Sulfoquinovose synthase - an important enzyme in the N-glycosylation pathway of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.
ABSTRACT: Recently, the Surface (S)-layer glycoprotein of the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was found to be N-glycosylated with a heterogeneous family of glycans, with the largest having a composition Glc(1)Man(2)GlcNAc(2) plus 6-sulfoquinovose. However, genetic analyses of genes involved in the N-glycosylation process in Crenarchaeota were missing so far. In this study we identify a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of sulfoquinovose and important for the assembly of the S-layer N-glycans. A successful markerless in-frame deletion of agl3 resulted in a decreased molecular mass of the S-layer glycoprotein SlaA and the flagellin FlaB, indicating a change in the N-glycan composition. Analyses with nanoLC ES-MS/MS confirmed the presence of only a reduced trisaccharide structure composed of Man(1) GlcNAc(2) , missing the sulfoquinovose, a mannose and glucose. Biochemical studies of the recombinant Agl3 confirmed the proposed function as a UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase. Furthermore, S. acidocaldarius cells lacking agl3 had a significantly lower growth rate at elevated salt concentrations compared with the background strain, underlining the importance of the N-glycosylation to maintain an intact and stable cell envelope, to enable the survival of S. acidocaldarius in its extreme environment.
Project description:The UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase Agl3 from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius converts UDP-D-glucose and sulfite to UDP-sulfoquinovose, the activated form of sulfoquinovose required for its incorporation into glycoconjugates. Based on the amino acid sequence, Agl3 belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme superfamily, together with SQD1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, the only UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase with known crystal structure. By comparison of sequence and structure of Agl3 and SQD1, putative catalytic amino acids of Agl3 were selected for mutational analysis. The obtained data suggest for Agl3 a modified dehydratase reaction mechanism. We propose that in vitro biosynthesis of UDP-sulfoquinovose occurs through an NAD(+)-dependent oxidation/dehydration/enolization/sulfite addition process. In the absence of a sulfur donor, UDP-D-glucose is converted via UDP-4-keto-D-glucose to UDP-D-glucose-5,6-ene, the structure of which was determined by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. During the redox reaction the cofactor remains tightly bound to Agl3 and participates in the reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. For the first time, the rapid initial electron transfer between UDP-D-glucose and NAD(+) could be monitored in a UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase. Deuterium labeling confirmed that dehydration of UDP-D-glucose occurs only from the enol form of UDP-4-keto-glucose. The obtained functional data are compared with those from other UDP-sulfoquinovose synthases. A divergent evolution of Agl3 from S. acidocaldarius is suggested.
Project description:Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast that efficiently secretes various heterologous proteins and is classified as "generally recognized as safe." Therefore, it is an attractive protein production host. However, yeasts modify glycoproteins with non-human high mannose-type N-glycans. These structures reduce the protein half-life in vivo and can be immunogenic in man. Here, we describe how we genetically engineered N-glycan biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica so that it produces Man(3)GlcNAc(2) structures on its glycoproteins. We obtained unprecedented levels of homogeneity of this glycanstructure. This is the ideal starting point for building human-like sugars. Disruption of the ALG3 gene resulted in modification of proteins mainly with Man(5)GlcNAc(2) and GlcMan(5)GlcNAc(2) glycans, and to a lesser extent with Glc(2)Man(5)GlcNAc(2) glycans. To avoid underoccupancy of glycosylation sites, we concomitantly overexpressed ALG6. We also explored several approaches to remove the terminal glucose residues, which hamper further humanization of N-glycosylation; overexpression of the heterodimeric Apergillus niger glucosidase II proved to be the most effective approach. Finally, we overexpressed an α-1,2-mannosidase to obtain Man(3)GlcNAc(2) structures, which are substrates for the synthesis of complex-type glycans. The final Yarrowia lipolytica strain produces proteins glycosylated with the trimannosyl core N-glycan (Man(3)GlcNAc(2)), which is the common core of all complex-type N-glycans. All these glycans can be constructed on the obtained trimannosyl N-glycan using either in vivo or in vitro modification with the appropriate glycosyltransferases. The results demonstrate the high potential of Yarrowia lipolytica to be developed as an efficient expression system for the production of glycoproteins with humanized glycans.
