Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway.
ABSTRACT: The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL-Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in the OCRL gene, which encodes the phosphatidylinositol [PI] 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] 5-phosphatase OCRL, cause defective endocytosis and proximal tubule dysfunction in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease 2. The defect is due to increased levels of PI(4,5)P2 and aberrant actin polymerization, blocking endosomal trafficking. PI 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] has been recently identified as a coactivator with PI(4,5)P2 in the actin pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors may rescue the endocytic defect imparted by OCRL loss, by rebalancing phosphoinositide signals to the actin machinery. The broad-range PI3K inhibitor copanlisib and class IA p110? PI3K inhibitor alpelisib reduced aberrant actin polymerization in OCRL-deficient human kidney cells in vitro. Levels of PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P were all reduced with alpelisib treatment, and siRNA knockdown of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110? phenocopied the actin phenotype. In a humanized OcrlY/- mouse model, alpelisib reduced endosomal actin staining while restoring stress fiber architecture and levels of megalin at the plasma membrane of proximal tubule cells, reflected by improved endocytic uptake of low molecular weight proteins in vivo. Thus, our findings support the link between phosphoinositide lipids, actin polymerization and endocytic trafficking in the proximal tubule and represent a proof-of-concept for repurposing alpelisib in Lowe syndrome/Dent disease 2.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are low abundance membrane phospholipids that have key roles in signaling, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal dynamics in all cells. Until recently, strategies for robust and quantitative development of pharmacological tools for manipulating phosphoinositide levels have focused selectively on PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the importance of this lipid in growth factor signaling and cell proliferation. However, drugs that affect levels of other phosphoinositides have potential therapeutic applications and will be powerful research tools. Here, we describe methodology for the high-throughput screening of small molecule modulators of the inositol 5-phosphatases, which dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P2 (the precursor for PI(3,4,5)P3) and PI(3,4,5)P3). We developed three complementary in vitro activity assays, tested hit compounds on a panel of 5-phosphatases, and monitored efficacy toward various substrates. Two prominent chemical scaffolds were identified with high nanomolar/low micromolar activity, with one class showing inhibitory activity toward all 5-phosphatases tested and the other selective activity toward OCRL and INPP5B, which are closely related to each other. One highly soluble OCRL/INPP5B-specific inhibitor shows a direct interaction with the catalytic domain of INPP5B. The efficacy of this compound in living cells was validated through its property to enhance actin nucleation at the cell cortex, a PI(4,5)P2 dependent process, and to inhibit PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation by OCRL (both overexpressed and endogenous enzyme). The assays and screening strategies described here are applicable to other phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, at least several of which have major clinical relevance. Most importantly, this study identifies the first OCRL/INPP5B specific inhibitor and provides a platform for the design of more potent inhibitors of this family of enzymes.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PIs) are recognized as major signaling molecules in many different functions of eukaryotic cells. PIs can be dephosphorylated by multiple phosphatase activities at the 5-, 4-, and 3- positions. Human PI 5-phosphatases belong to a family of 10 members. Except for inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase A, they all catalyze the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 and/or PI(3,4,5)P3 at the 5- position. PI 5-phosphatases thus directly control the levels of PI(3,4,5)P3 and participate in the fine-tuning regulatory mechanisms of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(4,5)P2 Second messenger functions have been demonstrated for PI(3,4)P2 in invadopodium maturation and lamellipodia formation. PI 5-phosphatases can use several substrates on isolated enzymes, and it has been challenging to establish their real substrate in vivo. PI(4,5)P2 has multiple functions in signaling, including interacting with scaffold proteins, ion channels, and cytoskeleton proteins. PI 5-phosphatase isoenzymes have been individually implicated in human diseases, such as the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, through mechanisms that include lipid control. Oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions of PI 5-phosphatases have also been reported in different cell contexts. The mechanisms responsible for genetic diseases and for oncogenic or tumor-suppressive functions are not fully understood. The regulation of PI 5-phosphatases is thus crucial in understanding cell functions.
Project description:Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and glaucoma, mental retardation, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Mutations in OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase that dephosphorylates PI(4,5)P2, cause Lowe syndrome. Previously we showed that OCRL localizes to the primary cilium, which has a distinct membrane phospholipid composition, but disruption of phosphoinositides in the ciliary membrane is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cilia from Lowe syndrome patient fibroblasts exhibit increased levels of PI(4,5)P2 and decreased levels of PI4P. In particular, subcellular distribution of PI(4,5)P2 build-up was observed at the transition zone. Accumulation of ciliary PI(4,5)P2 was pronounced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Lowe syndrome mouse model as well as in Ocrl-null MEFs, which was reversed by reintroduction of OCRL. Similarly, expression of wild-type OCRL reversed the elevated PI(4,5)P2 in Lowe patient cells. Accumulation of sonic hedgehog protein in response to hedgehog agonist was decreased in MEFs derived from a Lowe syndrome mouse model. Together, our findings show for the first time an abnormality in ciliary phosphoinositides of both human and mouse cell models of Lowe syndrome.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PIs) are lipid components of cell membranes that regulate a wide variety of cellular functions. Here we exploited the blue light-induced dimerization between two plant proteins, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the transcription factor CIBN, to control plasma membrane PI levels rapidly, locally, and reversibly. The inositol 5-phosphatase domain of OCRL (5-ptase(OCRL)), which acts on PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3), was fused to the photolyase homology region domain of CRY2, and the CRY2-binding domain, CIBN, was fused to plasma membrane-targeting motifs. Blue-light illumination (458-488 nm) of mammalian cells expressing these constructs resulted in nearly instantaneous recruitment of 5-ptase(OCRL) to the plasma membrane, where it caused rapid (within seconds) and reversible (within minutes) dephosphorylation of its targets as revealed by diverse cellular assays: dissociation of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) biosensors, disappearance of endocytic clathrin-coated pits, nearly complete inhibition of KCNQ2/3 channel currents, and loss of membrane ruffling. Focal illumination resulted in local and transient 5-ptase(OCRL) recruitment and PI(4,5)P(2) dephosphorylation, causing not only local collapse and retraction of the cell edge or process but also compensatory accumulation of the PI(4,5)P(2) biosensor and membrane ruffling at the opposite side of the cells. Using the same approach for the recruitment of PI3K, local PI(3,4,5)P(3) synthesis and membrane ruffling could be induced, with corresponding loss of ruffling distally to the illuminated region. This technique provides a powerful tool for dissecting with high spatial-temporal kinetics the cellular functions of various PIs and reversibly controlling the functions of downstream effectors of these signaling lipids.