A comprehensive assessment of environmental exposures among 1000 North American patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, with and without inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The relationships between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the environment are largely unknown. AIM:To validate associations reported in previous studies and to identify novel environmental exposures among PSC patients. METHODS:We performed a multicenter, case-control analysis utilising self-administered questionnaires. Responses between cases (n = 1000) and controls (n = 663) were compared using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and gender. The model was further stratified based on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) status (with IBD n = 741 without IBD n = 259). RESULTS:Smoking was associated with PSC only when IBD was present (OR, 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.7) but not among those PSC patients without IBD (OR, 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.2). Compared to controls, women with PSC (irrespective of the presence of IBD) were less likely to have received hormone replacement therapy (HRT; OR, 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and were more likely to have recurrent urinary tract infections (OR, 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.3). PSC patients regardless of gender or IBD status were less likely to eat fish (OR, 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.6) and grilled/barbecued meat (OR, 0.8; 95% CI 0.7-0.9). In contrast, PSC patients with and without IBD were more likely to consume steak/burgers that were more well done (OR, 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.5). CONCLUSIONS:IBD (rather than PSC) is associated with smoking. Women with PSC are more likely to have recurrent urinary tract infections and less likely to receive HRT. Dietary intake and methods of food preparation differ in PSC patients when compared to controls.
Project description:Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is phenotypically a mild version of large duct PSC, but it is unknown whether these phenotypes share aetiology. We aimed to characterize their relationship by investigating genetic associations in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex, which represent the strongest genetic risk factors in large duct PSC.Four classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1) were genotyped in 87 small duct PSC patients, 485 large duct PSC patients and 1117 controls across three geographical regions.HLA-DRB1*13:01 (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4, P = 0.01) and HLA-B*08 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with small duct PSC compared with healthy controls. Based on the observed frequency of HLA-B*08 in small duct PSC, the strongest risk factor in large duct PSC, an estimated 32% (95% CI 4-65%) of this population can be hypothesized to represent early stages or mild variants of large duct PSC. This subgroup may be constituted by small duct PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which greatly resembled large duct PSC in its HLA association. In contrast, small duct PSC without IBD was only associated with HLA-DRB1*13:01(P = 0.03) and was otherwise distinctly dissimilar from large duct PSC.Small duct PSC with IBD resembles large duct PSC in its HLA association and may represent early stages or mild variants of large duct disease. Different HLA associations in small duct PSC without IBD could indicate that this subgroup is a different entity. HLA-DRB1*13:01 may represent a specific risk factor for inflammatory bile duct disease.
Project description:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently co-occur. PSC is associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether PSC is associated with increased risk of extraintestinal cancers or affects mortality in an IBD cohort has not been examined previously.In a multi-institutional IBD cohort of IBD, we established a diagnosis of PSC using a novel algorithm incorporating narrative and codified data with high positive and negative predictive value. Our primary outcome was occurrence of extraintestinal and digestive tract cancers. Mortality was determined through monthly linkage to the social security master death index.In our cohort of 5506 patients with CD and 5522 patients with UC, a diagnosis of PSC was established in 224 patients (2%). Patients with IBD-PSC were younger and more likely to be male compared to IBD patients without PSC; three-quarters had UC. IBD-PSC patients had significantly increased overall risk of cancers compared to patients without PSC (OR 4.36, 95% CI 2.99-6.37). Analysis of specific cancer types revealed that a statistically significant excess risk for digestive tract cancer (OR 10.40, 95% CI 6.86-15.76), pancreatic cancer (OR 11.22, 95% CI 4.11-30.62), colorectal cancer (OR 5.00, 95% CI 2.80-8.95), and cholangiocarcinoma (OR 55.31, 95% CI 22.20-137.80) but not for other solid organ or hematologic malignancies.PSC is associated with increased risk of colorectal and pancreatobiliary cancer but not with excess risk of other solid organ cancers.
