Genome-wide Identification of IRF1 Binding Sites Reveals Extensive Occupancy at Cell Death Associated Genes.
ABSTRACT: IRF1 is a transcription factor involved in interferon signaling and has been shown to harbor tumor suppressor activity. In order to comprehensively identify pathways regulated by IRF1, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive-parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to evaluate the gene targets of IRF1 genome-wide. We identified 17,416 total binding events in breast cancer cells. Functional categorization of the binding sites after IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma) treatment determined that 'apoptosis' or 'cell death' is the most enriched target process. Motif discovery analysis of the chromosomal regions bound by IRF1 identified a number of unique motifs correlated with apoptosis, DNA damage and immune processes. Analysis of GEO transcriptome data from IRF1-transduced cells or IFN-gamma treated fibroblasts indicates that IRF1-bound targets in IFN-treated cells are associated with a positive transcriptional response. Many of the enriched target genes from the expression analysis are associated with apoptosis. Importantly, this data indicates that a significant function of IRF1 is the regulation of anti-cancer apoptotic pathways and this reinforces IRF1's role as a tumor suppressor.
Project description:IRF8 and IRF1 are transcriptional regulators that play critical roles in the development and function of myeloid cells, including activation of macrophages by proinflammatory signals such as interferon-? (IFN-?). Loss of IRF8 or IRF1 function causes severe susceptibility to infections in mice and in humans. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing in wild type and inIRF8andIRF1mutant primary macrophages to systematically catalog all of the genes bound by (cistromes) and transcriptionally activated by (regulomes) IRF8, IRF1, PU.1, and STAT1, including modulation of epigenetic histone marks. Of the seven binding combinations identified, two (cluster 1 [IRF8/IRF1/STAT1/PU.1] and cluster 5 [IRF1/STAT1/PU.1]) were found to have a major role in controlling macrophage transcriptional programs both at the basal level and after IFN-? activation. They direct the expression of a set of genes, the IRF8/IRF1 regulome, that play critical roles in host inflammatory and antimicrobial defenses in mouse models of neuroinflammation and of pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. In addition, this IRF8/IRF1 regulome is enriched for genes mutated in human primary immunodeficiencies and with loci associated with several inflammatory diseases in humans.
Project description:STAT1 and IRF1 collaborate to induce interferon-γ (IFNγ) stimulated genes (ISGs), but the extent to which they act alone or together is unclear. The effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on in vivo binding is also largely unknown.We show that IRF1 binds at proximal or distant ISG sites twice as often as STAT1, increasing to sixfold at the MHC class I locus. STAT1 almost always bound with IRF1, while most IRF1 binding events were isolated. Dual binding sites at remote or proximal enhancers distinguished ISGs that were responsive to IFNγ versus cell-specific resistant ISGs, which showed fewer and mainly single binding events. Surprisingly, inducibility in one cell type predicted ISG-responsiveness in other cells. Several dbSNPs overlapped with STAT1 and IRF1 binding motifs, and we developed methodology to rapidly assess their effects. We show that in silico prediction of SNP effects accurately reflects altered binding both in vitro and in vivo.These data reveal broad cooperation between STAT1 and IRF1, explain cell type specific differences in ISG-responsiveness, and identify genetic variants that may participate in the pathogenesis of immune disorders.
Project description:Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), a transcription factor with a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain, plays a crucial role in innate immunity by regulating the type I IFN signaling pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism through which IRF1 regulates type I IFN in fish is not yet elucidated. In the present study, IRF1 was characterized from golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus (designated ToIRF1), and its immune function was identified to elucidate the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of ToIFNa3. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of IRF1 is 1763 bp, including a 900-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 299-amino-acid polypeptide. The putative protein sequence has 42.7-71.7% identity to fish IRF1 and possesses a representative conserved domain (a DNA-binding domain (DBD) at the N-terminus). The genomic DNA sequence of ToIRF1 consists of eight exons and seven introns. Moreover, ToIRF1 is constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with higher levels being observed in immune-relevant tissues (whole blood, gill, and skin). Additionally, Cryptocaryon irritans challenge in vivo increases ToIRF1 expression in the skin as determined by Western blotting (WB); however, protein levels of ToIRF1 in the gill did not change significantly. The subcellular localization indicates that ToIRF1 is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm with or without polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) induction. Furthermore, overexpression of ToIRF1 or ToIFNa3 shows that ToIRF1 can notably activate ToIFNa3 and interferon signaling molecule expression. Promoter sequence analysis finds that several interferon stimulating response element (ISRE) binding sites are present in the promoter of ToIFNa3. Additionally, truncation, point mutation, and electrophoretic mobile shift (EMSA) assays confirmed that ToIRF1 M5 ISRE binding sites are functionally important for ToIFNa3 transcription. These results may help to illuminate the roles of teleost IRF1 in the transcriptional mechanisms of type I IFN in the immune process.
