High-order localized spoof surface plasmon resonances and experimental verifications.
ABSTRACT: We theoretically demonstrated and experimentally verified high-order radial spoof localized surface plasmon resonances supported by textured metal particles. Through an effective medium theory and exact numerical simulations, we show the emergence of these geometrically-originated electromagnetic modes at microwave frequencies. The occurrence of high-order radial spoof plasmon resonances is experimentally verified in ultrathin disks. Their spectral and near-field properties are characterized experimentally, showing an excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Our findings shed light into the nature of spoof localized surface plasmons, and open the way to the design of broadband plasmonic devices able to operate at very different frequency regimes.
Project description:We experimentally observe the excitation of dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances in a hybrid structure consisting of a corrugated metallic disk coupled with a C-shaped dipole resonator. The uncoupled corrugated metallic disk only supports a dipolar resonance in the transmission spectrum due to perfect symmetry of the structure. However, the dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances emerge when coupled with a bright C-shaped resonator which is placed in the vicinity of the corrugated metallic disk. These excited multipolar resonances show minimum influence on the coupling distance between the C-shaped resonator and corrugated metallic disk. The resonance frequencies of the radiative modes are controlled by varying the angle of the C-shaped resonator and the inner disk radius, both of which play dominant roles in the excitation of the spoof localized surface plasmons. Observation of such a transition from the dark to radiative nature of multipolar spoof localized plasmon resonances would find potential applications in terahertz based resonant plasmonic and metamaterial devices.
Project description:Both the localized resonance and excitation of spoof surface plasmon polaritons are observed in the terahertz transmission spectra of periodic subwavelength hole arrays. Analyzing with the coupled oscillator model, we find that the terahertz transmission is actually facilitated by three successive processes: the incident terahertz field first initiates the localized oscillation around each hole, and then the spoof surface plasmon polaritons are excited by the localized resonance, and finally the two resonances couple and contribute to the transmission. Tailoring the localized resonance by hole size, the coupling strength between spoof surface plasmon polaritons and localized resonances is quantitatively extracted. The hole size dependent transmittance and the coupling mechanism are further confirmed by fitting the measured spectra to a modified multi-order Fano model.
Project description:We numerically demonstrate that spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) resonant modes can be enhanced based on ultrathin corrugated metal-insulator-metal (MIM) ring resonator. Further enhancement of the LSPs modes has been achieved by incorporating an efficient and ease-of-integration exciting method. Quality factors of resonance peaks have become much larger and multipolar resonances modes can be easily observed on the textured MIM ring resonator excited by a microstrip line. Experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and resonance enhancements of spoof LSPs modes on the MIM ring resonator in the microwave frequencies. We have shown that the fabricated resonator is sensitive to the variation of both the dielectric constant and the thickness of surrounding materials under test. The spoof plasmonic resonator can be used as key elements to provide many important device functionalities such as optical communications, signal processing, and spectral engineering in the plasmonic integration platform.
Project description:Localized spoof surface plasmon polaritons (spoof-SPPs) in a graded spoof-plasmonic resonator chain with linearly increasing spacing are experimentally investigated at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and direct near-field mappings on this graded chain show that the propagation of localized spoof-SPPs can be cutoff at different positions along the graded chain under different frequencies due to the graded coupling between adjacent resonators. This mechanism can be used to guide localized spoof-SPPs in the graded chain to specific positions depending on the frequency and thereby implement a device that can work as a selective switch in integrated plasmonic circuits.
Project description:We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic metamaterial whose unit cell is composed of an ultrathin metallic disk and four ultrathin metallic spiral arms at terahertz frequencies, which supports both spoof electric and magnetic localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances. We show that the resonant wavelength is much larger than the size of the unit particle, and further find that the resonant wavelength is very sensitive to the particle's geometrical dimensions and arrangements. It is clearly illustrated that the magnetic LSP resonance exhibits strong dependence to the incidence angle of terahertz wave, which enables the design of metamaterials to achieve an electromagnetically induced transparency effect in the terahertz frequencies. This work opens up the possibility to apply for the surface plasmons in functional devices in the terahertz band.
Project description:Novel spoof surface plasmon based terahertz (THz) antennas are realized using a few number of rectangular grooves perforated in ultrathin metal stripes and the properties of them, including both scattering cross sections and field enhancement, are numerically analyzed. The dependence of these properties on the incident angle and groove number is discussed and the results show that sharp resonances in scattering cross section spectra associated with strong local field enhancement can be achieved. These resonances are due to the formation of Fabry-Perot resonances of the spoof surface plasmon mode and it is found that the order of resonance exhibiting strongest field enhancements is found to coincide with the number of grooves at normal incidence, due to hybridization of the antenna resonance with the individual groove resonance. The terahertz hotspots within the grooves at resonances due to the local field enhancement may open up new possibilities for the investigation of terahertz-matter interactions and boost a variety of THz applications including novel sensing and THz detections. The planar stripe antennas with sharper resonances than dipolar-like resonances, together with their ease of fabrication may also promise new design methodology for metamaterials.
Project description:Spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) is an exotic electromagnetic state that confines light at a subwavelength scale at a design-specific frequency. It has been known for a while that spoof plasmon mode can exist in planar, thin structures with dispersion properties similar to that of its wide three-dimensional structure counterpart. We, however, have shown that spoof plasmons in thin structures possess some unique properties that remain unexplored. Our analysis reveals that the field interior to SSPP waveguide can achieve an exceptional hyperbolic spatial dependence, which can explain why spoof plasma resonance incurs red-shift with the reduction of the waveguide thickness, whereas common wisdom suggests frequency blue-shift of a resonant structure with its size reduction. In addition, we show that strong confinement can be achieved over a wide band in thin spoof plasmon structure, ranging from the spoof plasma frequency up to a lower frequency considerably away from the resonant point. The nature of lateral confinement in thin SSPP structures may enable interesting applications involving fast modulation rate due to enhanced sensitivity of optical modes without compromising modal confinement.
Project description:We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies.
Project description:Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to investigating the analogy between the surface plasmon polariton and its spoof counterparts, it remains elusive that a single thin spoof plasmonic metalens realizes wide-angle focusing and wide field-of-view (FOV) imaging. Here, we propose a spoof plasmonic metasurface that can impart arbitrary phase with high transmittance, which comprises two-dimensional (2D) gradient spoof-insulator-spoof waveguides. With the developed catenary field and dispersion theory, their intrinsic physics is theoretically analyzed. As a proof of concept, a spoof plasmonic metalens with a thickness of 0.15λ has been elaborately designed and experimentally demonstrated for wide-angle (∼170°) focusing and wide FOV (∼40°) imaging. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of wide FOV imaging of a 2D object with single thin and planar metalens in the microwave regime. The proposed method offers a promising solution to compact cameras, integrated imaging, and detection systems.
Project description:In this work, we report the existence of spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) arising with closed high contrast gratings (HCGs) at deep subwavelength scales, another platform for field localization at microwave frequencies. The HCGs are in the form of a periodic array of radial dielectric blocks with high permittivity around a metal core supporting spoof-LSPs of transverse magnetic (TM) form. Simulation results validate the phenomenon and a metamaterial approach is also given to capture all the resonant features of this kind of spoof-LSPs. In addition, experimental verification of the existence of spoof-LSPs supported by a three dimensional (3D) HCGs resonance structure in the microwave regime is presented. This work expands the original spoof-LSPs theory and opens up a new avenue for obtaining resonance devices in the microwave frequencies.