Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance.
ABSTRACT: To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation.Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1-2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data.Two academic sleep laboratories.Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults.In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively.In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively.Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline following sleep deprivation.
Project description:There are strong individual differences in performance during sleep deprivation. We assessed whether baseline features of Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) performance can be used for classifying participants' relative attentional vulnerability to total sleep deprivation. In a laboratory, healthy adults (n?=?160, aged 18-30 years) completed a 10-min PVT every 2?h while being kept awake for ?24?hours. Participants were categorized as vulnerable (n?=?40), intermediate (n?=?80), or resilient (n?=?40) based on their number of PVT lapses during one night of sleep deprivation. For each baseline PVT (taken 4-14?h after wake-up time), a linear discriminant model with wrapper-based feature selection was used to classify participants' vulnerability to subsequent sleep deprivation. Across models, classification accuracy was about 70% (range 65-76%) using stratified 5-fold cross validation. The models provided about 78% sensitivity and 86% specificity for classifying resilient participants, and about 70% sensitivity and 89% specificity for classifying vulnerable participants. These results suggest features derived from a single 10-min PVT at baseline can provide substantial, but incomplete information about a person's relative attentional vulnerability to total sleep deprivation. In the long term, modeling approaches that incorporate baseline performance characteristics can potentially improve personalized predictions of attentional performance when sleep deprivation cannot be avoided.
Project description:A night without sleep is followed by enhanced sleepiness, increased low-frequency activity in the waking EEG, and reduced vigilant attention. The magnitude of these changes is highly variable among healthy individuals. Findings in young men of low and high subjective caffeine sensitivity suggest that adenosinergic mechanisms contribute to inter-individual differences in sleep deprivation-induced changes in EEG theta activity, as well as optimal performance on the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). In comparison to young subjects, healthy adults of older age typically feel less sleepy after sleep deprivation, and show fewer response lapses, and faster reaction times on the PVT, especially in the morning after the night without sleep. We hypothesized that age-related changes in adenosine signal transmission underlie reduced vulnerability to sleep deprivation in older individuals. To test this hypothesis, the combined effects of prolonged wakefulness and the adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, on an antero-posterior power gradient in EEG theta activity and PVT performance were analyzed in healthy older and caffeine-insensitive and -sensitive young men. The results show that age-related differences in sleep loss-induced changes in brain rhythmic activity and neurobehavioral functions are mirrored in young individuals of low and high sensitivity to the stimulant effects of caffeine. Moreover, the effects of sleep deprivation and caffeine on regional theta power and vigilant attention are inversely correlated across older and young age groups. Genetic variants of the adenosine A(2A) receptor gene contribute to individual differences in neurobehavioral performance in rested and sleep deprived state, and modulate the actions of caffeine in wakefulness and sleep. Based upon this evidence, we propose that age-related differences in A(2A) receptor-mediated signal transduction could be involved in age-related changes in the vulnerability to acute sleep deprivation.
Project description:Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) impairs sustained attention in humans, as commonly assessed with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). To further investigate the mechanisms underlying performance deficits during CSR, we examined the effect of CSR on performance on a rat version of PVT (rPVT).Adult male rats were trained on a rPVT that required them to press a bar when they detected irregularly presented, brief light stimuli, and were then tested during CSR. CSR consisted of 100 or 148 h of continuous cycles of 3-h sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating wheels) alternating with a 1-h sleep opportunity (3/1 protocol).After 28 h of CSR, the latency of correct responses and the percentages of lapses and omissions increased, whereas the percentage of correct responses decreased. Over 52-148 h of CSR, all performance measures showed partial or nearly complete recovery, and were at baseline levels on the first or second day after CSR. There were large interindividual differences in the magnitude of performance impairment during CSR, suggesting differential vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss. Wheel-running controls showed no changes in performance.A 28-h period of the 3/1 chronic sleep restriction (CSR) protocol disrupted performance on a sustained attention task in rats, as sleep deprivation does in humans. Performance improved after longer periods of CSR, suggesting allostatic adaptation, contrary to some reports of progressive deterioration in psychomotor vigilance task performance during CSR in humans. However, as observed in humans, there were individual differences among rats in the vulnerability of their attention performance to CSR.
