DAP5 associates with eIF2? and eIF4AI to promote Internal Ribosome Entry Site driven translation.
ABSTRACT: Initiation is a highly regulated rate-limiting step of mRNA translation. During cap-dependent translation, the cap-binding protein eIF4E recruits the mRNA to the ribosome. Specific elements in the 5'UTR of some mRNAs referred to as Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) allow direct association of the mRNA with the ribosome without the requirement for eIF4E. Cap-independent initiation permits translation of a subset of cellular and viral mRNAs under conditions wherein cap-dependent translation is inhibited, such as stress, mitosis and viral infection. DAP5 is an eIF4G homolog that has been proposed to regulate both cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Herein, we demonstrate that DAP5 associates with eIF2? and eIF4AI to stimulate IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs. In contrast, DAP5 is dispensable for cap-dependent translation. These findings provide the first mechanistic insights into the function of DAP5 as a selective regulator of cap-independent translation.
Project description:Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation. The latter involved improper cellular organization, lack of cavitation, and enhanced mislocalized apoptosis. RNA sequencing of polysome-associated mRNAs identified candidates with reduced translation efficiency in DAP5-depleted hESCs. These were enriched in mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative respiration, a pathway essential for differentiation, the significance of which was confirmed by the aberrant mitochondrial morphology and decreased oxidative respiratory activity in DAP5 knockdown cells. Further analysis identified the chromatin modifier HMGN3 as a cap-independent DAP5 translation target whose knockdown resulted in defective differentiation. Thus, DAP5-mediated translation of a specific set of proteins is critical for the transition from pluripotency to differentiation, highlighting the importance of cap-independent translation in stem cell fate decisions.
Project description:Apoptosis is characterized by a translation switch from cap-dependent to internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated protein translation. During apoptosis, several members of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4G family are cleaved specifically by caspases. Here we investigated which of the caspase-cleaved eIF4G family members could support cap-independent translation through IRES elements that retain activity in the dying cell. We focused on two major fragments arising from the cleavage of eIF4GI and death-associated protein 5 (DAP5) proteins (eIF4GI M-FAG/p76 and DAP5/p86, respectively), because they are the only potential candidates to preserve the minimal scaffold function needed to mediate translation. Transfection-based experiments in cell cultures indicated that expression of DAP5/p86 in cells stimulated protein translation from the IRESs of c-Myc, Apaf-1, DAP5, and XIAP. In contrast, these IRESs were refractory to the ectopically expressed eIF4GI M-FAG/p76. Furthermore, our study provides in vivo evidence that the caspase-mediated removal of the C-terminal tail of DAP5/p97 relieves an inhibitory effect on the protein's ability to support cap-independent translation through the DAP5 IRES. Altogether, the data suggest that DAP5 is a caspase-activated translation factor that mediates translation through a repertoire of IRES elements, supporting the translation of apoptosis-related proteins.
Project description:Ribosome recruitment to the majority of eukaryotic mRNAs is facilitated by the interaction of the cap binding protein, eIF4E, with the mRNA 5' cap structure. eIF4E stimulates translation through its interaction with a scaffolding protein, eIF4G, which helps to recruit the ribosome. Metazoans also contain a homolog of eIF4E, termed 4EHP, which binds the cap structure, but not eIF4G, and thus cannot stimulate translation, but it instead inhibits the translation of only one known, and possibly subset mRNAs. To understand why 4EHP does not inhibit general translation, we studied the binding affinity of 4EHP for cap analogs using two methods: fluorescence titration and stopped-flow measurements. We show that 4EHP binds cap analogs m(7)GpppG and m(7)GTP with 30 and 100 lower affinity than eIF4E. Thus, 4EHP cannot compete with eIF4E for binding to the cap structure of most mRNAs.