Project description:<label>OBJECTIVES</label>Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) often coexists with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and can be complicated by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a lethal malignancy for which reliable predictors remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the influence of colectomy and IBD duration on risk of CCA in patients with PSC-IBD.<label>METHODS</label>A retrospective review of patients with PSC-IBD seen at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, between January 2005 and May 2013 was performed. The primary outcome was time to development of CCA and our goal was to determine whether the risk differed between patients with and without colectomy. Risk factors were assessed using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models where colectomy, IBD disease duration, and development of advanced liver disease were treated as time-dependent covariates.<label>RESULTS</label>A total of 399 patients with PSC-IBD were included in the study, of whom 137 had a colectomy and 123 patients developed CCA. Age-adjusted univariate Cox proportional hazard models demonstrated that colectomy (hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.22, P=0.02) and duration of IBD (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.63, P<0.01) were associated with an increased risk of CCA, and colonic neoplasia (HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.97-2.37, P=0.06) and colectomy for colonic neoplasia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01-2.61, P=0.05) approached significance. Among patients with a history of colectomy, colonic neoplasia as the indication for surgery was associated with a particularly increased risk of CCA (HR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24-6.84, P=0.01) compared with medically refractory disease. On multivariate analysis, duration of IBD remained significantly associated with CCA (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60, P<0.01). The influence of IBD duration on CCA risk was not modified after colectomy (P=0.69).<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>Prolonged duration of IBD is associated with an increased risk of CCA in patients with PSC-IBD, and colectomy itself does not modify this risk. These findings identify a subset of patients who are at high risk of this lethal complication and in need of close surveillance.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) is characterized by a high risk of colorectal dysplasia. Surveillance colonoscopies with random biopsies have doubtful power for dysplasia detection. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the feasibility and efficacy of pCLE in surveillance colonoscopies in patients with PSC-IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Sixty-nine patients with PSC-IBD underwent colonoscopy in 2 steps. On the way from rectum to cecum, the mucosa was inspected with high definition endoscopy (HDE) and random biopsies were taken according to the standard routine. On the way from cecum to rectum, fluorescein-enhanced pCLE and chromoendoscopy were performed. Regions where random biopsies had been taken, as well as visible lesions, were examined with pCLE and targeted biopsies were taken of lesions suspicious for dysplasia. Two investigators, blinded to histology and endoscopy results, analyzed all pCLE videos off-line. RESULTS:Nineteen biopsies obtained in 13 patients (17 targeted biopsies, 2 random biopsies) revealed the presence of low-grade dysplasia. Thirteen lesions with dysplasia were endoscopically visible but by using pCLE-targeted biopsies, additional endoscopically invisible dysplasias in 4 biopsies obtained from 3 patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of pCLE in predicting dysplasia were respectively 89?% (95?% CI: 65?-?98), 96?% (95?% CI: 94?-?97), and 96?% (95?% CI: 94?-?97). pCLE showed a good performance for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic mucosa with negative predictive value of 99?%. CONCLUSIONS:pCLE in PSC-IBD surveillance is feasible and may be a good complement to HDE. Future research should aim at elucidating whether real-time pCLE is applicable in PSC-IBD surveillance.
Project description:To estimate the overall risk of cancer in a population-based cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and how IBD-related medications modify this risk.We identified all incident cancers (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) after IBD diagnosis in a cohort of 839 patients diagnosed as having IBD from January 1, 1940, through December 31, 2004, in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and followed up for a median 18 years through December 31, 2011 (122 patients taking biologic agents at last follow-up). We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs of all cancers and compared cancer risk in patients treated with immunomodulators (IMMs) and biologics with that of patients not exposed to these medications, using an incidence rate ratio (IRR).One hundred nine patients developed 135 cancers. The 10-year cumulative probability of cancer was 3.8%. Patients with Crohn disease (SIR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1) but not ulcerative colitis (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4) had an increased overall risk of cancer compared with the general population. Patients treated with IMMs (relative to IMM-naive patients) had an increased risk of melanoma (IRR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.1-24.8) (and a numerically higher risk of hematologic malignant tumors [IRR, 4.2; 95% CI, 0.9-19.2]), although this risk returned to baseline on discontinuation of IMM treatment. Patients treated with biologics (relative to biologic-naive patients) had a numerically higher risk of hematologic malignant tumors (IRR, 5.3; 95% CI, 0.7-40.5). There was no significant increase in the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies in patients with IBD compared with the general population.We observed an increased risk of melanoma in IMM-treated patients with IBD, and this risk returned to baseline after discontinued use of the medications.
