A new regulatory mechanism for bacterial lipoic acid synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Lipoic acid, an essential enzyme cofactor, is required in three domains of life. In the past 60 years since its discovery, most of the pathway for lipoic acid synthesis and metabolism has been elucidated. However, genetic control of lipoic acid synthesis remains unclear. Here, we report integrative evidence that bacterial cAMP-dependent signaling is linked to lipoic acid synthesis in Shewanella species, the certain of unique marine-borne bacteria with special ability of metal reduction. Physiological requirement of protein lipoylation in ?-proteobacteria including Shewanella oneidensis was detected using Western blotting with rabbit anti-lipoyl protein primary antibody. The two genes (lipB and lipA) encoding lipoic acid synthesis pathway were proved to be organized into an operon lipBA in Shewanella, and the promoter was mapped. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the putative CRP-recognizable site (AAGTGTGATCTATCTTACATTT) binds to cAMP-CRP protein with origins of both Escherichia coli and Shewanella. The native lipBA promoter of Shewanella was fused to a LacZ reporter gene to create a chromosome lipBA-lacZ transcriptional fusion in E. coli and S. oneidensis, allowing us to directly assay its expression level by ?-galactosidase activity. As anticipated, the removal of E. coli crp gene gave above fourfold increment of lipBA promoter-driven ?-gal expression. The similar scenario was confirmed by both the real-time quantitative PCR and the LacZ transcriptional fusion in the crp mutant of Shewanella. Furthermore, the glucose effect on the lipBA expression of Shewanella was evaluated in the alternative microorganism E. coli. As anticipated, an addition of glucose into media effectively induces the transcriptional level of Shewanella lipBA in that the lowered cAMP level relieves the repression of lipBA by cAMP-CRP complex. Therefore, our finding might represent a first paradigm mechanism for genetic control of bacterial lipoic acid synthesis.
Project description:The Escherichia coli fadR protein product, a paradigm/prototypical FadR regulator, positively regulates fabA and fabB, the two critical genes for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis. However the scenario in the other ?-proteobacteria, such as Shewanella with the marine origin, is unusual in that Rodionov and coworkers predicted that only fabA (not fabB) has a binding site for FadR protein. It raised the possibility of fad regulon contraction. Here we report that this is the case. Sequence alignment of the FadR homologs revealed that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain exhibited remarkable similarity, whereas the ligand-accepting motif at C-terminus is relatively-less conserved. The FadR homologue of S. oneidensis (referred to FadR_she) was over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Integrative evidence obtained by FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) and chemical cross-linking analyses elucidated that FadR_she protein can dimerize in solution, whose identity was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. In vitro data from electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that FadR_she is almost functionally-exchangeable/equivalent to E. coli FadR (FadR_ec) in the ability of binding the E. coli fabA (and fabB) promoters. In an agreement with that of E. coli fabA, S. oneidensis fabA promoter bound both FadR_she and FadR_ec, and was disassociated specifically with the FadR regulatory protein upon the addition of long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters. To monitor in vivo effect exerted by FadR on Shewanella fabA expression, the native promoter of S. oneidensis fabA was fused to a LacZ reporter gene to engineer a chromosome fabA-lacZ transcriptional fusion in E. coli. As anticipated, the removal of fadR gene gave about 2-fold decrement of Shewanella fabA expression by ?-gal activity, which is almost identical to the inhibitory level by the addition of oleate. Therefore, we concluded that fabA is contracted to be the only one member of fad regulon in the context of fatty acid synthesis in the marine bacteria Shewanella genus.
Project description:Inhibition of bacterial growth under aerobic conditions by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), first revealed more than 50 years ago, was attributed to accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal (MG). Here, we report a Crp-dependent mechanism rather than MG accumulation that accounts for the phenotype in Shewanella oneidensis, an emerging research model for the bacterial physiology. We show that a similar phenotype can be obtained by removing CpdA, a cAMP phosphodiesterase that appears more effective than its Escherichia coli counterpart. Although production of heme c and cytochromes c is correlated well with cAMP levels, neither is sufficient for the retarded growth. Quantities of overall cytochromes c increased substantially in the presence of elevated cAMP, a phenomenon resembling cells respiring on non-oxygen electron acceptors. In contrast, transcription of Crp-dependent genes encoding both cytochromes bd and cbb3 oxidases is substantially repressed under the same condition. Overall, our results suggest that cAMP of elevated levels drives cells into a low-energetic status, under which aerobic respiration is inhibited.