Project description:Death-associated protein 5 (DAP5) is a member of the eIF4G family of scaffolding proteins that mediate cap-independent translation initiation by recruiting the translational machinery to internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) on mRNA. The MIF4G domain of DAP5 directly interacts with the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF4A and eIF3 and enhances the translation of several viral and cellular IRESs. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the MIF4G domain of DAP5 is presented.
Project description:Proper wiring between neurons is indispensable for proper brain function. From the early developmental stage, axons grow and navigate to connect to targets according to specific guidance cues. The accuracy of axonal outgrowth and navigation are controlled by a variety of genes, and mutations and/or deficiencies in these genes are closely related to several brain disorders, such as autism. DSCR1 is one of these genes and regulates actin filament formation in axons. Thus, identifying the detailed regulatory mechanisms of DSCR1 expression is crucial for the understanding of the axon development of neurons; however, these regulatory mechanisms of DSCR1 remain unknown. Here, we discovered that mRNA encoding the DSCR1 isoform DSCR1.4 is present and mainly translated by the cap-independent initiation mechanisms in both the soma and axons of hippocampal neurons. We found that translation of DSCR1.4 mRNA is enhanced by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5), which can bind to DSCR1.4 5'UTR. BDNF-stimulus induced an increase in DAP5 expression and the cap-independent translation efficiency of DSCR1.4 mRNA in axon as well as soma. Furthermore, we showed the importance of the cap-independent translation of DSCR1.4 on enhancement of DSCR1.4 expression by BDNF-stimulus and axonal outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. Our findings suggest a new translational regulatory mechanism for DSCR1.4 expressions and a novel function of DAP5 as a positive regulator of DSCR1.4 mRNA translation induced in soma and axon of hippocampal neurons.
Project description:Translational control of gene expression has emerged as a key mechanism in regulating different forms of long-lasting neuronal plasticity. Maladaptive plastic reorganization of peripheral and spinal nociceptive circuits underlies many chronic pain states and relies on new gene expression. Accordingly, downregulation of mRNA translation in primary afferents and spinal dorsal horn neurons inhibits tissue injury-induced sensitization of nociceptive pathways, supporting a central role for translation dysregulation in the development of persistent pain. Translation is primarily regulated at the initiation stage via the coordinated activity of translation initiation factors. The mRNA cap-binding protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), is involved in the recruitment of the ribosome to the mRNA cap structure, playing a central role in the regulation of translation initiation. eIF4E integrates inputs from the mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, both of which are activated in numerous painful conditions to regulate the translation of a subset of mRNAs. Many of these mRNAs are involved in the control of cell growth, proliferation, and neuroplasticity. However, the full repertoire of eIF4E-dependent mRNAs in the nervous system and their translation regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the role of eIF4E-dependent translational control in the sensitization of pain circuits and present pharmacological approaches to target these mechanisms. Understanding eIF4E-dependent translational control mechanisms and their roles in aberrant plasticity of nociceptive circuits might reveal novel therapeutic targets to treat persistent pain states.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA translation begins with recruitment of the 40S ribosome complex to the mRNA 5' end through the eIF4F initiation complex binding to the 5' m(7)G-mRNA cap. Spliced leader (SL) RNA trans splicing adds a trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap and a sequence, the SL, to the 5' end of mRNAs. Efficient translation of TMG-capped mRNAs in nematodes requires the SL sequence. Here we define a core set of nucleotides and a stem-loop within the 22-nucleotide nematode SL that stimulate translation of mRNAs with a TMG cap. The structure and core nucleotides are conserved in other nematode SLs and correspond to regions of SL1 required for early Caenorhabditis elegans development. These SL elements do not facilitate translation of m(7)G-capped RNAs in nematodes or TMG-capped mRNAs in mammalian or plant translation systems. Similar stem-loop structures in phylogenetically diverse SLs are predicted. We show that the nematode eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E/G (eIF4E/G) complex enables efficient translation of the TMG-SL RNAs in diverse in vitro translation systems. TMG-capped mRNA translation is determined by eIF4E/G interaction with the cap and the SL RNA, although the SL does not increase the affinity of eIF4E/G for capped RNA. These results suggest that the mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) can play a positive and novel role in translation initiation through interaction with the eIF4E/G complex in nematodes and raise the issue of whether eIF4E/G-RNA interactions play a role in the translation of other eukaryotic mRNAs.
