The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 Exoproteome: Taking a Peek outside the Box.
ABSTRACT: The interest in examining the subset of proteins present in the extracellular milieu, the exoproteome, has been growing due to novel insights highlighting their role on extracellular matrix organization and biofilm formation, but also on homeostasis and development. The cyanobacterial exoproteome is poorly studied, and the role of cyanobacterial exoproteins on cell wall biogenesis, morphology and even physiology is largely unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive examination of the Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 exoproteome under various growth conditions. Altogether, 139 proteins belonging to 16 different functional categories have been identified. A large fraction (48%) of the identified proteins is classified as "hypothetical", falls into the "other categories" set or presents no similarity to other proteins. The evidence presented here shows that Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is capable of outer membrane vesicle formation and that these vesicles are likely to contribute to the exoproteome profile. Furthermore, the activity of selected exoproteins associated with oxidative stress has been assessed, suggesting their involvement in redox homeostasis mechanisms in the extracellular space. Finally, we discuss our results in light of other cyanobacterial exoproteome studies and focus on the potential of exploring cyanobacteria as cell factories to produce and secrete selected proteins.
Project description:Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium commonly used as a model organism for studying cyanobacterial cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. For many decades, this cyanobacterium was considered an obligate photo-lithoautotroph. We now discovered that this strain is also capable of mixotrophic, photo-organoheterotrophic, and chemo-organoheterotrophic growth if high concentrations of fructose (at least 50 mM and up to 200 mM) are supplied. Glucose, a substrate used by some facultatively organoheterotrophic cyanobacteria, is not effective in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. The gtr gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a glucose carrier was introduced into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Surprisingly, the new strain containing the gtr gene did not grow on glucose but was very sensitive to glucose, with a 5 mM concentration being lethal, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated 200 mM glucose. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain containing gtr can grow mixotrophically and photo-organoheterotrophically, but not chemo-organoheterotrophically with fructose. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five respiratory chains ending in five different respiratory terminal oxidases. One of these enzymes is a mitochondrial-type cytochrome c oxidase. As in almost all cyanobacteria, this enzyme is encoded by three adjacent genes called coxBAC1. When this locus was disrupted, the cells lost the capability for chemo-organoheterotrophic growth.
Project description:A gene (designated ecaA) encoding a vertebrate-like (alpha-type) carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been isolated from two disparate cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. The deduced amino acid sequences correspond to proteins of 29 and 26 kDa, respectively, and revealed significant sequence similarity to human CAI and CAII, as well as Chlamydomonas CAHI, including conservation of most active-site residues identified in the animal enzymes. Structural similarities between the animal and cyanobacterial enzymes extend to the levels of antigenicity, as the Anabaena protein cross-reacts with antisera derived against chicken CAII. Expression of the cyanobacterial ecaA is regulated by CO2 concentration and is highest in cells grown at elevated levels of CO2. Immunogold localization using an antibody derived against the ecaA protein indicated an extracellular location. Preliminary analysis of Synechococcus mutants in which ecaA has been inactivated by insertion of a drug resistance cassette suggests that extracellular carbonic anhydrase plays a role in inorganic-carbon accumulation by maintaining equilibrium levels of CO2 and HCO3- in the periplasm.
Project description:Ecological functions of cyanophages in aquatic environments depend on their interactions with cyanobacterial hosts. The first step of phage-host interaction involves adsorption to the cell surface. We report that adsorption of a cyanophage, A-1(L), to the outer membrane of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is based on the binding of a tail protein, ORF36, to the O antigen of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Removal of O antigen by gene inactivation abolished infection by A-1(L); consistently, preincubation of the cyanophage with extracted Anabaena LPS partially blocked infection. In contrast, inactivation of major outer membrane protein genes in Anabaena or addition of Synechocystis LPS showed no effect on infection. ORF35 and ORF36 are two predicted tail proteins of A-1(L). Antibodies against either ORF35 or ORF36 strongly inhibited infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed a specific interaction between ORF36 and the LPS of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. These findings indicate that ORF35 and ORF36 are probably both required for adsorption of A-1(L) to the cell surface, but ORF36 specifically binds to the O antigen of LPS.IMPORTANCE Cyanophages play an important role in regulating the dynamics of cyanobacterial communities in aquatic environments. Hitherto, the mechanisms for cyanophage infection have been barely investigated. In this study, the first cyanophage tail protein that binds to the receptor (LPS) on cell surface was identified and shown to be essential for the A-1(L) infection of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The protein-LPS interaction may represent an important route for adsorption of cyanophages to their hosts.
Project description:At low density, Bacillus cereus cells release a large variety of proteins into the extracellular medium when cultivated in pH-regulated, glucose-containing minimal medium, either in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of these exoproteins are putative virulence factors, including toxin-related proteins. Here, B. cereus exoproteome time courses were monitored by nanoLC-MS/MS under low-oxidoreduction potential (ORP) anaerobiosis, high-ORP anaerobiosis, and aerobiosis, with a specific focus on oxidative-induced post-translational modifications of methionine residues. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the exoproteome dynamics indicated that toxin-related proteins were the most representative of the exoproteome changes, both in terms of protein abundance and their methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) content. PCA also revealed an interesting interconnection between toxin-, metabolism-, and oxidative stress-related proteins, suggesting that the abundance level of toxin-related proteins, and their Met(O) content in the B. cereus exoproteome, reflected the cellular oxidation under both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.