Project description:Macrophages that differentiate from precursor monocytes can be polarized into a classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) status depending on different stimuli. Generally, interferon (IFN)-? and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are considered the classical stimuli with which to establish M1 polarization. IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1 and IFN-? are two crucial molecules involved in IFN-?- and LPS-initialed signaling. However, the association between IRF1 and IFN-? in the context of the M1 polarization of macrophages is not yet fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that U937-derived macrophages, in response to IFN-? and LPS stimulation, readily acquire an M1 status, indicated by the increased expression of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and the M1-specific cell surface antigen, CD86, and the decreased expression of the M2-specific mannose receptor, CD206. However, the knockdown of IRF1 in U937-derived macrophages led to an impaired M1 status, as indicated by the decreased expression of the above-mentioned M1 markers, and the increased expression of the M2 markers, CD206 and IL-10. A similar phenomenon was observed in the M1 macrophages in which IFN-? was inhibited. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IRF1 and IFN-? may interact with each other in the IFN-?- and LPS-initiated signaling pathway, and contribute to the IRF5 regulation of M1 macrophages. In addition, the conditioned medium collected from the M1 macrophages in which IRF1 or IFN-? were inhibited, exerted pro-tumor effects on the HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, as indicated by an increase in proliferation, the inhibition of apoptosis and an enhanced invasion capability. The findings of our study suggest that the interactions of IRF1, IFN-? and IRF5 are involved in the M1 polarization of macrophages and have antitumor functions. These data may provide a novel antitumor strategy for targeted cancer therapy.
Project description:Endothelial-dependent mechanisms of mononuclear cell influx are not well understood. We showed that acute stimulation of murine microvascular endothelial cells expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 with the soluble cytokine TNF led to CXCR3 chemokine generation. The TNF receptors signaled through interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) to induce interferon-? (IFN-?) and subsequent autocrine signaling via the type I IFN receptor and the transcription factor STAT1. Both TNFR2 and TNFR1 were required for IRF1-IFN? signaling and, in human endothelial cells TNFR2 expression alone induced IFN-? signaling and monocyte recruitment. In vivo, TNFR1 was required for acute renal neutrophil and monocyte influx after systemic TNF treatment, whereas the TNFR2-IRF1-IFN-? autocrine loop was essential only for macrophage accumulation. In a chronic model of proliferative nephritis, IRF1 and renal-expressed TNFR2 were essential for sustained macrophage accumulation. Thus, our data identify a pathway in endothelial cells that selectively recruits monocytes during a TNF-induced inflammatory response.
Project description:Oncogenic activation of Ras/MEK downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which is a prerequisite for oncolytic viruses to replicate in cancer cells . Moreover, restoration of IRF1 expression is essential to induce apoptosis of cancer cells treated with a MEK inhibitor . However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK remain unclear. In this study, we determined whether Ras/MEK activation modulates IRF1 expression at its translational level. MEK inhibition increased the activity of IRF1 promoter construct in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells and wild type MEF, but not in IRF1 deficient MEF, indicating that IRF1 protein is required for the transcriptional activation of IRF1. By conducting reporter analysis using IRF1 5'- and 3'- UTR constructs, we determined that cis elements on 5'- and 3'-UTR of IRF1 mRNA are not involved in the IRF1 regulation by Ras/MEK. We further compared the recruitment of ribosomes to IRF1 mRNA in RasV12 cells treated with or without the MEK inhibitor by conducting polysome analysis. No difference was observed in the polysomal distribution of IRF1 mRNA between RasV12 cells treated with and without the MEK inhibitor. These results suggest that regulation of IRF1 translation is independent of IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor menin (MEN1) is mutated in the inherited disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, and has several documented cellular roles, including the activation and repression of transcription effected by several transcription factors. As an activator, MEN1 is a component of the Set1-like mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) MLL1/MLL2 methyltransferase complex that methylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). MEN1 is localized to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-dependent gene, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and is further recruited when IRF1 transcription is triggered by interferon-? signaling. RESULTS: RNAi-mediated knockdown of MEN1 alters the H3K4 dimethylation and H3 acetylation profiles, and the localization of histone deacetylase 3, at IRF1. While MEN1 knockdown does not impact the rate of transcription, IRF1 heteronuclear transcripts become enriched in MEN1-depleted cells. The processed mRNA and translated protein product are concomitantly reduced, and the antiviral state is attenuated. Additionally, the transcription start site at the IRF1 promoter is disrupted in the MEN1-depleted cells. The H3K4 demethylase, lysine specific demethylase 1, is also associated with IRF1, and its inhibition alters H3K4 methylation and disrupts the transcription start site as well. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data indicate that MEN1 contributes to STAT1-activated gene expression in a novel manner that includes defining the transcription start site and RNA processing.