Project description:Diversity in colorectal cancer biology is associated with variable responses to standard chemotherapy. We aimed to identify and validate DNA hypermethylated genes as predictive biomarkers for irinotecan treatment of metastatic CRC patients. Candidate genes were selected from 389 genes involved in DNA Damage Repair by correlation analyses between gene methylation status and drug response in 32 cell lines. A large series of samples (n=818) from two phase III clinical trials was used to evaluate these candidate genes by correlating methylation status to progression-free survival after treatment with first-line single-agent fluorouracil (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil) or combination chemotherapy (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil plus irinotecan (CAPIRI/FOLFIRI)). In the discovery (n=185) and initial validation set (n=166), patients with methylated Decoy Receptor 1 (DCR1) did not benefit from CAPIRI over Capecitabine treatment (discovery set: HR=1.2 (95%CI 0.7-1.9, p=0.6), validation set: HR=0.9 (95%CI 0.6-1.4, p=0.5)), whereas patients with unmethylated DCR1 did (discovery set: HR=0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.6, p=0.00001), validation set: HR=0.5 (95%CI 0.3-0.7, p=0.0008)). These results could not be replicated in the external data set (n=467), where a similar effect size was found in patients with methylated and unmethylated DCR1 for FOLFIRI over 5FU treatment (methylated DCR1: HR=0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9, p=0.01), unmethylated DCR1: HR=0.8 (95%CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4)). In conclusion, DCR1 promoter hypermethylation status is a potential predictive biomarker for response to treatment with irinotecan, when combined with capecitabine. This finding could not be replicated in an external validation set, in which irinotecan was combined with 5FU. These results underline the challenge and importance of extensive clinical evaluation of candidate biomarkers in multiple trials.
Project description:It is believed that hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) might play a role in cardiac disease (heart failure (HF) and ischemia). Mutations within several genes are HH-associated, the most common being the HFE gene. In a large cohort of HF patients, we sought to determine the etiological role and the prognostic significance of HFE genotypes.We studied 667 HF patients (72.7% men) with depressed systolic function, enrolled in a multicentre trial with a follow-up period of up to 5 years. All were genotyped for the known HFE variants C282Y, H63D and S65C.The genotype and allele frequencies in the HF group were similar to the frequencies determined in the general Danish population. In multivariable analysis mortality was not predicted by C282Y-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.7); H63D-carrier status (HR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.3); nor S65C-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-2.0). We identified 27 (4.1%) homozygous or compound heterozygous carriers of HFE variants. None of these carriers had a clinical presentation suggesting hemochromatosis, but hemoglobin and ferritin levels were higher than in the rest of the cohort. Furthermore, a trend towards reduced mortality was seen in this group in univariate analyses (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03), but not in multivariate (HR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-1.2).HFE genotypes do not seem to be a significant contributor to the etiology of heart failure in Denmark. HFE variants do not affect mortality in HF.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>The chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been widely studied; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and update evidence concerning effects of 5-ASA on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia (Dys) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD).<h4>Results</h4>5-ASA showed a chemopreventive effect against CRC/Dys in IBD patients (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.75). However, this effect was significant only in clinical-based studies (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39-0.65), but not in population-based studies (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.46-1.09). Moreover, this effect was noticeable in patients with UC (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34-0.61), but not in CD (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42-1.03), and on the outcome of CRC (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.39-0.74), but not Dys (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.20-1.10). In IBD patients, mesalazine dosage ? 1.2 g/day showed greater protective effects against CRC/Dys than dosages < 1.2 g/day. However, Sulphasalazine therapy did not show any noticeable protective function regardless of the dosage administered.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis of 26 observational studies involving 15,460 subjects to evaluate the risks of developing CRC and Dys in IBD patients receiving 5-ASA treatment. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each evaluation index.<h4>Conclusions</h4>5-ASA has a chemopreventive effect on CRC (but not Dys) in IBD patients. Moreover, UC patients can benefit more from 5-ASA than CD patients. Mesalazine maintenance dosage ? 1.2 g/day is an effective treatment for reducing CRC risk in IBD patients.
