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Complete genome sequence of an american avian leukosis virus subgroup j isolate that causes hemangiomas and myeloid leukosis.
ABSTRACT: We report the complete genome sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) isolate PDRC-59831, which causes myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas in chickens. This is an American ALV-J isolate, which was found in a 38-week-old broiler breeder chicken on a farm in Georgia in 2007.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a simple retrovirus that can cause hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens and is currently a major economic problem in Asia. Here we characterize ALV-J strain PDRC-59831, a newly studied U.S. isolate of ALV-J. Five-day-old chicken embryos were infected with this virus, and the chickens developed myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas within 2 months after hatching. To investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis, we employed high-throughput sequencing to analyze proviral integration sites in these tumors. We found expanded clones with integrations in the MET gene in two of the five hemangiomas studied. This integration locus was not seen in previous work characterizing ALV-J-induced myeloid leukosis. MET is a known proto-oncogene that acts through a diverse set of signaling pathways and is involved in many neoplasms. We show that tumors harboring MET integrations exhibit strong overexpression of MET mRNA. IMPORTANCE:These data suggest that ALV-J induces oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis, and integrations in the MET oncogene can drive the overexpression of MET and contribute to the development of hemangiomas.
Project description:A new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that includes a unique env gene, designated J, was identified recently in England. Sequence analysis of prototype English isolate HPRS-103 revealed several other unique genetic characteristics of this strain and provided information that it arose by recombination between exogenous and endogenous virus sequences. In the past several years, ALV J type viruses (ALV-J) have been isolated from broiler breeder flocks in the United States. We were interested in determining the relationship between the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J. Based on sequence data from two independently derived U.S. field isolates, we conclude that the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J derive from a common ancestor and are not the result of independent recombination events.
Project description:Infection of breeder flocks in China with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) has increased recently. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of ALV-J from culture isolates and clinical samples. The ALV-J-specific LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target gene within 45 min at 63 degrees C using only a simple laboratory water bath. To determine the specificity of the LAMP assay, various subgroup ALVs and other related viruses were detected. A ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed for ALV-J isolates but not for other viruses. To evaluate the sensitivities of the LAMP assay and conventional PCR, the NX0101 isolate plasmid DNA was amplified by them. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 5 target gene copies/reaction, which was up to 20 times higher than that of conventional PCR. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay for detection of ALV-J in clinical samples, 49 samples suspected of ALV infection from breeder flocks were tested by the LAMP assay and PCR. Moreover, virus isolation from these samples was also performed using cell culture. The positive-sample ratios were 21/49 (43%) by conventional PCR, 26/49 (53%) by the LAMP assay, and 19/46 (41%) by virus isolation. Additionally, a positive LAMP reaction can be visually ascertained by the observation of turbidity or a color change after addition of SYBR green I dye. Consequently, the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic method and can potentially be developed for rapid detection of ALV-J infection in the field.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Five isolates (JS09GY2, JS09GY3, JS09GY4, JS09GY5, and JS09GY6) of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) were isolated from six infected commercial layer flocks displaying both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis (ML), which shared the same parental line, in China in 2009. RESULTS: All six of the commercial layer chickens examined showed hemangiomas on their body surface or feet. Some developed hemangiomas in their internal organs, causing hepatorrhexis and blood loss. Histopathologically different stages of hemangiomas with ML in the liver, heart, and spleen, were observed. Five viral isolates were obtained from infected DF1 cells incubated with the spleen tissue or serum of the birds from the six flocks. By full genome sequences analysis, a 19-nucleotide repeat sequence was identified in the primer binding site (PBS)-leader region of isolates JS09GY3 and JS09GY6, located between sites 249 and 250 according to the sequence of reference strain HPRS103, and also present in Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin B (RSV-SRB), Rous associated virus type 1 (RAV-1), and Rous associated virus type 2 (RAV-2). The predicted Gp85 proteins of isolates JS09GY2, JS09GY3, JS09GY5, and JS09GY6 were highly variable. Interestingly, the E elements of these four examined isolates showed a key deletion at site 30, which produced a new c-Ets-1 binding site. An 11-bp insertion was also found in the E element of isolate JS09GY3 located between bp 66 and 67 according to the sequence of reference strain HPRS103, while almost all previously reported Chinese strains showed an almost identical deletion of 127 bp in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Five ALV-J isolates were obtained from six field infected commercial layer chickens. Coexistence of hemangioma and ML were observed in these infected cases both macro- and microscopically. Complete proviral genome sequences of two isolates (JS09GY3 and JS09GY6) and the partial sequences of the other two isolates (JS09GY2 and JS09GY5) were determined. The isolates were found to be recombinants of ALV-J with a PBS-leader sequence originating from other retroviruses. The Gp85 protein with an amino acid deletion, a contiguous 11-bp insertion mutation in the E element, and a novel binding site, were noted in the proviral genomes.
