Reduced metabolic insulin sensitivity following sub-acute exposures to low levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may increase the risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM). To evaluate possible mechanisms explaining these associations, we investigated if sub-acute ambient-level exposures can impair insulin sensitivity. Twenty-five healthy adults living in rural Michigan were transported to an urban location for 5 consecutive days (exposure-block) of daily 4- to 5-hour-long ambient air pollution exposures. Health outcomes, including the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) the primary outcome of insulin sensitivity, were measured at 3 time points in relation to exposure-blocks: 7days prior to start; on the last exposure-day; and 7days after completion. PM2.5 was monitored at the urban exposure site and at community monitors near subjects' residences. We calculated 3 "sub-acute" exposure periods (approximately 5-days-long) starting retrospective from the time of health outcome measurements (PM2.5 ranges: 9.7±3.9 to 11.2±3.9?g·m(-3)). A 10?g·m(-3) increase in sub-acute PM2.5 exposures was associated with increased HOMA-IR (+0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 1.3; p=0.023) and reduced heart rate variability (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals [-13.1ms, 95%CI -25.3 to -0.9; p=0.035]). No alterations in other outcomes (inflammatory markers, vascular function) occurred in relation to PM2.5 exposures. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5, even at low levels, may reduce metabolic insulin sensitivity supporting the plausibility that air pollution could potentiate the development of DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution alters small pulmonary vessels in animal models. We hypothesised that long-term ambient air pollution exposure would be associated with differences in pulmonary vascular volumes in a population-based study. METHODS:The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults in six US cities. Personalised long-term exposures to ambient black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <2.5??m (PM2.5) and ozone were estimated using spatiotemporal models. In 2010-2012, total pulmonary vascular volume was measured as the volume of detectable pulmonary arteries and veins, including vessel walls and luminal blood volume, on noncontrast chest computed tomography (TPVVCT). Peripheral TPVVCT was limited to the peripheral 2?cm to isolate smaller vessels. Linear regression adjusted for demographics, anthropometrics, smoking, second-hand smoke, renal function and scanner manufacturer. RESULTS:The mean±sd age of the 3023 participants was 69.3±9.3?years; 46% were never-smokers. Mean exposures were 0.80??g·m-3 black carbon, 14.6?ppb NO2 and 11.0??g·m-3 ambient PM2.5. Mean±sd peripheral TPVVCT was 79.2±18.2?cm3 and TPVVCT was 129.3±35.1?cm3. Greater black carbon exposure was associated with a larger peripheral TPVVCT, including after adjustment for city (mean difference 0.41 (95% CI 0.03-0.79)?cm3 per interquartile range; p=0.036). Associations for peripheral TPVVCT with NO2 were similar but nonsignificant after city adjustment, while those for PM2.5 were of similar magnitude but nonsignificant after full adjustment. There were no associations for NO x or ozone, or between any pollutant and TPVVCT. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term black carbon exposure was associated with a larger peripheral TPVVCT, suggesting diesel exhaust may contribute to remodelling of small pulmonary vessels in the general population.
Project description:Prior experimental and epidemiologic data support a link between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and development of insulin resistance/Type II diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to investigate whether inhalational exposure of concentrated PM2.5 in a genetically susceptible animal model would result in abnormalities in energy metabolism and exacerbation of peripheral glycemic control.KKay mice, which are susceptible to Type II DM, were assigned to either concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for 5-8 weeks via a whole body exposure system. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption and heat production were evaluated. At euthanasia, blood, spleen and visceral adipose tissue were collected to measure inflammatory cells using flow cytometry. Standard immnunohistochemical methods, western blotting and quantitative PCR were used to assess targets of interest.PM2.5 exposure influenced energy metabolism including O2 consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio and thermogenesis. These changes were accompanied by worsened insulin resistance, visceral adiposity and inflammation in spleen and visceral adipose depots. Plasma adiponectin were decreased in response to PM2.5 exposure while leptin levels increased. PM2.5 exposure resulted in a significant increase in expression of inflammatory genes and decreased UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue and activated p38 and ERK pathways in the liver of the KKay mice.Concentrated ambient PM2.5 exposure impairs energy metabolism, concomitant with abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, increased inflammation in insulin responsive organs, brown adipose inflammation and results in imbalance in circulating leptin/adiponectin levels in a genetically susceptible diabetic model. These results provide additional insights into the mechanisms surrounding air pollution mediated susceptibility to Type II DM.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic ?-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits.<h4>Results</h4>Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ? 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ? 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae.
