumulative incidence of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at 28 years of follow-up was 11.0% among participants with hyperfiltration at baseline, compared with 12.8% among participants with baseline GFR <140 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Hyperfiltration was not significantly associated with subsequent risk of developing an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in an unadjusted Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 1.62) nor in an adjusted model (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 1.54). Application of alternate thresholds to define hyperfiltration (130 or 150 ml/min per 1.73 m2) showed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS:Early hyperfiltration in patients with type 1 diabetes was not associated with a higher long-term risk of decreased GFR. Although glomerular hypertension may be a mechanism of kidney injury in DKD, higher total GFR does not appear to be a risk factor for advanced DKD.
Project description:Experimental evidence suggests a role for monocytes in the biology of kidney disease progression; however, whether monocyte count is associated with risk of incident CKD, CKD progression, and ESRD has not been examined in large epidemiologic studies.We built a longitudinal observational cohort of 1,594,700 United States veterans with at least one eGFR during fiscal year 2004 (date of last eGFR during this period designated time zero) and no prior history of ESRD, dialysis, or kidney transplant. Cohort participants were followed until September 30, 2013 or death. Monocyte count closest to and before time zero was categorized in quartiles: quartile 1, >0.00 to ?0.40 thousand cells per cubic millimeter (k/cmm); quartile 2, >0.40 to ?0.55 k/cmm; quartile 3, >0.55 to ?0.70 k/cmm; and quartile 4, >0.70 k/cmm. Survival models were built to examine the association between monocyte count and risk of incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, risk of incident CKD, and risk of CKD progression defined as doubling of serum creatinine, eGFR decline ?30%, or the composite outcome of ESRD, dialysis, or renal transplantation.Over a median follow-up of 9.2 years (interquartile range, 8.3-9.4); in adjusted survival models, there was a graded association between monocyte counts and risk of renal outcomes. Compared with quartile 1, quartile 4 was associated with higher risk of incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.14) and risk of incident CKD (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.16). Quartile 4 was associated with higher risk of doubling of serum creatinine (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 1.24), ?30% eGFR decline (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.19), and the composite renal end point (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 1.22). Cubic spline analyses of the relationship between monocyte count levels and renal outcomes showed a linear relationship, in which risk was higher with higher monocyte count. Results were robust to changes in sensitivity analyses.Our results show a significant association between higher monocyte count and risks of incident CKD and CKD progression to ESRD.
Project description:Although hemodynamic adaptation plays a crucial role in maintaining gestation, the clinical significance of midterm renal hyperfiltration (MRH) on pregnancy outcomes is unknown.This was an observational cohort study. Women with a singleton pregnancy and a serum creatinine measurement during their second trimester were followed at two university hospitals in Korea between 2001 and 2015. Those with substantial renal function impairment or who delivered during the second trimester were not considered. MRH was represented by the highest eGFR, which was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration method. An adverse pregnancy event was defined by the composition of preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and preeclampsia.Data from 1931 pregnancies were included. The relationship between midterm eGFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which occurred in 538 mothers, was defined by a nonlinear U-shaped curve. The adjusted odds ratio and associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of an adverse pregnancy outcome for eGFR levels below and above the reference level of 120-150 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were 1.97 (95% CI, 1.34 to 2.89; P<0.001) for ?150 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 1.57 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.00; P<0.001) for 90-120 ml/min per 1.73 m2; and 4.93 (95% CI, 1.97 to 12.31; P<0.001) for 60-90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Moreover, among mothers without baseline CKD, women with adverse pregnancy outcomes had less prominent MRH than those without (P<0.001).We identified a unique U-shaped relationship between midterm eGFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the optimal range of midterm eGFR levels was 120-150 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In those without evident functional renal impairment, the absence of prominent MRH might be a significant risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes.
Project description:Endothelin-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, is a potent vasoconstrictor released by endothelial cells and an important regulator of renal physiology. It is not known whether elevated serum levels of endothelin-1 indicate future risk of kidney disease in the general population. In participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based observational study of cardiovascular risk in black adults, we measured serum endothelin-1 level at baseline (2000-2004; n=3538). We defined incident CKD as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and ?30% eGFR decline at the third visit (2009-2013) relative to baseline among those participants with baseline eGFR ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 At baseline, mean age was 55 years old, 37% of participants were men, and mean eGFR was 94 ml/min per 1.73 m2 Over a median follow-up of 8 years, 228 (6.4%) cases of incident CKD occurred in participants. Participants with baseline endothelin-1 levels in higher quartiles had a greater incidence of CKD in the fully adjusted model (odds ratio for fourth versus first quartile, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.96; Ptrend=0.04). Endothelin-1 positively associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for fourth versus first quartile, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 2.16; Ptrend<0.001). In conclusion, higher baseline serum endothelin-1 levels associated with incident CKD and all-cause mortality during follow-up in this general population sample of blacks.