Project description:Oncolytic viruses exploit common molecular changes in cancer cells, which are not present in normal cells, to target and kill cancer cells. Ras transformation and defects in type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses are known to be the major mechanisms underlying viral oncolysis. Previously, we demonstrated that oncogenic RAS/Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Ras/MEK) activation suppresses the transcription of many IFN-inducible genes in human cancer cells, suggesting that Ras transformation underlies type I IFN defects in cancer cells. Here, we investigated how Ras/MEK downregulates IFN-induced transcription. By conducting promoter deletion analysis of IFN-inducible genes, namely guanylate-binding protein 2 and IFN gamma inducible protein 47 (Ifi47), we identified the IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) binding site as the promoter region responsible for the regulation of transcription by MEK. MEK inhibition promoted transcription of the IFN-inducible genes in wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not in IRF1−/− MEFs, showing that IRF1 is involved in MEK-mediated downregulation of IFN-inducible genes. Furthermore, IRF1 protein expression was lower in RasV12 cells compared with vector control NIH3T3 cells, but was restored to equivalent levels by inhibition of MEK. Similarly, the restoration of IRF1 expression by MEK inhibition was observed in human cancer cells. IRF1 re-expression in human cancer cells caused cells to become resistant to infection by the oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus strain. Together, this work demonstrates that Ras/MEK activation in cancer cells downregulates transcription of IFN-inducible genes by targeting IRF1 expression, resulting in increased susceptibility to viral oncolysis. RNA was isolated from RasV12 transformed NIH/3T3 cells (RasV12 cells) treated with 20μM U0126 or 500U/ml IFN-α, or left untreated, for 6 hours, triplicate biological samples (9 samples).
Project description:IRF8 and IRF1 are transcriptional regulators that play critical roles in the development and function of myeloid cells, including activation of macrophages by pro-inflammatory signals such as interferon gamma. Loss of IRF8 or IRF1 function causes severe susceptibility to infections in mice and in humans. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing in wild type, and in IRF8 and IRF1 mutant primary macrophages to systematically catalog all the genes bound by (cistromes) and transcriptionally activated (regulomes) by IRF8, IRF1, PU.1 and STAT1 including modulation of epigenetic histone marks. Of seven binding combinations identified, two (cluster 1: IRF8/IRF1/STAT1/PU.1; cluster 5: IRF1/STAT1/PU.1) were found to have a major role in controlling macrophage transcriptional programs both at basal level and following IFNγ activation. They direct expression of a set of genes, the IRF8/IRF1 regulome, that play critical roles in host inflammatory and anti-microbial defenses in mouse models of neuroinflammation and of pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. In addition, this IRF8/IRF1 regulome is enriched for genes mutated in human primary immuno-deficiencies, and with loci associated for several inflammatory diseases in humans. Overall design: Chromatin immunoprecipitations followed by high throughput sequencing of IRF8, IRF1 and PU.1 transcription factors ChIP prior to and following 0.5h and 3h interferon gamma stimulation on wild type (B6) bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Histone H3 lysine 4 mono-methylation was evaluated by ChIP-seq on untreated wild type BMDMs. H3 lysine 27 acetylation was assessed in wild type (B6) and in IRF8 or IRF1 mutant BMDM prior to and after 3h of interferon gamma stimulation.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by persistent synovial inflammation. The major drivers of synovial inflammation are cytokines and chemokines. Among these molecules, TNF activates fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), which leads to the production of inflammatory mediators. Here, we show that TNF regulates the expression of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in human FLSs as well as in a TNF transgenic arthritis mouse model. Transcriptomic analyses of IRF1-deficient, TNF-stimulated FLSs define the interferon (IFN) pathway as a major target of IRF1. IRF1 expression is associated with the expression of IFNβ, which leads to the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. Blocking the JAK-STAT pathway with the Janus kinase inhibitor (JAKinib) baricitinib or tofacitinib reduces the expression of IFN-regulated genes (IRGs) in TNF-activated FLSs. Therefore, we conclude that TNF induces a distinct inflammatory cascade, in which IRGs are key elements, in FLSs. The IFN-signature might be a promising biomarker for the efficient and personalized use of new treatment strategies for RA, such as JAKinibs.