Project description:Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typically available surrogate exposures.Daily personal and ambient PM2.5, and when available sulfate, measurements were compiled from nine cities, over 2 to 12 days. True exposure was defined as personal exposure to PM2.5 of ambient origin. Since PM2.5 of ambient origin could only be determined for five cities, personal exposure to total PM2.5 was also considered. Surrogate exposures were estimated as ambient PM2.5 at the nearest monitor or predicted outside subjects' homes. We estimated calibration coefficients by regressing true on surrogate exposures in random effects models.When monthly-averaged personal PM2.5 of ambient origin was used as the true exposure, calibration coefficients equaled 0.31 (95% CI:0.14, 0.47) for nearest monitor and 0.54 (95% CI:0.42, 0.65) for outdoor home predictions. Between-city heterogeneity was not found for outdoor home PM2.5 for either true exposure. Heterogeneity was significant for nearest monitor PM2.5, for both true exposures, but not after adjusting for city-average motor vehicle number for total personal PM2.5.Calibration coefficients were <1, consistent with previously reported chronic health risks using nearest monitor exposures being under-estimated when ambient concentrations are the exposure of interest. Calibration coefficients were closer to 1 for outdoor home predictions, likely reflecting less spatial error. Further research is needed to determine how our findings can be incorporated in future health studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals with glucose metabolism disorders are susceptible to mortality associated with fine particles. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown.<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined whether particle-associated respiratory inflammation differed between individuals with prediabetes and healthy control participants.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on a panel study [A prospective Study COmparing the cardiometabolic and respiratory effects of air Pollution Exposure on healthy and prediabetic individuals (SCOPE)] conducted in Beijing between August 2013 and February 2015, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured from 112 participants at two to seven visits to indicate respiratory inflammation. Particulate pollutants-including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ?2.5?m (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFPs), and accumulated-mode particles-were monitored continuously at a single central monitoring site. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between ln-FeNO with pollutant concentrations at individual 1-h lags (up to 24 h) and with average concentrations at 8 and 24 h before the clinical visit. We evaluated glucose metabolism disorders as a potential modifier by comparing associations between participants with high vs. low average fasting blood glucose (FBG) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels.<h4>Results</h4>FeNO was positively associated with all pollutants, with the strongest associations for an interquartile range increase in 1-h lagged exposures (ranging from 21.3% for PM2.5 to 74.7% for BC). Associations differed significantly according to average HOMA-IR values when lagged 6-18 h for PM2.5, 15-19 h for BC, and 6-15 h for UFPs, with positive associations among those with HOMA-IR?1.6 while associations were closer to the null or inverse among those with HOMA-IR<1.6. Associations between PM2.5 and FeNO were consistently higher among individuals with average FBG?6.1?mmol/L vs. low FBG, with significant differences for multiple hourly lags.<h4>Discussion</h4>Glucose metabolism disorders may aggravate respiratory inflammation following exposure to ambient particulate matter. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4906.
Project description:Animal and epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying this risk is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 exposure on glucose homeostasis and related signaling pathways in mice. Wild-type and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) knockout (Nrf2-/-) C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to either ambient concentrated PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for 12 weeks through a whole-body PM exposure system. At the end of the exposure, we assessed liver damage, and performed metabolic studies, gene expressions, as well as molecular signal transductions to determine the signaling pathways involving oxidative responses, insulin signaling, and glucose metabolism. Our results indicated that PM2.5 exposure for 12 weeks caused significant liver damage as evidenced by elevated levels of aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure induced impaired glucose tolerance and inhibited glycogen synthesis, leading to hepatic insulin resistance indicated by higher glucose levels, higher area under the curve (AUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. We further found that PM2.5 exposure significantly increased the expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Moreover, PM2.5 exposure activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and increased insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at Ser307, but reduced protein kinase B phosphorylation at Ser473. Taken together, our study demonstrated PM2.5 exposure triggered Nrf2-mediated oxidative responses and activated the JNK-mediated inhibitory signaling pathway, resulting in hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. METHODS:We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit. We calculated 2003 annual average PM2.5 at participants' home address, residential distance to the nearest major roadway, and daily PM2.5, black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone concentrations. We used linear mixed effects models for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which were measured up to twice, and used linear regression models for adiponectin, resistin, leptin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were measured only once, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic position, lifestyle, time, and seasonality. RESULTS:The mean age was 51years and 55% were women. Participants who lived 64m (25th percentile) from a major roadway had 0.28% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.51%) higher fasting plasma glucose than participants who lived 413m (75th percentile) away, and the association appeared to be driven by participants who lived within 50m from a major roadway. Higher exposures to 3- to 7-day moving averages of BC and NOx were associated with higher glucose whereas the associations for ozone were negative. The associations otherwise were generally null and did not differ by median age, sex, educational attainment, obesity status, or prediabetes status. CONCLUSIONS:Living closer to a major roadway or acute exposure to traffic-related air pollutants were associated with dysregulated glucose homeostasis but not with adipokines among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts.
