Neutrophil extracellular trap components in fibrinoid necrosis of the kidney with myeloperoxidase-ANCA-associated vasculitis.
ABSTRACT: In response to antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), activated neutrophils release decondensed chromatin associated with cytoplasmic granular proteins composed of proteolytic enzymes and myeloperoxidase (MPO); these complexes are named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NET formation requires peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) to citrullinate chromatin histones and also MPO and neutrophil elastase to aid in decondensation and release of chromatin. Immunostaining of renal biopsy revealed that NET components of citrullinated histone, MPO and PAD4 were concurrently deposited both around fibrinoid necrosis in necrotizing glomerulonephritis in the early focal phase of ANCA-associated polyangiitis and along an interlobular arterial wall.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, wherein, MPO-ANCA plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from activated neutrophils are composed of extracellular web-like DNA and antimicrobial proteins, including MPO. Diverse stimuli, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR), induce NETs. Although TLR-mediated NET formation can occur with preservation of living neutrophilic functions (called vital NETosis), PMA-stimulated neutrophils undergo cell death with NET formation (called suicidal NETosis). In the process of suicidal NETosis, histones are citrullinated by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Since this step is necessary for decondensation of DNA, PAD4 plays a pivotal role in suicidal NETosis. Although NETs are essential for elimination of microorganisms, excessive formation of NETs has been suggested to be implicated in MPO-ANCA production. This study aimed to determine if pan-PAD inhibitors could suppress MPO-ANCA production in vivo. At first, NETs were induced in peripheral blood neutrophils derived from healthy donors (1?×?10(6)/ml) by stimulation with 20?nM PMA with or without 20??M propylthiouracil (PTU), an anti-thyroid drug. We then determined that the in vitro NET formation was inhibited completely by 200??M Cl-amidine, a pan-PAD inhibitor. Next, we established mouse models with MPO-ANCA production. BALB/c mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of PMA (50?ng at days 0 and 7) and oral PTU (2.5?mg/day) for 2?weeks. These mice were divided into two groups; the first group was given daily i.p. injection of PBS (200??l/day) (n?=?13) and the other group with daily i.p. injection of Cl-amidine (0.3?mg/200??l PBS/day) (n?=?7). Two weeks later, citrullination as an indicator of NET formation in the peritoneum and serum MPO-ANCA titer was compared between the two groups. Results demonstrated that citrullination in the peritoneum was significantly reduced in the Cl-amidine-treated mice compared with the vehicle-injected control mice (38% reduction). Additionally, the serum MPO-ANCA titer of the Cl-amidine-treated mice (32.3?±?31.0?ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in the vehicle-injected mice (132.1?±?41.6?ng/ml). The collective findings indicate that excessive formation of NETs may be implicated in MPO-ANCA production in vivo.
Project description:Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are major health problems associated with high mortality. Recently, DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) resulting from the release of decondensed chromatin, were found to be part of the thrombus scaffold and to promote coagulation. However, the significance of nuclear decondensation and NET generation in thrombosis is largely unknown. To address this, we adopted a stenosis model of deep vein thrombosis and analyzed venous thrombi in peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-deficient mice that cannot citrullinate histones, a process required for chromatin decondensation and NET formation. Intriguingly, less than 10% of PAD4(-/-) mice produced a thrombus 48 h after inferior vena cava stenosis whereas 90% of wild-type mice did. Neutrophils were abundantly present in thrombi formed in both groups, whereas extracellular citrullinated histones were seen only in thrombi from wild-type mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that PAD4 in hematopoietic cells was the source of the prothrombotic effect in deep vein thrombosis. Thrombosis could be rescued by infusion of wild-type neutrophils, suggesting that neutrophil PAD4 was important and sufficient. Endothelial activation and platelet aggregation were normal in PAD4(-/-) mice, as was hemostatic potential determined by bleeding time and platelet plug formation after venous injury. Our results show that PAD4-mediated chromatin decondensation in the neutrophil is crucial for pathological venous thrombosis and present neutrophil activation and PAD4 as potential drug targets for deep vein thrombosis.