Project description:Shewanella exhibit a remarkable versatility of respiration, with a diverse array of electron acceptors (EAs). In environments where these bacteria thrive, multiple EAs are usually present. However, we know little about strategies by which these EAs and their interaction affect ecophysiology of Shewanella. In this study, we demonstrate in the model strain, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, that nitrite, not through nitric oxide to which it may convert, inhibits respiration of fumarate, and probably many other EAs whose reduction depends on quinol dehydrogenase CymA. This is achieved via the repression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, a second messenger required for activation of cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) which plays a primary role in regulation of respiration. If nitrite is not promptly removed, intracellular cAMP levels drop, and this impairs Crp activity. As a result, the production of nitrite reductase NrfA, CymA, and fumarate reductase FccA is substantially reduced. In contrast, nitrite can be simultaneously respired with trimethylamine N-oxide, resulting in enhanced biomass.
Project description:The Nun protein of coliphage HK022 excludes superinfecting lambda phage. Nun recognizes and binds to the N utilization (nut) sites on phage lambda nascent RNA and induces transcription termination. Overexpression of Nun from a high-copy plasmid is toxic for Escherichia coli, despite the fact that nut sites are not encoded in the E. coli genome. Cells expressing Nun cannot exit stationary phase. Toxicity is related to transcription termination, since host and nun mutations that block termination also suppress cell killing. Nun inhibits expression of wild-type lacZ, but not lacZ expressed from the Crp/cAMP-independent lacUV5 promoter. Microarray and proteomic analyses show that Nun down-regulates crp and tnaA. Crp overexpression and high indole concentrations partially reverse Nun-mediated toxicity and restore lacZ expression.
Project description:The TraJ protein is a central activator of F-like plasmid conjugal transfer. In a search for regulators of traJ expression, we studied the possible regulatory role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex in traJ transcription using a traJ-lacZ reporter system. A comparison of the enzyme activities in the wild-type Escherichia coli strain MC4100 with those in cya and crp mutants indicated that disruption of the formation of the cAMP-CRP complex negatively influenced the activity of the traJ promoter of the F-like plasmid pRK100. The defect in the cya mutant was partially restored by addition of exogenous cAMP. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR performed with RNA isolated from the wild-type and mutant strains showed that the cAMP-CRP complex exerted its effect at the level of transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified CRP demonstrated that there was direct binding of CRP to the traJ promoter region. DNase I footprint experiments mapped the CRP binding site around position -67.5 upstream of the putative traJ promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of the traJ promoter region confirmed the location of the CRP binding site. Consistent with the demonstrated regulation of TraJ by the cAMP-CRP complex, mutants with defects in cya or crp exhibited reduced conjugal transfer from pRK100.
Project description:The yiaKLMNOPQRS (yiaK-S) gene cluster of Escherichia coli is believed to be involved in the utilization of a hitherto unknown carbohydrate which generates the intermediate L-xylulose. Transcription of yiaK-S as a single message from the unique promoter found upstream of yiaK is proven in this study. The 5' end has been located at 60 bp upstream from the ATG. Expression of the yiaK-S operon is controlled in the wild-type strain by a repressor encoded by yiaJ. No inducer molecule of the yiaK-S operon has been identified among over 80 carbohydrate or derivative compounds tested, the system being expressed only in a mutant strain lacking the YiaJ repressor. The lacZ transcriptional fusions in the genetic background of the mutant strain revealed that yiaK-S is modulated by the integration host factor and by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (Crp) activator complex. A twofold increase in the induction was observed during anaerobic growth, which was independent of ArcA or Fnr. Gel mobility shift assays showed that the YiaJ repressor binds to a promoter fragment extending from -50 to +121. These studies also showed that the cAMP-Crp complex can bind to two different sites. The lacZ transcriptional fusions of different fragments of the promoter demonstrated that binding of cAMP-Crp to the Crp site 1, centered at -106, is essential for yiaK-S expression. The 5' end of the yiaJ gene was determined, and its promoter region was found to overlap with the divergent yiaK-S promoter. Expression of yiaJ is autogenously regulated and reduced by the binding of Crp-cAMP to the Crp site 1 of the yiaK-S promoter.