Project description:Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the risk of Parkinson disease (PD).We investigated the associations of long-term residential concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) < 10 ?m in diameter (PM10) and < 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in relation to PD risk.Our nested case-control analysis included 1,556 self-reported physician-diagnosed PD cases identified between 1995 and 2006 and 3,313 controls frequency-matched on age, sex, and race. We geocoded home addresses reported in 1995-1996 and estimated the average ambient concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 using a national fine-scale geostatistical model incorporating roadway information and other geographic covariates. Air pollutant exposures were analyzed as both quintiles and continuous variables, adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders.We observed no statistically significant overall association between PM or NO2 exposures and PD risk. However, in preplanned subgroup analyses, a higher risk of PD was associated with higher exposure to PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45; p-trend = 0.02) among women, and with higher exposure to PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.76; p-trend = 0.04) among never smokers. In post hoc analyses among female never smokers, both PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.17; p-trend = 0.05) and PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.29, 4.26; p-trend = 0.01) showed positive associations with PD risk. Analyses based on continuous exposure variables generally showed similar but nonsignificant associations.Overall, we found limited evidence for an association between exposures to ambient PM10, PM2.5, or NO2 and PD risk. The suggestive evidence that exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 may increase PD risk among female never smokers warrants further investigation. Citation: Liu R, Young MT, Chen JC, Kaufman JD, Chen H. 2016. Ambient air pollution exposures and risk of Parkinson disease. Environ Health Perspect 124:1759-1765;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP135.
Project description:Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), levels of which are about 6 times the 2014 WHO air quality guidelines for 190 cities in China, has been found to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. In this study, personal PM2.5 exposures were monitored along a fixed routine that included 19 types of non-residential micro-environments (MEs) on 4 hazy days (ambient PM2.5 292 ± 70 ?g m-3) and 2 non-hazy days (55 ± 16 ?g m-3) in Nanjing, China using miniaturized real-time portable particulate sensors that also collect integrated filters of PM2.5 (MicroPEMs, Research Triangle Institute (RTI), NC). Gravimetric correction is necessary for nephelometer devices in calculating real-time PM levels. During both hazy and non-hazy days, personal PM2.5 levels were generally higher in MEs with noticeable PM2.5 sources than MEs serving as receptor sites, higher in open MEs than indoor MEs, and higher in densely populated MEs than MEs with few people. Personal PM2.5 levels measured during hazy and non-hazy days were 242 ± 91 ?g m-3 and 103 ± 147 ?g m-3, respectively. The ratio of personal exposure to ambient PM2.5 levels (rp/a ) was less than 1.0 and less variable on hazy days (0.85 ± 0.31); while it was larger than 1.0 and more variable on non-hazy days (1.71 ± 1.93), confirming the importance of local sources other than ambient during non-hazy days. Air handling methods (e.g., ventilation/filtration) impacted personal exposures in enclosed locations on both types of days. Street food vendors with cooking emissions were MEs with the highest personal PM2.5 levels while subway cars in Nanjing were relatively clean due to good air filtration on both hazy and non-hazy days. In summary, on hazy days, personal exposure was mainly affected by the regional ambient levels, while on non-hazy days, local sources together with ambient levels determined personal exposure levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposures to ambient gaseous pollutants have been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the biological mechanisms remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES:This study examined the changes in CVD marker levels resulting from elevated exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants in midlife women. METHODS:Annual repeated measurements of several inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid makers were obtained from 2306 midlife women enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) between 1999 and 2004. Ambient carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) data were assigned to each woman based on proximity of the monitoring station to her residential address. Short- and long-term exposures were calculated, and their associations with markers were examined using linear mixed-effects regression models, adjusted for demographic, health and other factors. RESULTS:Short-term CO exposure was associated with increased fibrinogen, i.e., every interquartile increase of average prior one-week exposure to CO was associated with 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6%, 2.0%) increase in fibrinogen. Long-term exposures to NO2 and SO2 were associated with reduced high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A1, e.g., 4.0% (1.7%, 6.3%) and 4.7% (2.8%, 6.6%) decrease per interquartile increment in prior one-year average NO2 concentration, respectively. Fine particle (PM2.5) exposure confounded associations between CO/NO2 and inflammatory/hemostatic markers, while associations with lipoproteins were generally robust to PM2.5 adjustment. CONCLUSIONS:Exposures to these gas pollutants at current ambient levels may increase thrombotic potential and disrupt cholesterol metabolism, contributing to greater risk of CVDs in midlife women. Caution should be exercised in evaluating the confounding by PM2.5 exposure.