Project description:We describe a novel synthetic N-glycosylation pathway to produce recombinant proteins carrying human-like N-glycans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at the same time addressing glycoform and glycosylation efficiency. The ?alg3 ?alg11 double mutant strain, in which the N-glycans are not matured to their native high-mannose structure, was used. In this mutant strain, lipid-linked Man(3)GlcNAc(2) is built up on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum, flipped by an artificial flippase into the ER lumen, and then transferred with high efficiency to the nascent polypeptide by a protozoan oligosaccharyltransferase. Protein-bound Man(3)GlcNAc(2) serves directly as a substrate for Golgi apparatus-targeted human N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases I and II. Our results confirmed the presence of the complex human-like N-glycan structure GlcNAc(2)Man(3)GlcNAc(2) on the secreted monoclonal antibody HyHEL-10. However, due to the interference of Golgi apparatus-localized mannosyltransferases, heterogeneity of N-linked glycans was observed.
Project description:Neutrophil cathepsin G (nCG) is a central serine protease in the human innate immune system, but the importance of its N-glycosylation remains largely undescribed. To facilitate such investigations, we here use complementary LC-MS/MS-based N-glycan, N-glycopeptide, and intact glycoprotein profiling to accurately establish the micro- and macro-heterogeneity of nCG from healthy individuals. The fully occupied Asn71 carried unconventional N-glycosylation consisting of truncated chitobiose core (GlcNAc?: 55.2%; Fuc?1,6GlcNAc?: 22.7%), paucimannosidic N-glycans (Man?1,4GlcNAc?1,4GlcNAc?: 10.6%; Man?1,4GlcNAc?1,4(Fuc?1,6)GlcNAc?: 7.9%; Man?1,6Man?1,4GlcNAc?1,4GlcNAc?: 3.7%, trace level of Man?1,6Man?1,4GlcNAc?1,4(Fuc?1,6)GlcNAc?), and trace levels of monoantennary ?2,6- and ?2,3-sialylated complex N-glycans. High-resolution/mass accuracy LC-MS profiling of intact nCG confirmed the Asn71-glycoprofile and identified two C-terminal truncation variants at Arg243 (57.8%) and Ser244 (42.2%), both displaying oxidation of solvent-accessible Met152. Asn71 appeared proximal (~19 Å) to the active site of nCG, but due to the truncated nature of Asn71-glycans (~5-17 Å) we questioned their direct modulation of the proteolytic activity of the protein. This work highlights the continued requirement of using complementary technologies to accurately profile even relatively simple glycoproteins and illustrates important challenges associated with the analysis of unconventional protein N-glycosylation. Importantly, this study now facilitates investigation of the functional role of nCG Asn71-glycosylation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Protein-based therapeutics represent the fastest growing class of compounds in the pharmaceutical industry. This has created an increasing demand for powerful expression systems. Yeast systems are widely used, convenient and cost-effective. Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable host that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Yeasts, however, modify their glycoproteins with heterogeneous glycans containing mainly mannoses, which complicates downstream processing and often interferes with protein function in man. Our aim was to glyco-engineer Y. lipolytica to abolish the heterogeneous, yeast-specific glycosylation and to obtain homogeneous human high-mannose type glycosylation. RESULTS: We engineered Y. lipolytica to produce homogeneous human-type terminal-mannose glycosylated proteins, i.e. glycosylated with Man?GlcNAc? or Man?GlcNAc?. First, we inactivated the yeast-specific Golgi ?-1,6-mannosyltransferases YlOch1p and YlMnn9p; the former inactivation yielded a strain producing homogeneous Man?GlcNAc? glycoproteins. We tested this strain by expressing glucocerebrosidase and found that the hypermannosylation-related heterogeneity was eliminated. Furthermore, detailed analysis of N-glycans showed that YlOch1p and YlMnn9p, despite some initial uncertainty about their function, are most likely the ?-1,6-mannosyltransferases responsible for the addition of the first and second mannose residue, respectively, to the glycan backbone. Second, introduction of an ER-retained ?-1,2-mannosidase yielded a strain producing proteins homogeneously glycosylated with Man?GlcNAc?. The use of the endogenous LIP2pre signal sequence and codon optimization greatly improved the efficiency of this enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: We generated a Y. lipolytica expression platform for the production of heterologous glycoproteins that are homogenously glycosylated with either Man?GlcNAc? or Man?GlcNAc? N-glycans. This platform expands the utility of Y. lipolytica as a heterologous expression host and makes it possible to produce glycoproteins with homogeneously glycosylated N-glycans of the human high-mannose-type, which greatly broadens the application scope of these glycoproteins.
