Dietary patterns and endometrial cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Information on the role of dietary patterns and endometrial cancer risk is limited. We investigated whether dietary patterns are associated with endometrial cancer risk among women in the California Teachers Study cohort. METHODS:Among 75,093 eligible women, 937 developed invasive endometrial cancer between 1995 and 2011. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with five dietary patterns identified by principal components factor analysis: "plant-based," "high protein/high fat," "high carbohydrates," "ethnic," and "salad and wine." RESULTS:These dietary patterns were not associated with endometrial cancer risk overall (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.15 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of the "plant-based" dietary pattern) or by menopausal status and hormone therapy use. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary patterns do not seem to be associated with endometrial cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic evidence suggests that certain dietary patterns were associated with breast cancer risk, but the results have been inconclusive. We assessed the associations between different dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS:Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases through September 2017. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the highest and lowest categories of Western and prudent dietary patterns were combined by using the random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS:We identified 32 eligible articles including 14 cohort and 18 case-control studies (34 Western and 35 prudent studies). The pooled analyses found that a Western dietary pattern was associated with a 14% increased risk (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02, 1.28), whereas a prudent dietary pattern was associated with an 18% reduced risk of breast cancer (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75, 0.89). In addition, sub-group analyses showed that the positive association between a Western dietary pattern and breast cancer risk was significant among postmenopausal (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06, 1.35), but not premenopausal women (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.99, 1.40), and significant for hormone receptor-positive tumors (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.33), but not receptor-negative tumors (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83, 1.12). In contrast, the inverse association between a prudent dietary pattern and breast cancer was significant in premenopausal (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61, 0.98), but not postmenopausal women (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.74, 1.03), and significant for both hormone receptor-positive and receptor-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the current meta-analysis suggest a possible increased risk of breast cancer associated with a Western dietary pattern and a reduced risk with a prudent dietary pattern. Large-scale cohort studies with a high quality need to be conducted to further confirm the findings of the current meta-analysis. As dietary patterns are modifiable, these findings may provide viable strategies for breast cancer prevention through changes in dietary intake.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Evidence of an association between dietary patterns and individual foods and the risk of overall mortality among cancer survivors has not been reviewed systematically.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this meta-analysis of cohort studies was to investigate the association between food intake and dietary patterns and overall mortality among cancer survivors.<h4>Data sources</h4>The PubMed and Embase databases were searched.<h4>Study selection</h4>A total of 117 studies enrolling 209?597 cancer survivors were included.<h4>Data extraction</h4>The following data were extracted: study location, types of outcome, population characteristics, dietary assessment method, risk estimates, and adjustment factors.<h4>Results</h4>Higher intakes of vegetables and fish were inversely associated with overall mortality, and higher alcohol consumption was positively associated with overall mortality (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 1.02-1.16). Adherence to the highest category of diet quality was inversely associated with overall mortality (RR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.72-0.85; postdiagnosis RR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.71-0.89), as was adherence to the highest category of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern (RR, 0.81; 95%CI, 0.67-0.98; postdiagnosis RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.60-0.99). The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of overall mortality (RR, 1.46; 95%CI, 1.27-1.68; postdiagnosis RR, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.24-1.85).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Adherence to a high-quality diet and a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with overall mortality among cancer survivors, whereas a Western dietary pattern is positively associated with overall mortality in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between statin use and the risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer remains controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between statin use and the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers. METHODS:We conducted a meta-analysis using articles retrieved from the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. All original comparative studies published in English that were related to statin use and the risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer were included. RESULTS:This meta-analysis included 19 studies enrolling 1,999,362 female subjects and 19,849 cancer cases (7,948 ovarian cancer cases and 11,901 endometrial cancer cases). The overall analysis indicated that statin use did not significantly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer [relative risk (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.03, p = 0.12] or the risk of endometrial cancer (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00, p = 0.05.) Subgroup analyses based on study type, percentage of cancer cases, study location, and quality of studies also supported our conclusions. No association was found between long-term statin use (> 5 years) and the risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.51-1.04, p = 0.08) or endometrial cancer (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.58-1.08, p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS:Statin use did not lower the risk of ovarian cancer or endometrial cancer. The long-term use of statins (> 5 years) was not associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer.
