Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain BL21.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli strain BL21 is one of the widely used bacterial hosts for high-level recombinant protein production and for other applications. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial version of the Escherichia coli BL21 strain.
Project description:Escherichia coli BL21-AI is a commercially available strain possessing a phage T7-based protein-expression system. A combination of tight regulation and high yield makes it widely used for high-level expression of toxic recombinant proteins. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of BL21-AI and provide insights on its genome.
Project description:Escherichia coli BLR(DE3) is a commercially available recA-deficient derivative of BL21(DE3), one of the most widely used strains for recombinant protein expression. Here, we present the full-genome sequence of BLR(DE3) and highlight additional differences with its parent strain BL21(DE3) which were previously unreported but may affect its physiology.
Project description:Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) has long served as a model organism for scientific research, as well as a workhorse for biotechnology. Here we present the most current genome annotation of E. coli BL21(DE3) based on the transcriptome structure of the strain that was determined for the first time. The genome was annotated using multiple automated pipelines and compared to the current genome annotation of the closely related strain, E. coli K-12. High-resolution tiling array data of E. coli BL21(DE3) from several different stages of cell growth in rich and minimal media were analyzed to characterize the transcriptome structure and to provide supporting evidence for open reading frames. This new integrated analysis of the genomic and transcriptomic structure of E. coli BL21(DE3) has led to the correction of translation initiation sites for 88 coding DNA sequences and provided updated information for most genes. Additionally, 37 putative genes and 66 putative non-coding RNAs were also identified. The panoramic landscape of the genome and transcriptome of E. coli BL21(DE3) revealed here will allow us to better understand the fundamental biology of the strain and also advance biotechnological applications in industry.
Project description:DNA microarrays were used to compare the expression profiles of a thymidine overproducing strain (BLT013) and its isogenic parent, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), when each was grown under well-defined thymidine production conditions with glycerol as carbon source. Here we describe the experimental procedures and methods in detail to reproduce the results and provide resource to be applied to similar engineering approach (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE69963). Taken together, the microarray data provide a basis for new testable hypotheses regarding enhancement of thymidine productivity and attaining a more complete understanding of nucleotide metabolism in bacteria.
Project description:To eliminate unavoidable contamination of purified recombinant proteins by DnaK, we present a unique approach employing a BL21(DE3) DeltadnaK strain of Escherichia coli. Selected representative purified proteins remained soluble, correctly assembled, and active. This finding establishes DnaK dispensability for protein production in BL21(DE3), which is void of Lon protease, key to eliminating unfolded proteins.
Project description:When producing recombinant proteins, the use of Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) in combination with the T7-based pET-expression system is often the method of choice. In a recent study we introduced a mechanistic model describing the correlation of the specific glucose uptake rate (qs,glu) and the corresponding maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max) for a pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strain producing a single chain variable fragment (scFv). We showed the effect of qs,lac,max on productivity and product location underlining its importance for recombinant protein production. In the present study we investigated the mechanistic qs,glu/qs,lac,max correlation for four pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains producing different recombinant products and thereby proved the mechanistic model to be platform knowledge for E. coli BL21(DE3). However, we found that the model parameters strongly depended on the recombinant product. Driven by this observation we tested different dynamic bioprocess strategies to allow a faster investigation of this mechanistic correlation. In fact, we succeeded and propose an experimental strategy comprising only one batch cultivation, one fed-batch cultivation as well as one dynamic experiment, to reliably determine the mechanistic model for qs,glu/qs,lac,max and get trustworthy model parameters for pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains which are the basis for bioprocess development.
Project description:Escherichia coli BL21 is arguably the most popular host for industrial production of proteins, and industrial fermentations are often plagued by phage infections. The CRISPR/Cas system is guided by a gRNA to cleave a specific DNA cassette, which can be developed into a highly efficient programable phage defense system. In this work, we constructed a CRISPR/Cas system targeting multiple positions on the genome of T7 phage and found that the system increased the BL21's defense ability against phage infection. Furthermore, the targeted loci on phage genome played a critical role. For better control of expression of CRISPR/Cas9, various modes were tested, and the OD of the optimized strain BL21(pT7cas9, pT7-3gRNA, prfp) after 4 h of phage infection was significantly improved, reaching 2.0, which was similar to the control culture without phage infection. Although at later time points, the defensive ability of CRISPR/Cas9 systems were not as obvious as that at early time points. The viable cell count of the engineered strain in the presence of phage was only one order of magnitude lower than that of the strain with no infection, which further demonstrated the effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas9 phage defense system. Finally, the engineered BL21 strain under phage attack expressed RFP protein at about 60% of the un-infected control, which was significantly higher than the parent BL21. In this work, we successfully constructed a programable CRISPR/Cas9 system to increase the ability of E. coli BL21's to defend against phage infection, and created a resistant protein expression host. This work provides a simple and feasible strategy for protecting industrial E. coli strains against phage infection.