Project description:Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) extruded from neutrophils upon activation are composed of chromatin associated with cytosolic and granular proteins, which ensnare and kill microorganisms. This microbicidal mechanism named classical netosis has been shown to dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase and also chromatin decondensation dependent upon the enzymes (PAD4), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). NET release also occurs through an early/rapid ROS-independent mechanism, named early/rapid vital netosis. Here we analyze the role of ROS, NE, MPO and PAD4 in the netosis stimulated by Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that promastigotes induce a classical netosis, dependent on the cellular redox imbalance, as well as by a chloroamidine sensitive and elastase activity mechanism. Additionally, Leishmania also induces the early/rapid NET release occurring only 10?minutes after neutrophil-parasite interaction. We demonstrate here, that this early/rapid mechanism is dependent on elastase activity, but independent of ROS generation and chloroamidine. A better understanding of both mechanisms of NET release, and the NETs effects on the host immune system modulation, could support the development of new potential therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis.
Project description:Small-vessel vasculitis (SVV) is a chronic autoinflammatory condition linked to antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCAs). Here we show that chromatin fibers, so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), are released by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils and contain the targeted autoantigens proteinase-3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Deposition of NETs in inflamed kidneys and circulating MPO-DNA complexes suggest that NET formation triggers vasculitis and promotes the autoimmune response against neutrophil components in individuals with SVV.
Project description:Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) causes vascular injury that leads to small-vessel vasculitis. Patients with ANCA aberrantly express neutrophil granule-encoding genes, including 2 that encode autoantigens: proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). To uncover a potential transcriptional regulatory mechanism for PR3 and MPO disrupted in patients with ANCA vasculitis, we examined the PR3 and MPO loci in neutrophils from ANCA patients and healthy control individuals for epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing. We found that levels of the chromatin modification H3K27me3, which is associated with gene silencing, were depleted at PR3 and MPO loci in ANCA patients compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, in both patients and controls, DNA was unmethylated at a CpG island in PR3, whereas in healthy controls, DNA was methylated at a CpG island in MPO. Consistent with decreased levels of H3K27me3, JMJD3, the demethylase specific for H3K27me3, was preferentially expressed in ANCA patients versus healthy controls. In addition, we describe a mechanism for recruiting the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to PR3 and MPO loci mediated by RUNX3. RUNX3 message was decreased in patients compared with healthy controls, and may also be under epigenetic control. DNA methylation was increased at the RUNX3 promoter in ANCA patients. These data indicate that epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing are perturbed at ANCA autoantigen-encoding genes, potentially contributing to inappropriate expression of PR3 and MPO in ANCA patients.
Project description:Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity that occurs idiopathically or in association with several conditions, but there are few reports about myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated OP. We describe a patient with OP whose clinical conditions improved spontaneously. Moreover, serum MPO-ANCA titers paralleled the clinical activity of the disease, which disappeared in association with disease quiescence. Based on these findings, a subset of patients may have OP related to MPO-ANCA. ANCA testing should be considered in the work-up of patients with suspected OP.
Project description:Background:The subclinical pathophysiology of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) has not been fully elucidated. Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is associated with PLN, but prediagnostic levels have not been reported. Methods:We performed a retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) study comparing MPO-ANCA levels in longitudinal prediagnostic serum samples for 23 biopsy confirmed proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) patients to DoDSR identified age, sex, race, and age of serum matched healthy and SLE without LN disease controls. We also compared the temporal relationship of MPO-ANCA to anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNAab). Results:A greater proportion of PLN patients had prediagnostic MPO-ANCA levels above ?3?U/mL and ?6?U/mL compared to SLE without LN (91% versus 43%, p < 0.001; 57% versus 5%, p < 0.001, resp.). In subgroup analysis, the MPO-ANCA threshold of ?3?U/mL was significant at <1 year (88% versus 39%, p = 0.007) and 1-4 years (87% versus 38%, p = 0.009) prior to diagnosis. Statistically significant subclinical MPO-ANCA levels (?3?U/mL) occurred prior to statistically significant dsDNAab ? 3?IU/ml (89% versus 11%, p = 0.003). Conclusions:Subclinical MPO-ANCA levels could distinguish future PLN from SLE without LN. MPO-ANCA manifests prior to clinical disease and subclinical dsDNAab to suggest that it may contribute directly to PLN pathogenicity.