Project description:Previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results for the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk. Most of the studies, however, assessed alcohol intake after cancer diagnosis, or measured alcohol intake at baseline only.We prospectively examined the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study with 68?067 female participants aged 34-59 years in 1980. Alcohol intake was measured several times with validated dietary questionnaires. We calculated cumulative average alcohol intake to represent long-term intakes of individual subjects. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer risk after controlling for several risk factors simultaneously.We identified a total of 794 invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma from 1980 to 2010. We found an inverse association among alcohol drinkers (multivariable RR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96) compared with nondrinkers. Women with light alcohol intake of <5 g per day (?half drink per day) had a 22% lower risk of endometrial cancer (multivariable RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.66-0.94). Higher intake of alcohol, however, did not provide additional benefits against endometrial cancer: multivariable RRs for 5-14.9 g (?1 drink), 15-29.9 g (?2 drinks), or ? 30 g (? 2 drinks) versus 0 g per day were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.49-1.25), respectively. The lower risk among drinkers (?half drink per day) appeared to be stronger for obese women, but no significant interaction by body mass index was found.This study provides prospective evidence for an inverse association between light alcohol intake (?half drink per day) in the long term and endometrial cancer risk, but above that level no significant association was found.
Project description:Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through April 2015. A random effect model was used to combine the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Fourteen articles involving 5158 endometrial cancer cases and 706,946 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of endometrial cancer (summary relative risk (RR): 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96, I2: 63.0%), especially in North America (summary RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95). A linear dose-response relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial cancer decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding (summary RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Our analysis suggested that breastfeeding, particularly a longer duration of breastfeeding, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, especially in North America, but not in Europe and Asia, probably due to the small number of cases included. Due to this limitation, further studies originating in other countries are required to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk.
Project description:The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer.Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose-response relationship as well as the risk of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of coffee consumption were assessed. Subgroup analyses considering the menopausal and receptor statuses, the smoking status, and the BMI (Body Mass Index) were performed in order to identify potential confounders.We identified a total of 12 studies eligible for meta-analysis. A dose-response meta-analysis showed a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Moreover, a subgroup analysis indicated that coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by four cups per day was associated with a 20% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (relative risk (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.89) and with a 24% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83).Our findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, and this association is observed also for postmenopausal cancer.
Project description:Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ? 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies.
Project description:The association between parity and endometrial cancer risk is inconsistent from observational studies. We aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship by summarizing all relevant epidemiological studies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase and Scopus were searched up to February 2015 for eligible case-control studies and prospective studies. Random-effects model was used to pool risk estimations. Ten prospective studies, 35 case-control studies and 1 pooled analysis of 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies including 69681 patients were identified. Pooled analysis revealed that there was a significant inverse association between parity and risk of endometrial cancer (relative risk (RR) for parous versus nulliparous: 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.74; I(2) = 76.9%). By evaluating the number of parity, we identified that parity number of 1, 2 or 3 versus nulliparous demonstrated significant negative association (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.84, I(2)?= 88.3%; RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.74, I(2)?= 92.1%; and RR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.65-0.70, I(2) = 20.0% respectively). The dose-response analysis suggested a nonlinear relationship between the number of parity and endometrial cancer risk. The RR decreased when the number of parity increased. This meta-analysis suggests that parity may be associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings.
Project description:Diet is a major source of cadmium intake among the non-smoking general population. Recent studies have determined that cadmium exposure may produce adverse health effects at lower exposure levels than previously predicted. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine and analyze the results of previous studies that have investigated the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk.We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE database for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis using eight eligible studies to summarize the data and summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model.Overall, dietary cadmium intake showed no statistically significant association with cancer risk (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.22, for highest vs. lowest dietary cadmium group). However, there was strong evidence of heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses were conducted using the study design, geographical location, and cancer type. In subgroup analyses, the positive associations between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk were observed among studies with Western populations (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08-1.23) and studies investigating some hormone-related cancers (prostate, breast, and endometrial cancers).Our analysis found a positive association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk among studies conducted in Western countries, particularly with hormone-related cancers. Additional experimental and epidemiological studies are required to verify our findings.
Project description:The relationship between intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk has not been consistent across epidemiological studies. We quantitatively assessed the aforementioned association through a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed and Embase were searched through March 2017 for eligible epidemiological studies. Fixed or random-effects models were used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The dose-response relationship was also evaluated. Based on the literature search, five prospective studies and 11 case-control studies were identified. All 16 studies were categorized as high-quality studies. After pooling available risk estimates, no significant association was detected between overall fish intake and endometrial cancer risk. In subgroup analyses, every one additional serving/week of fish intake was significantly associated with inversed endometrial cancer risk in studies adjusted for smoking (RR (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91-1.00)), or studies performed in Europe (RR (95% CI): 0.90 (0.84-0.97)), but not in other tested subgroups. In studies conducted in Asia, there was significant positive association (RR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.10-1.21)). Regarding n-3 PUFA intake, marginally inverse associations of high EPA or DHA intake were detected (EPA: RR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.61-1.04); DHA: RR (95% CI) = 0.85 (0.64-1.11)). Dose-response analyses suggested a significant nonlinear relationship between DHA intake and endometrial cancer risk (p: 0.04). Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that intake of n-3 PUFA may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk at some level of evidence, although the exact relationship, especially for fish intake, needs further characterization. Further well-designed studies are warranted.