Project description:Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducer that uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, to regulate anaerobic respiration. In addition, ArcA(So) is required for anaerobic growth with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and plays a role in aerobic respiration. The sensor kinase that activates ArcA(So) in S. oneidensis is not known. ArcB1(So), a homolog of the Escherichia coli sensor kinase ArcB(Ec), was identified and found to be required for DMSO reductase gene expression. In combination with HptA, ArcB1(So) complemented an E. coli arcB(Ec) mutant. ArcA(So), ArcB1(So), and HptA appear to constitute a two-component signal transduction system that regulates DMSO reduction in S. oneidensis.
Project description:Lipoic acid is a covalently-bound enzyme cofactor required for central metabolism all three domains of life. In the last 20 years the pathway of lipoic acid synthesis and metabolism has been established in Escherichia coli. Expression of the genes of the lipoic acid biosynthesis pathway was believed to be constitutive. However, in 2010 Kaleta and coworkers (BMC Syst. Biol. 4:116) predicted a binding site for the pyruvate dehydrogenase operon repressor, PdhR (referred to lipA site 1) upstream of lipA, the gene encoding lipoic acid synthase and concluded that PdhR regulates lipA transcription. We report in vivo and in vitro evidence that lipA is not controlled by PdhR and that the putative regulatory site deduced by the prior workers is nonfunctional and physiologically irrelevant. E. coli PdhR was purified to homogeneity and used for electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The lipA site 1 of Kaleta and coworkers failed to bind PdhR. The binding detected by these workers is due to another site (lipA site 3) located far upstream of the lipA promoter. Relative to the canonical PdhR binding site lipA site 3 is a half-palindrome and as expected had only weak PdhR binding ability. Manipulation of lipA site 3 to construct a palindrome gave significantly enhanced PdhR binding affinity. The native lipA promoter and the version carrying the artificial lipA3 palindrome were transcriptionally fused to a LacZ reporter gene to directly assay lipA expression. Deletion of pdhR gave no significant change in lipA promoter-driven ?-galactosidase activity with either the native or constructed palindrome upstream sequences, indicating that PdhR plays no physiological role in regulation of lipA expression.
Project description:We have previously illustrated the nitrate/nitrite respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis, which is renowned for its remarkable versatility in respiration. Here we investigated the systems regulating the pathway with a reliable approach which enables characterization of mutants impaired in nitrate/nitrite respiration by guaranteeing biomass. The S. oneidensis genome encodes an Escherichia coli NarQ/NarX homolog SO3981 and two E. coli NarP/NarL homologs SO1860 and SO3982. Results of physiological characterization and mutational analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis possesses a single two-component system (TCS) for regulation of nitrate/nitrite respiration, consisting of the sensor kinase SO3981(NarQ) and the response regulator SO3982(NarP). The TCS directly controls the transcription of nap and nrfA (genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases, respectively) but regulates the former less tightly than the latter. Additionally, phosphorylation at residue 57 of SO3982 is essential for its DNA-binding capacity. At the global control level, Crp is found to regulate expression of narQP as well as nap and nrfA. In contrast to NarP-NarQ, Crp is more essential for nap rather than nrfA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. RESULTS: To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Forty five regulons were newly inferred from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp.. Multiple variations in regulatory strategies between the Shewanella spp. and E. coli include regulon contraction and expansion (as in the case of PdhR, HexR, FadR), numerous cases of recruiting non-orthologous regulators to control equivalent pathways (e.g. PsrA for fatty acid degradation) and, conversely, orthologous regulators to control distinct pathways (e.g. TyrR, ArgR, Crp). CONCLUSIONS: We tentatively defined the first reference collection of ~100 transcriptional regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The resulting regulatory network contains ~600 regulated genes per genome that are mostly involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, metals, and stress responses. Several reconstructed regulons including NagR for N-acetylglucosamine catabolism were experimentally validated in S. oneidensis MR-1. Analysis of correlations in gene expression patterns helps to interpret the reconstructed regulatory network. The inferred regulatory interactions will provide an additional regulatory constrains for an integrated model of metabolism and regulation in S. oneidensis MR-1.