Project description:Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay (NMD) generally degrades mRNAs that prematurely terminate translation as a means of quality control. NMD in mammalian cells targets newly spliced mRNA that is bound by the cap-binding protein heterodimer CBP80/20 and one or more post-splicing exon junction complexes during a pioneer round of translation. NMD targets mRNA that initiates translation using the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), therefore NMD might target not only CBP80/20-bound mRNA but also its remodelled product, eIF4E-bound mRNA. Here, we provide evidence that NMD triggered by translation initiation at the EMCV IRES, similar to NMD triggered by translation initiation at an mRNA cap, targets CBP80/20-bound mRNA but does not detectably target eIF4E-bound mRNA. We show that EMCV IRES-initiated translation undergoes a CBP80/20-associated pioneer round of translation that results in CBP80/20-dependent and Upf factor-dependent NMD when translation terminates prematurely.
Project description:Resistance of translation of some eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to inactivation of the cap-binding factor eIF4E under unfavorable conditions is well documented. To date, it is the mechanism of internal ribosome entry that is predominantly thought to underlay this stress tolerance. However, many cellular mRNAs that had been considered to contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) failed to pass stringent control tests for internal initiation, thus raising the question of how they are translated under stress conditions. Here, we show that inserting an eIF4G-binding element from a virus IRES into 5'-UTRs of strongly cap-dependent mRNAs dramatically reduces their requirement for the 5'-terminal m(7)G-cap, though such cap-independent translation remains dependent on a vacant 5'-terminus of these mRNAs. Importantly, direct binding of eIF4G to the 5'-UTR of mRNA makes its translation resistant to eIF4F inactivation both in vitro and in vivo. These data may substantiate a new paradigm of translational control under stress to complement IRES-driven mechanism of translation.
Project description:Translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates mRNA selection for protein synthesis via the mRNA 5'cap. A family of binding proteins, termed the 4E-BPs, interact with eIF4E to hinder ribosome recruitment. Mechanisms underlying mRNA specificity for 4E-BP control remain poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4E-BPs, Caf20p and Eap1p, each regulate an overlapping set of mRNAs. We undertook global approaches to identify protein and RNA partners of both 4E-BPs by immunoprecipitation of tagged proteins combined with mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing. Unexpectedly, mass spectrometry indicated that the 4E-BPs associate with many ribosomal proteins. 80S ribosome and polysome association was independently confirmed and was not dependent upon interaction with eIF4E, as mutated forms of both Caf20p and Eap1p with disrupted eIF4E-binding motifs retain ribosome interaction. Whole-cell proteomics revealed Caf20p mutations cause both up and down-regulation of proteins and that many changes were independent of the 4E-binding motif. Investigations into Caf20p mRNA targets by immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed a strong association between Caf20p and mRNAs involved in transcription and cell cycle processes, consistent with observed cell cycle phenotypes of mutant strains. A core set of over 500 Caf20p-interacting mRNAs comprised of both eIF4E-dependent (75%) and eIF4E-independent targets (25%), which differ in sequence attributes. eIF4E-independent mRNAs share a 3' UTR motif. Caf20p binds all tested motif-containing 3' UTRs. Caf20p and the 3'UTR combine to influence ERS1 mRNA polysome association consistent with Caf20p contributing to translational control. Finally ERS1 3'UTR confers Caf20-dependent repression of expression to a heterologous reporter gene. Taken together, these data reveal conserved features of eIF4E-dependent Caf20p mRNA targets and uncover a novel eIF4E-independent mode of Caf20p binding to mRNAs that extends the regulatory role of Caf20p in the mRNA-specific repression of protein synthesis beyond its interaction with eIF4E.