Project description:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC.We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries. The primary and secondary endpoints were liver transplantation or death (LTD) and hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effects of individual covariates on rates of clinical events, with time-to-event analysis ascertained through Kaplan-Meier estimates.Of the 7121 patients in the cohort, 2616 met the primary endpoint (median time to event of 14.5 years) and 721 developed hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. The most common malignancy was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 594); patients of advanced age at diagnosis had an increased incidence compared with younger patients (incidence rate: 1.2 per 100 patient-years for patients younger than 20 years old, 6.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 21-30 years old, 9.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 31-40 years old, 14.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 41-50 years old, 15.2 per 100 patient-years for patients 51-60 years old, and 21.0 per 100 patient-years for patients older than 60 years). Of all patients with PSC studied, 65.5% were men, 89.8% had classical or large-duct disease, and 70.0% developed IBD at some point. Assessing the development of IBD as a time-dependent covariate, Crohn's disease and no IBD (both vs ulcerative colitis) were associated with a lower risk of LTD (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P < .001 and HR, 0.90; P = .03, respectively) and malignancy (HR, 0.68; P = .008 and HR, 0.77; P = .004, respectively). Small-duct PSC was associated with a lower risk of LTD or malignancy compared with classic PSC (HR, 0.30 and HR, 0.15, respectively; both P < .001). Female sex was also associated with a lower risk of LTD or malignancy (HR, 0.88; P = .002 and HR, 0.68; P < .001, respectively). In multivariable analyses assessing the primary endpoint, small-duct PSC characterized a low-risk phenotype in both sexes (adjusted HR for men, 0.23; P < .001 and adjusted HR for women, 0.48; P = .003). Conversely, patients with ulcerative colitis had an increased risk of liver disease progression compared with patients with Crohn's disease (HR, 1.56; P < .001) or no IBD (HR, 1.15; P = .002).In an analysis of data from individual patients with PSC worldwide, we found significant variation in clinical course associated with age at diagnosis, sex, and ductal and IBD subtypes. The survival estimates provided might be used to estimate risk levels for patients with PSC and select patients for clinical trials.
Project description:We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and to evaluate the risk factors associated with early (7-day) and late (30-day) mortality. We performed an observational study including all consecutive episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia diagnosed at two Italian university hospitals during 2010-2014. A total of 337 patients were included. Mean age was 69 years (range, 57-78) and 65% were males. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was identified in 132/337 (39%)cases. Overall 7- and 30-day mortality were 13% and 26%, respectively. Early mortality was associated with increased Charlson scores (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5), MRSA bacteremia (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.1), presentation with septic shock (OR 13.5, 95% CI 5.4-36.4), and occurrence of endocarditis (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.4-14.6). Similar risk factors were identified for late mortality, including increased Charlson scores (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4), MRSA bacteremia (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.9), presentation with septic shock (OR 4, 95%CI 1.7-9.7), occurrence of endocarditis (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.2) as well as Child C cirrhosis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-14.4) and primary bacteremia (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3-5). Infectious disease consultation resulted in better outcomes both at 7 (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.05-0.4) and at 30 days (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). In conclusion, our study highlighted high rates of MRSA infection in nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Multiple comorbidities, disease severity and methicillin-resistance are key factors for early and late mortality in this group. In patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, infectious disease consultation remains a valuable tool to improve clinical outcome.