Substrate efflux propensity is the key determinant of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A-? (iPLA?)-mediated glycerophospholipid hydrolysis.
ABSTRACT: The A-type phospholipases (PLAs) are key players in glycerophospholipid (GPL) homeostasis and in mammalian cells; Ca(2+)-independent PLA-? (iPLA?) in particular has been implicated in this essential process. However, the regulation of this enzyme, which is necessary to avoid futile competition between synthesis and degradation, is not understood. Recently, we provided evidence that the efflux of the substrate molecules from the bilayer is the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of GPLs by some secretory (nonhomeostatic) PLAs. To study whether this is the case with iPLA? as well, a mass spectrometric assay was employed to determine the rate of hydrolysis of multiple saturated and unsaturated GPL species in parallel using micelles or vesicle bilayers as the macrosubstrate. With micelles, the hydrolysis decreased with increasing acyl chain length independent of unsaturation, and modest discrimination between acyl positional isomers was observed, presumably due to the differences in the structure of the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl-binding sites of the protein. In striking contrast, no significant discrimination between positional isomers was observed with bilayers, and the rate of hydrolysis decreased with the acyl chain length logarithmically and far more than with micelles. These data provide compelling evidence that efflux of the substrate molecule from the bilayer, which also decreases monotonously with acyl chain length, is the rate-determining step in iPLA?-mediated hydrolysis of GPLs in membranes. This finding is intriguing as it may help to understand how homeostatic PLAs are regulated and how degradation and biosynthesis are coordinated.
Project description:To better understand the principles underlying the substrate specificity of A-type phospholipases (PLAs), a high throughput mass spectrometric assay was employed to study the effect of acyl chain length and unsaturation of phospholipids on their rate of hydrolysis by three different secretory PLAs in micelles and vesicle bilayers. With micelles, each enzyme responded differently to substrate acyl chain unsaturation and double bond position, probably reflecting differences in the accommodative properties of their substrate binding sites. Experiments with saturated acyl positional isomers indicated that the length of the sn2 chain was more critical than that of the sn1 chain, suggesting tighter association of the former with the enzyme. Only the first 9-10 carbons of the sn2 acyl chain seem to interact intimately with the active site. Strikingly, no discrimination between positional isomers was observed with vesicles, and the rate of hydrolysis decreased far more with increasing chain length than with micelles, suggesting that translocation of the phospholipid substrate to the active site is rate-limiting with bilayers. Supporting this conclusion, acyl chain structure affected hydrolysis and spontaneous intervesicle transfer, which correlates with lipid efflux propensity, analogously. We conclude that substrate efflux propensity plays a more important role in the specificity of secretory PLA(2)s than commonly thought and could also be a key attribute in phospholipid homeostasis in which (unknown) PLA(2)s are key players.
Project description:Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are abundant in the cell walls of different species of mycobacteria and consist of tripeptide-amino-alcohol core of D-Phe-D-allo-Thr-D-Ala-L-alaninol linked to 3-hydroxy or 3-methoxy C(26-34) fatty acyl chain at the N-terminal of D-Phe via amide linkage, and a 6-deoxytalose (6-dTal) and an O-methyl rhamnose residues, respectively, attach to D-allo-Thr and the terminal L-alaninol. They are important cell-surface antigens that are implicated in the pathogenesis of opportunistic mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this contribution, we described multiple-stage linear ion trap in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry towards structural characterization of complex GPLs as [M + Na](+) ions isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis, a fast-growing and non-pathogenic mycobacterial species. Following resonance excitation in an ion trap, MS(n) spectra of the [M + Na](+) ions of GPLs contained mainly b and y series ions that readily determine the peptide sequence. Fragment ions from MS(n) also afford locating the 6-dTal and O-methyl rhamnose residues linked to the D-allo-Thr and terminal L-alaninol of the peptide core, respectively, as well as recognizing the modifications of the glycosides, including their acetylation and methylation states and the presence of succinyl group. The GPL families consisting of 3-hydroxy fatty acyl and of 3-methoxy fatty acyl substituents are readily distinguishable. The MS profiles of the GPLs from cells are dependant on the conditions they were grown, and several isobaric isomers were identified for many of the molecular species. These multiple-stage mass spectrometric approaches give detailed structures of GPL in complex mixtures of which the isomeric structures are difficult to define using other analytical methods.
Project description:We have coupled 2D-NMR and infusion FT-ICR-MS with computer-assisted assignment to profile 13C-isotopologues of glycerophospholipids (GPL) directly in crude cell extracts, resulting in very high information throughput of >3000 isobaric molecules in a few minutes. A mass accuracy of better than 1 ppm combined with a resolution of 100,000 at the measured m/z was required to distinguish isotopomers from other GPL structures. Isotopologue analysis of GPLs extracted from LCC2 breast cancer cells grown on [U-13C]-glucose provided a rich trove of information about the biosynthesis and turnover of the GPLs. The isotopologue intensity ratios from the FT-ICR-MS were accurate to approximately 1% or better based on natural abundance background, and depended on the signal-to-nose ratio. The time course of incorporation of 13C from [U-13C]-glucose into a particular phosphatidylcholine was analyzed in detail, to provide a quantitative measure of the sizes of glycerol, acetyl CoA and total GPL pools in growing LCC2 cells. Independent and complementary analysis of the positional 13C enrichment in the glycerol and fatty acyl chains obtained from high resolution 2D NMR was used to verify key aspects of the model. This technology enables simple and rapid sample preparation, has rapid analysis, and is generally applicable to unfractionated GPLs of almost any head group, and to mixtures of other classes of metabolites.