Project description:The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses secretion systems to deliver exoproteins into the environment. These exoproteins contribute to bacterial survival, adaptation, and virulence. The Twin arginine translocation (Tat) export system enables the export of folded proteins into the periplasm, some of which can then be further secreted outside the cell. However, the full range of proteins that are conveyed by Tat is unknown, despite the importance of Tat for the adaptability and full virulence of P. aeruginosa. In this work, we explored the P. aeruginosa Tat-dependent exoproteome under phosphate starvation by two-dimensional gel analysis. We identified the major secreted proteins and new Tat-dependent exoproteins. These exoproteins were further analyzed by a combination of in silico analysis, regulation studies, and protein localization. Altogether we reveal that the absence of the Tat system significantly affects the composition of the exoproteome by impairing protein export and affecting gene expression. Notably we discovered three new Tat exoproteins and one novel type II secretion substrate. Our data also allowed the identification of two new start codons highlighting the importance of protein annotation for subcellular predictions. The new exoproteins that we identify may play a significant role in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, host interaction and niche adaptation.
Project description:The role of TolC has largely been explored in proteobacteria, where it functions as a metabolite and protein exporter. In contrast, little research has been carried out on the function of cyanobacterial homologues, and as a consequence, not much is known about the mechanism of cyanobacterial antibiotic uptake and metabolite secretion in general. It has been suggested that the TolC-like homologue of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, termed heterocyst glycolipid deposition protein D (HgdD), is involved in both protein and lipid secretion. To describe its function in secondary metabolite secretion, we established a system to measure the uptake of antibiotics based on the fluorescent molecule ethidium bromide. We analyzed the rate of porin-dependent metabolite uptake and confirmed the functional relation between detoxification and the action of HgdD. Moreover, we identified two major facilitator superfamily proteins that are involved in this process. It appears that anaOmp85 (Alr2269) is not required for insertion or assembly of HgdD, because an alr2269 mutant does not exhibit a phenotype similar to the hgdD mutant. Thus, we could assign components of the metabolite efflux system and describe parameters of detoxification by Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.
Project description:Transposon Tn5-692 mutagenizes Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 efficiently. The predicted product of the gene mutated in the Tn5-692-derived cell division mutant FTN2 has an N-terminal DnaJ domain, as have its cyanobacterial and plant orthologs. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, when mutated in genes orthologous to ftn2 and ftn6, forms akinete-like cells.
Project description:The changes in the expression of sigma factor genes during dehydration in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01 and aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120 were determined. The expression of the sigJ gene in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01, which is homologous to sigJ (alr0277) in aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120, was significantly induced in the mid-stage of dehydration. We constructed a higher-expressing transformant of the sigJ gene (HE0277) in Anabaena PCC 7120, and the transformant acquired desiccation tolerance. The results of Anabaena oligonucleotide microarray experiments showed that a comparatively large number of genes relating to polysaccharide biosynthesis were upregulated in the HE0277 cells. The extracellular polysaccharide released into the culture medium of the HE0277 cells was as much as 3.2-fold more than that released by the control cells. This strongly suggests that the group 3 sigma factor gene sigJ is fundamental and conducive to desiccation tolerance in these cyanobacteria.
Project description:Anabaena variabilis grows heterotrophically using fructose, while the close relative Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 does not. Introduction of a cluster of genes encoding a putative ABC transporter, herein named frtRABC, into Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 on a replicating plasmid allowed that strain to grow in the dark using fructose, indicating that these genes are necessary and sufficient for heterotrophic growth. FrtR, a putative LacI-like regulatory protein, was essential for heterotrophic growth of both cyanobacterial strains. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the transport system was induced by fructose and that in the absence of FrtR, frtA was very highly expressed, with or without fructose. In the frtR mutant, fructose uptake was immediate, in contrast to that in the wild-type strain, which required about 40 min for induction of transport. In the frtR mutant, high-level expression of the fructose transporter resulted in cells that were extremely sensitive to fructose. Even in the presence of the inducer, fructose, expression of frtA was low in the wild-type strain compared to that in the frtR mutant, indicating that FrtR repressed the transporter genes even in the presence of fructose. FrtR bound to the upstream region of frtA, but binding was not visibly altered by fructose, further supporting the hypothesis that fructose has only a modest effect in relieving repression of frtA by FrtR. A. variabilis grew better with increasing concentrations of fructose up to 50 mM, showing increased cell size and heterocyst frequency. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 did not show any of these changes when it was grown with fructose. Thus, although Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 could take up fructose and use it in the dark, fructose did not improve growth in the light.
Project description:Filament-forming proteins in bacteria function in stabilization and localization of proteinaceous complexes and replicons; hence they are instrumental for myriad cellular processes such as cell division and growth. Here we present two novel filament-forming proteins in cyanobacteria. Surveying cyanobacterial genomes for coiled-coil-rich proteins (CCRPs) that are predicted as putative filament-forming proteins, we observed a higher proportion of CCRPs in filamentous cyanobacteria in comparison to unicellular cyanobacteria. Using our predictions, we identified nine protein families with putative intermediate filament (IF) properties. Polymerization assays revealed four proteins that formed polymers in vitro and three proteins that formed polymers in vivo. Fm7001 from Fischerella muscicola PCC 7414 polymerized in vitro and formed filaments in vivo in several organisms. Additionally, we identified a tetratricopeptide repeat protein - All4981 - in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 that polymerized into filaments in vitro and in vivo. All4981 interacts with known cytoskeletal proteins and is indispensable for Anabaena viability. Although it did not form filaments in vitro, Syc2039 from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 assembled into filaments in vivo and a ?syc2039 mutant was characterized by an impaired cytokinesis. Our results expand the repertoire of known prokaryotic filament-forming CCRPs and demonstrate that cyanobacterial CCRPs are involved in cell morphology, motility, cytokinesis and colony integrity.