Project description:The secretory pathway of Pichia pastoris was genetically re-engineered to perform sequential glycosylation reactions that mimic early processing of N-glycans in humans and other higher mammals. After eliminating nonhuman glycosylation by deleting the initiating alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase gene from P. pastoris, several combinatorial genetic libraries were constructed to localize active alpha-1,2-mannosidase and human beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) in the secretory pathway. First, >32 N-terminal leader sequences of fungal type II membrane proteins were cloned to generate a leader library. Two additional libraries encoding catalytic domains of alpha-1,2-mannosidases and GnTI from mammals, insects, amphibians, worms, and fungi were cloned to generate catalytic domain libraries. In-frame fusions of the respective leader and catalytic domain libraries resulted in several hundred chimeric fusions of fungal targeting domains and catalytic domains. Although the majority of strains transformed with the mannosidase/leader library displayed only modest in vivo [i.e., low levels of mannose (Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2)] activity, we were able to isolate several yeast strains that produce almost homogeneous N-glycans of the (Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) type. Transformation of these strains with a UDP-GlcNAc transporter and screening of a GnTI leader fusion library allowed for the isolation of strains that produce GlcNAc-(Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) in high yield. Recombinant expression of a human reporter protein in these engineered strains led to the formation of a glycoprotein with GlcNAc-(Man)(5)-(GlcNAc)(2) as the primary N-glycan. Here we report a yeast able to synthesize hybrid glycans in high yield and open the door for engineering yeast to perform complex human-like glycosylation.
Project description:ER resident glycoproteins, including ectopically expressed recombinant glycoproteins, carry so-called high-mannose type N-glycans, which can be at different stages of processing. The presence of heterogeneous high-mannose type glycans on ER-retained therapeutic proteins is undesirable for specific therapeutic applications. Previously, we described an Arabidopsis alg3-2 glycosylation mutant in which aberrant Man(5)GlcNAc(2) mannose type N-glycans are transferred to proteins. Here we show that the alg3-2 mutation reduces the N-glycan heterogeneity on ER resident glycoproteins in seeds. We compared the properties of a scFv-Fc, with a KDEL ER retention tag (MBP10) that was expressed in seeds of wild type and alg3-2 plants. N-glycans on these antibodies from mutant seeds were predominantly of the intermediate Man(5)GlcNAc(2) compared to Man(8)GlcNAc(2) and Man(7)GlcNAc(2) isoforms on MBP10 from wild-type seeds. The presence of aberrant N-glycans on MBP10 did not seem to affect MBP10 dimerisation nor binding of MBP10 to its antigen. In alg3-2 the fraction of underglycosylated MBP10 protein forms was higher than in wild type. Interestingly, the expression of MBP10 resulted also in underglycosylation of other, endogenous glycoproteins.