Project description:The Escherichia coli B strain BL21(DE3) has had a profound impact on biotechnology through its use in the production of recombinant proteins. Little is understood, however, regarding the physiology of this important E. coli strain. We show here that BL21(DE3) totally lacks activity of the four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the three molybdenum- and selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases and molybdenum-dependent nitrate reductase. Nevertheless, all of the structural genes necessary for the synthesis of the respective anaerobic metalloenzymes are present in the genome. However, the genes encoding the high-affinity molybdate transport system and the molybdenum-responsive transcriptional regulator ModE are absent from the genome. Moreover, BL21(DE3) has a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator FNR. The activities of the two hydrogen-oxidizing hydrogenases, therefore, could be restored to BL21(DE3) by supplementing the growth medium with high concentrations of Ni²? (Ni²?-transport is FNR-dependent) or by introducing a wild-type copy of the fnr gene. Only combined addition of plasmid-encoded fnr and high concentrations of MoO?²? ions could restore hydrogen production to BL21(DE3); however, to only 25-30% of a K-12 wildtype. We could show that limited hydrogen production from the enzyme complex responsible for formate-dependent hydrogen evolution was due solely to reduced activity of the formate dehydrogenase (FDH-H), not the hydrogenase component. The activity of the FNR-dependent formate dehydrogenase, FDH-N, could not be restored, even when the fnr gene and MoO?²? were supplied; however, nitrate reductase activity could be recovered by combined addition of MoO?²? and the fnr gene. This suggested that a further component specific for biosynthesis or activity of formate dehydrogenases H and N was missing. Re-introduction of the gene encoding ModE could only partially restore the activities of both enzymes. Taken together these results demonstrate that BL21(DE3) has major defects in anaerobic metabolism, metal ion transport and metalloprotein biosynthesis.
Project description:Accumulation of acetate is a limiting factor in recombinant production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) by Escherichia coli in high-cell-density processes. To alleviate this limitation, this study investigated two approaches: (i) deletion of phosphotransacetylase (pta), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), and/or the isocitrate lyase regulator (iclR), known to decrease acetate formation, on bioreactor cultivations designed to achieve high 3HB concentrations. (ii) Screening of different E. coli strain backgrounds (B, BL21, W, BW25113, MG1655, W3110, and AF1000) for their potential as low acetate-forming, 3HB-producing platforms. Deletion of pta and pta-poxB in the AF1000 strain background was to some extent successful in decreasing acetate formation, but also dramatically increased excretion of pyruvate and did not result in increased 3HB production in high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations. Screening of the different E. coli strains confirmed BL21 as a low acetate-forming background. Despite low 3HB titers in low-cell-density screening, 3HB-producing BL21 produced five times less acetic acid per mole of 3HB, which translated into a 2.3-fold increase in the final 3HB titer and a 3-fold higher volumetric 3HB productivity over 3HB-producing AF1000 strains in nitrogen-limited fed-batch cultivations. Consequently, the BL21 strain achieved the hitherto highest described volumetric productivity of 3HB (1.52 g L-1 h-1) and the highest 3HB concentration (16.3 g L-1) achieved by recombinant E. coli. Screening solely for 3HB titers in low-cell-density batch cultivations would not have identified the potential of this strain, reaffirming the importance of screening with the final production conditions in mind.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used hosts for recombinant protein production in academia and industry. Strain BL21(DE3) is frequently employed due to its advantageous feature of lacking proteases which avoids degradation of target protein. Usually it is used in combination with the T7-pET system where induction is performed by one point addition of IPTG. We recently published a few studies regarding lactose induction in BL21(DE3) strains. BL21(DE3) can only take up the glucose-part of the disaccharide when fed with lactose. However, initially additional glucose has to be supplied as otherwise the ATP-related lactose uptake barely happens. Yet, as lactose is an inexpensive compound compared to glucose and IPTG, a new induction strategy by a lactose-only feed during induction seems attractive. Thus, we investigated this idea in the galactose metabolizing strain HMS174(DE3). RESULTS:We show that strain HMS174(DE3) can be cultivated on lactose as sole carbon source during induction. We demonstrate that strain HMS174(DE3) exhibits higher product and biomass yields compared to BL21(DE3) when cultivated in a lactose fed-batch. More importantly, HMS174(DE3) cultivated on lactose even expresses more product than BL21(DE3) in a standard IPTG induced glucose fed-batch at the same growth rate. Finally, we demonstrate that productivity in HMS174(DE3) lactose-fed batch cultivations can easily be influenced by the specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac). This is shown for two model proteins, one expressed in soluble form and one as inclusion body. CONCLUSIONS:As strain HMS174(DE3) expresses even slightly higher amounts of target protein in a lactose fed-batch than BL21(DE3) in a standard cultivation, it seems a striking alternative for recombinant protein production. Especially for large scale production of industrial enzymes cheap substrates are essential. Besides cost factors, the strategy allows straight forward adjustment of specific product titers by variation of the lactose feed rate.