Project description:Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase and proteinase-3, which bind monocytes in addition to neutrophils. While a pathological effect on neutrophils is acknowledged, the impact of ANCA on monocyte function is less well understood. Using IgG from patients we investigated the effect of these autoantibodies on monocytes and found that anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies (MPO-ANCA) reduced both IL-10 and IL-6 secretion in response to LPS. This reduction in IL-10 and IL-6 depended on Fc receptors and enzymatic myeloperoxidase and was accompanied by a significant reduction in TLR-driven signaling pathways. Aligning with changes in TLR signals, oxidized phospholipids, which function as TLR4 antagonists, were increased in monocytes in the presence of MPO-ANCA. We further observed that MPO-ANCA increased monocyte survival and differentiation to macrophages by stimulating CSF-1 production. However, this was independent of myeloperoxidase enzymatic activity and TLR signaling. Macrophages differentiated in the presence of MPO-ANCA secreted more TGF-? and further promoted the development of IL-10- and TGF-?-secreting CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells. Thus, MPO-ANCA may promote inflammation by reducing the secretion of antiinflammatory IL-10 from monocytes, and MPO-ANCA can alter the development of macrophages and T cells to potentially promote fibrosis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Although a possible association among myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been suggested, the clinical significance of MPO-ANCA in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), including IPF and non-IPF, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the frequency of MPO-ANCA positivity, as well as MPA incidence and risk factors for development in patients initially diagnosed with IIP.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively analysed 305 consecutive patients who were initially diagnosed as IIP and had MPO-ANCA results available.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 305 patients, 26 (8.5%) were MPO-ANCA-positive. Baseline characteristics were similar between the MPO-ANCA-positive and -negative patients. The cumulative 5-year MPA incidence was 24.3% in the MPO-ANCA-positive patients and 0% in the -negative patients (P < 0.0001). MPO-ANCA was positive in 15 of 133 (11.3%) patients initially diagnosed with IPF and in 11 of 172 (6.3%) patients initially diagnosed with non-IPF (P = 0.56), with cumulative 5-year MPA incidence of 6.2% and 1.0%, respectively (P = 0.10). Multivariate analysis revealed that UIP pattern on HRCT (HR = 3.20, P < 0.01) and no treatment for IIP (HR = 3.52, P < 0.01) were independently associated with MPA development in MPO-ANCA-positive patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MPO-ANCA positivity was uncommon, but was associated with subsequent MPA development in patients initially diagnosed with IIP, including both IPF and non-IPF cases. The study suggested that attention should be paid to MPA development in MPO-ANCA-positive IIP patients with UIP pattern on HRCT and those without treatment for IIP.
Project description:The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the genetic make-up of S. aureus isolates from PR3-ANCA-positive GPA patients with that of isolates from patients suffering from myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive AAV, and isolates from healthy controls. Based on a DNA microarray-based approach, we show that not only PR3-ANCA-positive GPA patients, but also MPO-ANCA-positive AAV patients mainly carried S. aureus types that are prevalent in the general population. Nonetheless, our data suggests that MPO-ANCA-associated S. aureus isolates may be distinct from healthy control- and PR3-ANCA-associated isolates. Furthermore, several genetic loci of S. aureus are associated with either PR3-ANCA- or MPO-ANCA-positive AAV, indicating a possible role for pore-forming toxins, such as leukocidins, in PR3-ANCA-positive GPA. Contrary to previous studies, no association between AAV and superantigens was detected. Our findings also show that a lowered humoral immune response to S. aureus is common for PR3-ANCA- and MPO-ANCA-positive AAV. Altogether, our observations imply that the presence or absence of particular virulence genes of S. aureus isolates from AAV patients contributes to disease progression and/or relapse.