Project description:In 2010, sporadic cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-like bursal lymphoma, also known as spontaneous lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like tumors, were identified in two commercial broiler breeder flocks in the absence of exogenous ALV infection. Two individual ALV subgroup E (ALV-E) field strains, designated AF227 and AF229, were isolated from two different breeder farms. The role of these ALV-E field isolates in development of and the potential joint impact in conjunction with a Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine (SB-1) were further characterized in chickens of an experimental line and commercial broiler breeders. The experimental line 0.TVB*S1, commonly known as the rapid feathering-susceptible (RFS) line, of chickens lacks all endogenous ALV and is fully susceptible to all subgroups of ALV, including ALV-E. Spontaneous LL-like tumors occurred following infection with AF227, AF229, and a reference ALV-E strain, RAV60, in RFS chickens. Vaccination with serotype 2 MDV, SB-1, in addition to AF227 or AF229 inoculation, significantly enhanced the spontaneous LL-like tumor incidence in the RFS chickens. The spontaneous LL-like tumor incidence jumped from 14% by AF227 alone to 42 to 43% by AF227 in combination with SB-1 in the RFS chickens under controlled conditions. RNA-sequencing analysis of the LL-like lymphomas and nonmalignant bursa tissues of the RFS line of birds identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that are reportedly involved in key biological processes and pathways, including signaling and signal transduction pathways. The data from this study suggested that both ALV-E and MDV-2 play an important role in enhancement of the spontaneous LL-like tumors in susceptible chickens. The underlying mechanism may be complex and involved in many chicken genes and pathways, including signal transduction pathways and immune system processes, in addition to reported viral genes.IMPORTANCE Lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphoma is a low-incidence yet costly and poorly understood disease of domestic chickens. The observed unique characteristics of LL-like lymphomas are that the incidence of the disease is chicken line dependent; pathologically, it appeared to mimic avian leukosis but is free of exogenous ALV infection; inoculation of the nonpathogenic ALV-E or MDV-2 (SB-1) boosts the incidence of the disease; and inoculation of both the nonpathogenic ALV-E and SB-1 escalates it to much higher levels. This study was designed to test the impact of two new ALV-E isolates, recently derived from commercial broiler breeder flocks, in combination with the nonpathogenic SB-1 on LL-like lymphoma incidences in both an experimental egg layer line of chickens and a commercial broiler breeder line of chickens under a controlled condition. Data from this study provided an additional piece of experimental evidence on the potency of nonpathogenic ALV-E, MDV-2, and ALV-E plus MDV-2 in boosting the incidence of LL-like lymphomas in susceptible chickens. This study also generated the first piece of genomic evidence that suggests host transcriptomic variation plays an important role in modulating LL-like lymphoma formation.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic virus causing hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory interleukin involved in many types of cancer. We previously demonstrated that IL-6 expression was induced following ALV-J infection in chickens. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanism by which ALV-J induces IL-6 expression, and the role of IL-6 in tumor development. Our results demonstrate that ALV-J infection increases IL-6 expression in chicken splenocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. IL-6 production is induced by the ALV-J envelope protein gp85 and capsid protein p27 via PI3K- and NF-κB-mediated signaling. IL-6 in turn induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor, VEGFR-2, in vascular endothelial cells and embryonic vascular tissues. Suppression of IL-6 using siRNA inhibited the ALV-J induced VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in vascular endothelial cells, indicating that the ALV-J-induced VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 expression is mediated by IL-6. As VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 are important factors in oncogenesis, our findings suggest that ALV-J hijacks IL-6 to promote tumorigenesis, and indicate that IL-6 could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in ALV-J infections.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) isolate GDKP1202 was isolated from a 50-day-old local yellow commercial broiler in the Guangdong province of China in 2012. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of the GDKP1202 isolate, which caused high mortality, serious growth suppression, thymic atrophy, and liver enlargement in commercial broilers. A novel potential binding site (5'-GGCACCTCC-3') for c-myb was identified in the GDKP1202 genome. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in the genomes and pathogenicity of ALV-J.