Project description:Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are major components present on the outer layers of the cell walls of several nontuberculous mycobacteria. GPLs are antigenic molecules and have variant oligosaccharides in mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium avium. In this study, we identified four genes (gtf1, gtf2, gtf3, and gtf4) in the genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis. These genes were independently inactivated by homologous recombination in M. smegmatis, and the structures of GPLs from each gene disruptant were analyzed. Thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the mutants Deltagtf1 and Deltagtf2 accumulated the fatty acyl-tetrapeptide core having O-methyl-rhamnose and 6-deoxy-talose as sugar residues, respectively. The mutant Deltagtf4 possessed the same GPLs as the wild type, whereas the mutant Deltagtf3 lacked two minor GPLs, consisting of 3-O-methyl-rhamnose attached to O-methyl-rhamnose of the fatty acyl-tetrapeptide core. These results indicate that the gtf1 and gtf2 genes are responsible for the early glycosylation steps of GPL biosynthesis and the gtf3 gene is involved in transferring a rhamnose residue not to 6-deoxy-talose but to an O-methyl-rhamnose residue. Moreover, a complementation experiment showed that M. avium gtfA and gtfB, which are deduced glycosyltransferase genes of GPL biosynthesis, restore complete GPL production in the mutants Deltagtf1 and Deltagtf2, respectively. Our findings propose that both M. smegmatis and M. avium have the common glycosylation pathway in the early steps of GPL biosynthesis but differ at the later stages.
Project description:Structural elucidation of glycerophospholipids (GPLs), including the polar head group, the position of double-bond(s) along the fatty acyl substituents, and the positions of acyl groups on the glycerol backbone, using multiple-stage liner ion-trap (LIT) mass spectrometric approach is described in this paper. While the product-ion spectra from MSn (n=2, 3) on the [M+Li]+ or [M-H+2Li]+ ions of GPL are readily applicable for discerning the phospholipid classes and for identifying and locating the fatty acid substituents on the glycerol backbone, the structural information from further dissociation of the dilithiated fatty acid cations produced from MSn (n=3, 4) on the [M-H+2Li]+ ion of GPLs, as well as from further dissociation of the monolithiated fragment ion that bears the unsaturated fatty acid moiety produced from subsequent MSn (n=3,4) on the [M+Li]+ ions of GPLs, affords assignment of the position of double-bond(s) along the fatty acyl groups. The application of the present method in the structural characterization of GPL molecules from the lipid extracts of biological origin, including mixtures of phosphatidylglycerol and of phosphatidylserine without prior chromatographic separation, is also demonstrated. Since lithiated molecular species of GPL are readily formed by ESI, this multiple-stage LIT mass spectrometric approach provides a direct means for the near-complete structural characterization of all the GPLs, including the molecules in the lysophospholipid and plasmalogen subclasses.
Project description:Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are dominant cell surface molecules present in several non-tuberculous and opportunistic mycobacterial species. GPLs from Mycobacterium smegmatis are composed of a lipopeptide core unit consisting of a modified C(26)-C(34) fatty acyl chain that is linked to a tetrapeptide (Phe-Thr-Ala-alaninol). The hydroxyl groups of threonine and terminal alaninol are further modified by glycosylations. Although chemical structures have been reported for 16 GPLs from diverse mycobacteria, there is still ambiguity in identifying the exact position of the hydroxyl group on the fatty acyl chain. Moreover, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the fatty acyl component are unknown. In this study we show that a bimodular polyketide synthase in conjunction with a fatty acyl-AMP ligase dictates the synthesis of fatty acyl chain of GPL. Based on genetic, biochemical, and structural investigations, we determine that the hydroxyl group is present at the C-5 position of the fatty acyl component. Our retrobiosynthetic approach has provided a means to understand the biosynthesis of GPLs and also resolve the long-standing debate on the accurate structure of mycobacterial GPLs.