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are thought to play an important role in clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics. Biochemical and structural studies have shown a direct interaction of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] with endocytic clathrin adaptors, whereas functional studies using cell-free systems or intact cells have demonstrated the importance of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and dephosphorylation in clathrin coating and uncoating, respectively. Furthermore, genetic manipulations of kinases and phosphatases involved in PI(4,5)P2 metabolism result in major defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and other forms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, live imaging studies of these enzymes at CCPs have not been conducted. We have used multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to visualize the spatial-temporal recruitment of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1), a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase, and its binding partner endophilin to CCPs. Strikingly, we observed differential temporal recruitment of the two major SJ1 splice variants to CCPs. The 145-kDa isoform, the predominant isoform expressed in the brain, was rapidly recruited as a "burst," together with endophilin, at a late stage of CCP formation. In contrast, the nonneuronal ubiquitously expressed 170-kDa isoform of SJ1 was present at all stages of CCP formation. These results raise the possibility that dynamic phosphoinositide metabolism may occur throughout the lifetime of a CCP.
Project description:The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is a multisystem disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and renal Fanconi syndrome. The OCRL1 gene, which, when mutated, is responsible for OCRL, encodes a 105-kD Golgi protein with phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIn[4,5]P2) 5-phosphatase activity. We have examined the OCRL1 gene in 12 independent patients with OCRL and have found 11 different mutations. Six were nonsense mutations, and one a deletion of one or two nucleotides that leads to frameshift and premature termination. In one, a 1.2-kb genomic deletion of exon 14 was identified. In four others, missense mutations or the deletion of a single codon were found to involve amino acid residues known to be highly conserved among proteins with PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase activity. All patients had markedly reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase activity in their fibroblasts, whereas the ocrl1 protein was detectable by immunoblotting in some patients with either missense mutations or a codon deletion but was not detectable in those with premature termination mutations. These results confirm and extend our previous observation that the OCRL phenotype results from loss of function of the ocrl1 protein and that mutations are generally heterogeneous. Missense mutations that abolish enzyme activity but not expression of the protein will be useful for studying structure-function relationships in PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatases.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PtdIns) control fundamental cell processes, and inherited defects of PtdIns kinases or phosphatases cause severe human diseases, including Lowe syndrome due to mutations in OCRL, which encodes a PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase. Here we unveil a lysosomal response to the arrival of autophagosomal cargo in which OCRL plays a key part. We identify mitochondrial DNA and TLR9 as the cargo and the receptor that triggers and mediates, respectively, this response. This lysosome-cargo response is required to sustain the autophagic flux and involves a local increase in PtdIns(4,5)P2 that is confined in space and time by OCRL. Depleting or inhibiting OCRL leads to an accumulation of lysosomal PtdIns(4,5)P2, an inhibitor of the calcium channel mucolipin-1 that controls autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Hence, autophagosomes accumulate in OCRL-depleted cells and in the kidneys of Lowe syndrome patients. Importantly, boosting the activity of mucolipin-1 with selective agonists restores the autophagic flux in cells from Lowe syndrome patients.
Project description:Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL are responsible for Lowe syndrome, whose manifestations include mental retardation and renal Fanconi syndrome. OCRL has been implicated in membrane trafficking, but disease mechanisms remain unclear. We show that OCRL visits late-stage, endocytic clathrin-coated pits and binds the Rab5 effector APPL1 on peripheral early endosomes. The interaction with APPL1, which is mediated by the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains of OCRL and is abolished by disease mutations, provides a link to protein networks implicated in the reabsorptive function of the kidney and in the trafficking and signaling of growth factor receptors in the brain. Crystallographic studies reveal a role of the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains in positioning the phosphatase domain at the membrane interface and a clathrin box protruding from the RhoGAP-like domain. Our results support a role of OCRL in the early endocytic pathway, consistent with the predominant localization of its preferred substrates, PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3), at the cell surface.
Project description:Numerous genes whose mutations cause, or increase the risk of, Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified. An inactivating mutation (R258Q) in the Sac inositol phosphatase domain of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1/PARK20), a phosphoinositide phosphatase implicated in synaptic vesicle recycling, results in PD. The gene encoding Sac2/INPP5F, another Sac domain-containing protein, is located within a PD risk locus identified by genome-wide association studies. Knock-In mice carrying the SJ1 patient mutation (SJ1RQKI) exhibit PD features, while Sac2 knockout mice (Sac2KO) do not have obvious neurologic defects. We report a "synthetic" effect of the SJ1 mutation and the KO of Sac2 in mice. Most mice with both mutations died perinatally. The occasional survivors had stunted growth, died within 3 wk, and showed abnormalities of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals at an earlier stage than SJ1RQKI mice. The abnormal accumulation of endocytic factors observed at synapses of cultured SJ1RQKI neurons was more severe in double-mutant neurons. Our results suggest that SJ1 and Sac2 have partially overlapping functions and are consistent with a potential role of Sac2 as a PD risk gene.