Project description:Glycosylation-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines can be used to expand our understanding of N-glycosylation pathways and to study Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, diseases caused by defects in the synthesis of N-glycans. The mammalian N-glycosylation pathway involves the step-wise assembly of sugars onto a dolichol phosphate (P-Dol) carrier, forming a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), followed by the transfer of the completed oligosaccharide onto the protein of interest. In order to better understand how deficiencies in this pathway affect the availability of the completed LLO donor for use in N-glycosylation, we used a non-radioactive, HPLC-based assay to examine the intermediates in the LLO synthesis pathway for CHO-K1 cells and for three different glycosylation-deficient CHO cell lines. B4-2-1 cells, which have a mutation in the dolichol phosphate-mannose synthase (DPM2) gene, accumulated LLO with the structure Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol, while MI8-5 cells, which lack glucosyltransferase I (ALG6) activity, accumulated Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol. CHO-K1 and MI5-4 cells both produced primarily the complete LLO, Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol, though the relative quantity was lower in MI5-4. MI5-4 cells have reduced hexokinase activity which could affect the availability of many of the substrates required for LLO synthesis and, consequently, impair production of the final LLO donor. Increasing hexokinase activity by overexpressing hexokinase II in MI5-4 caused a decrease in the relative quantities of the incomplete LLO intermediates from Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol through Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol, and an increase in the relative quantity of the final LLO donor, Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol. This study suggests that metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving LLO availability for use in N-glycosylation.
Project description:Man(?1-6)[GlcNAc(?1-2)Man(?1-3)]ManGlcNAc(2) is a key branch point intermediate in the insect N-glycosylation pathway because it can be either trimmed by a processing ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (FDL) to produce paucimannosidic N-glycans or elongated by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GNT-II) to produce complex N-glycans. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNT-I) contributes to branch point intermediate production and can potentially reverse the FDL trimming reaction. However, there has been no concerted effort to evaluate the relationships among these three enzymes in any single insect system. Hence, we extended our previous studies on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) FDL to include GNT-I and -II. Sf-GNT-I and -II cDNAs were isolated, the predicted protein sequences were analyzed, and both gene products were expressed and their acceptor substrate specificities and intracellular localizations were determined. Sf-GNT-I transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man(5)GlcNAc(2), Man(3)GlcNAc(2), and GlcNAc(?1-2)Man(?1-6)[Man(?1-3)]ManGlcNAc(2), demonstrating its role in branch point intermediate production and its ability to reverse FDL trimming. Sf-GNT-II only transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man(?1-6)[GlcNAc(?1-2)Man(?1-3)]ManGlcNAc(2), demonstrating that it initiates complex N-glycan production, but cannot use Man(3)GlcNAc(2) to produce hybrid or complex structures. Fluorescently tagged Sf-GNT-I and -II co-localized with an endogenous Sf Golgi marker and Sf-FDL co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and -II, indicating that all three enzymes are Golgi resident proteins. Unexpectedly, fluorescently tagged Drosophila melanogaster FDL also co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and an endogenous Drosophila Golgi marker, indicating that it is a Golgi resident enzyme in insect cells. Thus, the substrate specificities and physical juxtapositioning of GNT-I, GNT-II, and FDL support the idea that these enzymes function at the N-glycan processing branch point and are major factors determining the net outcome of the insect cell N-glycosylation pathway.
Project description:When produced by Pichia pastoris, three of the five Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequences (corresponding to Asn-24, Asn-73 and Asn-87) in the carbohydrate-binding module CBM2a of xylanase 10A from Cellulomonas fimi are glycosylated. The glycans are of the high-mannose type, ranging in size from GlcNAc(2)Man(8) to GlcNAc(2)Man(14). The N-linked glycans block the binding of CBM2a to cellulose. Analysis of mutants of CBM2a shows that glycans on Asn-24 decrease the association constant (K(a)) for the binding of CBM2a to bacterial microcrystalline cellulose approx. 10-fold, whereas glycans on Asn-87 destroy binding. The K(a) of a mutant of CBM2a lacking all three N-linked glycosylation sites is the same when the polypeptide is produced by either Escherichia coli or P. pastoris and is approx. half that of wild-type CBM2a produced by E. coli.