Project description:To survey avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) integration in myeloid leukosis (ML) of chicken, we developed an ALV-J insertional identification platform based on hybrid-capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition, we used gene expression profiling and bioinformatics to associate integration sites to transcriptional activity and to genetic features of the tumor cell genome. We selected six cases of ALV-J positive and diagnosed as ML for integration sites identify from commercial broiler breeder flocks in Guangdong Province of China between November 2011 and March 2012. All tumors were diagnosed on the basis of characteristic gross and microscopic lesions. Furthermore, PCR tests on the genomic DNA of tissues and virus isolation assay only showed ALV-J-specific positive results in previously study. We randomly chose 4 independent liver samples from the six cases for gene expression profile analysis. And 3 ALV-negative tissue samples from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at the same age were use as negative controls. Thus a total of 7 samples were hybridized, three representing control.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that induces myeloid tumors and hemangiomas in chickens and causes severe economic losses with commercial layer chickens and meat-type chickens. High-throughput sequencing followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics analyses were performed to advance the understanding of regulatory networks associated with differentially expressed non-coding RNAs and mRNAs that facilitate ALV-J infection. We examined the expression of mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs in the spleens of 20-week-old chickens infected with ALV-J and uninfected chickens. We found that 1723 mRNAs, 7,883 lncRNAs and 13 miRNAs in the spleen were differentially expressed between the uninfected and infected groups (P < 0.05). Transcriptome analysis showed that, compared to mRNA, chicken lncRNAs shared relatively fewer exon numbers and shorter transcripts. Through competing endogenous RNA and co-expression network analyses, we identified several tumor-associated or immune-related genes and lncRNAs. Along transcripts whose expression levels significantly decreased in both ALV-J infected spleen and tumor tissues, BCL11B showed the greatest change. These results suggest that BCL11B may be mechanistically involved in tumorigenesis in chicken and neoplastic diseases, may be related to immune response, and potentially be novel biomarker for ALV-J infection. Our results provide new insight into the pathology of ALV-J infection and high-quality transcriptome resource for in-depth study of epigenetic influences on disease resistance and immune system.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is a recently identified avian oncogenic retrovirus responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. In contrast with the other ALV subgroups, ALV-J predominantly induces myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. Despite significant homology with the other ALV subgroups across most of the genome, the envelope protein of ALV-J (EnvJ) shares low homology with the others. Pathogenicity and myeloid leukosis induction map to the env gene of ALV-J. A chimeric protein composed of the surface domain of EnvJ fused to the constant region of a rabbit IgG and mass spectrometry were used to identify the chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (chNHE1) as a binding protein for ALV-J. Flow cytometry analysis and coprecipitation experiments demonstrated a specific interaction between EnvJ and chNHE1. When introduced into nonpermissive human 293T cells and quail QT6 cells, chNHE1 conferred susceptibility to EnvJ-mediated infection. Furthermore, 293T cells expressing chNHE1 fused with 293T cells expressing EnvJ in a low-pH-dependent manner. Together, these data identify chNHE1 as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic ALV-J.