Project description:Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are among the major free glycolipid components of the outer membrane of several saprophytic and clinically-relevant Mycobacterium species. The architecture of GPLs is based on a constant tripeptide-amino alcohol core of nonribosomal peptide synthetase origin that is N-acylated with a 3-hydroxy/methoxy acyl chain synthesized by a polyketide synthase and further decorated with variable glycosylation patterns built from methylated and acetylated sugars. GPLs have been implicated in many aspects of mycobacterial biology, thus highlighting the significance of gaining an understanding of their biosynthesis. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed that every GPL biosynthetic gene cluster known to date contains a gene (referred herein to as gplH) encoding a member of the MbtH-like protein family. Herein, we sought to conclusively establish whether gplH was required for GPL production.Deletion of gplH, a gene clustered with nonribosomal peptide synthetase-encoding genes in the GPL biosynthetic gene cluster of Mycobacterium smegmatis, produced a GPL deficient mutant. Transformation of this mutant with a plasmid expressing gplH restored GPL production. Complementation was also achieved by plasmid-based constitutive expression of mbtH, a paralog of gplH found in the biosynthetic gene cluster for production of the siderophore mycobactin of M. smegmatis. Further characterization of the gplH mutant indicated that it also displayed atypical colony morphology, lack of sliding motility, altered capacity for biofilm formation, and increased drug susceptibility.Herein, we provide evidence formally establishing that gplH is essential for GPL production in M. smegmatis. Inactivation of gplH also leads to a pleiotropic phenotype likely to arise from alterations in the cell envelope due to the lack of GPLs. While genes encoding MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be needed for production of siderophores and antibiotics, our study presents the first case of one such gene proven to be required for production of a cell wall component. Furthermore, our results provide the first example of a mbtH-like gene with confirmed functional role in a member of the Mycobacterium genus. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a critical role of gplH in mycobacterial biology and advance our understanding of the genetic requirements for the biosynthesis of an important group of constituents of the mycobacterial outer membrane.
Project description:The hydrolysis of pyrenylacyl phosphatidylcholines (PyrnPCs)(n indicates the number of aliphatic carbons in the pyrene-chain) by crude lysosomal phospholipases in vitro was investigated. PyrnPCs consist of several sets in which the length of the pyrene-labelled or the unlabelled acyl chain, linked to the sn-1 or sn-2 position, was systematically varied. Lysophosphatidylcholine and fatty acid were the only fluorescent breakdown products detected, thus indicating that PyrnPCs were degraded by A-type phospholipases and lysophospholipases. Of these, mainly A1-type phospholipases appear to be involved, as determined from the relative amounts of labelled fatty acid and lysolipid released from the positional isomers. Based on the effects of the length and position of the pyrene-labelled and unlabelled chains it is suggested that (1) the lysosomal A-type phospholipases acting on PyrnPCs recognize the carboxy-terminal part of the lipid acyl chains and (2) the relevant part of the binding site is relatively narrow. Thus phospholipids with added bulk in the corresponding region, such as those that are peroxidized and polymerized, may not be good substrates for the lysosomal phospholipases mentioned. The impaired hydrolysis of the most hydrophobic PyrnPCs indicates that lysosomal phospholipases may not be able to penetrate significantly into the substrate interphase, but upward movement of the lipid may be required for efficient hydrolysis. Finally, the rate of hydrolysis of many pyrenyl derivatives was found to be comparable to that of a natural phosphatidylcholine species, both in micelles and in lipoprotein particles, indicating that these derivatives can be used as faithful reporters of lysosomal degradation of natural lipids in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens widely distributed in the natural environment. The 28 serovars of MAC are defined by variable oligosaccharide portions of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) that are abundant on the surface of the cell envelope. These GPLs are also known to contribute to the virulence of MAC. Serovar 8 is one of the dominant serovars isolated from AIDS patients, but the biosynthesis of serovar 8-specific GPL remains unknown. To clarify this, we compared gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of several serovar-specific GPLs and identified the genomic region predicted to be responsible for GPL biosynthesis in a serovar 8 strain. Sequencing of this region revealed the presence of four open reading frames, three unnamed genes and gtfTB, the function of which has not been elucidated. The simultaneous expression of gtfTB and two downstream genes in a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strain genetically modified to produce serovar 1-specific GPL resulted in the appearance of 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-3-O-methyl-glucose, which is unique to serovar 8-specific GPL, suggesting that these three genes participate in its biosynthesis. Furthermore, functional analyses of gtfTB indicated that it encodes a glucosyltransferase that transfers a glucose residue via 1-->3 linkage to a rhamnose residue of serovar 1-specific GPL, which is critical to the formation of the oligosaccharide portion of serovar 8-specific GPL. Our findings might provide a clue to understanding the biosynthetic regulation that modulates the biological functions of GPLs in MAC.
Project description:Changes in fatty acid (FA) and glycerophospholipid (GPL) metabolism associated with cell cycle entry are not fully understood. In this study FA-GPL remodeling was investigated in resting and proliferating primary human T cells. Significant changes were measured in the composition and distribution of FAs in GPLs following receptor activation of human T cells. The FA distribution of proliferating T cells was very similar to that of the human Jurkat T cell line and when the stimulus was removed from proliferating T cells, they stopped proliferating and the FA distribution largely reverted back to that of resting T cells. The cellular content of saturated and monounsaturated FAs was significantly increased in proliferating cells, which was associated with an induction of FA synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 gene expression. Additionally, cellular arachidonate was redistributed in GPLs in a distinct pattern that was unlike any other FAs. This redistribution was associated with an induction of CoA-dependent and CoA-independent remodeling. Accordingly, significant changes in the expression of several acyl-CoA synthetases, lysophospholipid acyltransferases, and phospholipase A2 were measured. Overall, these results suggest that metabolic pathways are activated in proliferating T cells that may represent fundamental changes associated with human cell proliferation.