Absorption and chemopreventive targets of sulforaphane in humans following consumption of broccoli sprouts or a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract.
ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults.Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 ?mol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-?mol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ?3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21).We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials.
Project description:Cruciferous vegetables have been associated with the chemoprevention of cancer. Epigenetic regulators have been identified as important targets for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with sulforaphane (SFN), a chemical from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, inhibits epigenetic regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, but it is not known whether consumption of a diet high in broccoli sprouts impacts epigenetic mechanisms in an in vivo model of prostate cancer.In the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, we tested the hypothesis that a broccoli sprout diet suppresses prostate cancer, inhibits HDAC expression, alters histone modifications, and changes the expression of genes regulated by HDACs.TRAMP mice were fed a 15% broccoli sprout or control AIN93G diet; tissue samples were collected at 12 and 28 wk of age.Mice fed broccoli sprouts had detectable amounts of SFN metabolites in liver, kidney, colon, and prostate tissues. Broccoli sprouts reduced prostate cancer incidence and progression to invasive cancer by 11- and 2.4-fold at 12 and 28 wk of age, respectively. There was a significant decline in HDAC3 protein expression in the epithelial cells of prostate ventral and anterior lobes at age 12 wk. Broccoli sprout consumption also decreased histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in the ventral lobe (age 12 wk), and decreased histone H3 lysine 18 acetylation in all prostate lobes (age 28 wk). A decline in p16 mRNA levels, a gene regulated by HDAC3, was associated with broccoli sprout consumption, but no significant changes were noted at the protein level.Broccoli sprout intake was associated with a decline in prostate cancer occurrence and HDAC3 protein expression in the prostate, extending prior work that implicated loss of HDAC3/ corepressor interactions as a key preventive mechanism by SFN in vivo.
Project description:Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or ?-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. RESULTS: A total of ?85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide new insight into the genomic research of this species and its relatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. METHOD: Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. RESULTS: Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.
Project description:A growing awareness of the mechanisms by which phytochemicals can influence upstream endogenous cellular defence processes has led to intensified research into their potential relevance in the prevention and treatment of disease. Pharmaceutical medicine has historically looked to plants as sources of the starting materials for drug development; however, the focus of nutraceutical medicine is to retain the plant bioactive in as close to its native state as possible. As a consequence, the potency of a nutraceutical concentrate or an extract may be lower than required for significant gene expression. The molecular structure of bioactive phytochemicals to a large extent determines the molecule's bioavailability. Polyphenols are abundant in dietary phytochemicals, and extensive in vitro research has established many of the signalling mechanisms involved in favourably modulating human biochemical pathways. Such pathways are associated with core processes such as redox modulation and immune modulation for infection control and for downregulating the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. Although the relationship between oxidative stress and chronic disease continues to be affirmed, direct-acting antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and others have not yielded the expected preventive or therapeutic responses, even though several large meta-analyses have sought to evaluate the potential benefit of such supplements. Because polyphenols exhibit poor bioavailability, few of their impressive in vitro findings have been replicated in vivo. SFN, an aliphatic isothiocyanate, emerges as a phytochemical with comparatively high bioavailability. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated its ability to produce favourable outcomes in conditions for which there are few satisfactory pharmaceutical solutions, foreshadowing the potential for SFN as a clinically relevant nutraceutical. Although myrosinase-inert broccoli sprout extracts are widely available, there now exist myrosinase-active broccoli sprout supplements that yield sufficient SFN to match the doses used in clinical trials.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), a phytochemical found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with reported effects in cancer chemoprevention and suppression of infection with intracellular pathogens. Here we report on the impact of SFN on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a common sexually transmitted pathogen responsible for 131 million new cases annually worldwide. Astoundingly, we find that SFN as well as broccoli sprouts extract (BSE) promote Ct infection of human host cells. Both the number and size of Ct inclusions were increased when host cells were pretreated with SFN or BSE. The initial investigations presented here point to both the antioxidant and thiol alkylating properties of SFN as regulators of Ct infection. SFN decreased mitochondrial protein sulfenylation and promoted Ct development, which were both reversed by treatment with mitochondria-targeted paraquat (MitoPQ). Inhibition of the complement component 3 (complement C3) by SFN was also identified as a mechanism by which SFN promotes Ct infections. Mass spectrometry analysis found alkylation of cysteine 1010 (Cys1010) in complement C3 by SFN. The studies reported here raise awareness of the Ct infection promoting activity of SFN, and also identify potential mechanisms underlying this activity.
Project description:We examined whether gastric acidity would affect the activity of myrosinase, co-delivered with glucoraphanin (GR), to convert GR to sulforaphane (SF). A broccoli seed and sprout extract (BSE) rich in GR and active myrosinase was delivered before and after participants began taking the anti-acid omeprazole, a potent proton pump inhibitor. Gastric acidity appears to attenuate GR bioavailability, as evidenced by more SF and its metabolites being excreted after participants started taking omeprazole. Enteric coating enhanced conversion of GR to SF, perhaps by sparing myrosinase from the acidity of the stomach. There were negligible effects of age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, vegetable consumption, and bowel movement frequency and quality. Greater body mass correlated with reduced conversion efficiency. Changes in the expression of 20 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated as possible pharmacodynamic indicators. When grouped by their primary functions based on a priori knowledge, expression of genes associated with inflammation decreased non-significantly, and those genes associated with cytoprotection, detoxification and antioxidant functions increased significantly with bioavailability. Using principal components analysis, component loadings of the changes in gene expression confirmed these groupings in a sensitivity analysis.
Project description:Introduction: Preclinical studies suggest that brassica vegetable diets decrease cancer risk, but epidemiological studies show varied effects, resulting in uncertainty about any health impact of brassicas. Factors controlling absorption of glucosinolate metabolites may relate to inconsistent results. We reported previously that subjects with BMI > 26 kg/m2 (HiBMI), given cooked broccoli plus raw daikon radish (as a source of plant myrosinase) daily for 17 days, had lower glucosinolate metabolite absorption than subjects given a single broccoli meal. This difference was not seen in subjects with BMI < 26 kg/m2 (LoBMI). Our objective in this current study was to determine whether a similar response occurred when cooked broccoli was consumed without a source of plant myrosinase. Methods: In a randomized crossover study (n = 18), subjects consumed no broccoli for 16 days or the same diet with 200 g of cooked broccoli daily for 15 days and 100 g of broccoli on day 16. On day 17, all subjects consumed 200 g of cooked broccoli. Plasma and urine were collected for 24 h and analyzed for glucosinolate metabolites by LC-MS. Results: There was no effect of diet alone or interaction of diet with BMI. However, absorption doubled in HiBMI subjects (AUC 219%, plasma mass of metabolites 202% compared to values for LoBMI subjects) and time to peak plasma metabolite values and 24-h urinary metabolites also increased, to 127 and 177% of LoBMI values, respectively. Conclusion: BMI impacts absorption and metabolism of glucosinolates from cooked broccoli, and this association must be further elucidated for more efficacious dietary recommendations. Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03013465).