Project description:There is a long-standing debate about the best way to characterize performance deficits on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), a widely used assay of cognitive impairment in human sleep deprivation studies. Here, we address this issue through the theoretical framework of the diffusion model and propose to express PVT performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).From the equations of the diffusion model for one-choice, reaction-time tasks, we derived an expression for a novel SNR metric for PVT performance. We also showed that LSNR-a commonly used log-transformation of SNR-can be reasonably well approximated by a linear function of the mean response speed, LSNRapx. We computed SNR, LSNR, LSNRapx, and number of lapses for 1284 PVT sessions collected from 99 healthy young adults who participated in laboratory studies with 38 hr of total sleep deprivation.All four PVT metrics captured the effects of time awake and time of day on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. The LSNR had the best psychometric properties, including high sensitivity, high stability, high degree of normality, absence of floor and ceiling effects, and no bias in the meaning of change scores related to absolute baseline performance.The theoretical motivation of SNR and LSNR permits quantitative interpretation of PVT performance as an assay of the fidelity of information processing in cognition. Furthermore, with a conceptual and statistical meaning grounded in information theory and generalizable across scientific fields, LSNR in particular is a useful tool for systems-integrated fatigue risk management.
Project description:This study investigated whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) moderated caffeine effects on vigilance and performance in a double-blind and crossover total sleep deprivation (TSD) protocol in 37 subjects. In caffeine (2 × 2.5 mg/kg/24 h) or placebo-controlled condition, subjects performed a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and reported sleepiness every six hours (Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS)) during TSD. EEG was also analyzed during the 09:15 PVT. Carriers of the TNF-α SNP A allele appear to be more sensitive than homozygote G/G genotype to an attenuating effect of caffeine on PVT lapses during sleep deprivation only because they seem more degraded, but they do not perform better as a result. The A allele carriers of COMT were also more degraded and sensitive to caffeine than G/G genotype after 20 h of sleep deprivation, but not after 26 and 32 h. Regarding PVT reaction time, ADORA2A influences the TSD effect but not caffeine, and PER3 modulates only the caffeine effect. Higher EEG theta activity related to sleep deprivation was observed in mutated TNF-α, PER3, and COMT carriers, in the placebo condition particularly. In conclusion, there are genetic influences on neurobehavioral impairments related to TSD that appear to be attenuated by caffeine administration. (NCT03859882).
Project description:<h4>Study objective</h4>Sleep deprivation significantly reduces the ability to maintain a consistent alertness level and impairs vigilant attention. Previous studies have shown that longer inter-stimulus interval (ISI) are associated with faster reaction times (RTs) on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). However, whether and how sleep deprivation interacts with this ISI effect remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>N = 70 healthy adults (age range 20-50 years, 41 males) participated in a 5-day and 4-night in-laboratory controlled sleep deprivation study, including N = 54 in the experimental group with one night of total sleep deprivation and N = 16 in the control group without sleep loss. All participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery every 2 hours while awake, including a 10-minute standard PVT (PVT-S, N = 1626) and a 3-minute brief PVT (PVT-B, N = 1622). The linear approach to threshold with ergodic rate (LATER) model was used to fit the RT data.<h4>Results</h4>RT decreased significantly with longer ISI on the PVT-S and PVT-B. Increased ISI effect was found for both PVT-S and PVT-B during sleep deprivation compared to baseline or recovery sleep in the experimental group, whereas no differences in the ISI effect were found in the control group. The LATER model fitting indicated that changes in perceptual sensitivity rather than threshold adjustment may underlie the ISI effect.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both standard and brief PVT showed a similar ISI effect on vigilant attention performance. Sleep deprivation increased the ISI effect on both PVT-S and PVT-B, which may be due to impaired temporal resolution and time estimation after sleep loss.
Project description:Trait-like differences in cognitive performance after sleep loss put some individuals more at risk than others, the basis of such disparities remaining largely unknown. Similarly, interindividual differences in impairment in response to alcohol intake have been observed. We tested whether performance impairments due to either acute or chronic sleep loss can be predicted by an individual's vulnerability to acute alcohol intake. Also, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to test whether acute alcohol infusion results in an up-regulation of cerebral A1 adenosine receptors (A1ARs), similar to the changes previously observed following sleep deprivation. Sustained attention in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was tested in 49 healthy volunteers (26 ± 5 SD years; 15 females) (i) under baseline conditions: (ii) after ethanol intake, and after either (iii) total sleep deprivation (TSD; 35 hours awake; n = 35) or (iv) partial sleep deprivation (PSD; four nights with 5 hours scheduled sleep; n = 14). Ethanol- versus placebo-induced changes in cerebral A1AR availability were measured in 10 healthy male volunteers (31 ± 9 years) with [18F]8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine (CPFPX) PET. Highly significant correlations between the performance impairments induced by ethanol and sleep deprivation were found for various PVT parameters, including mean speed (TSD, r = 0.62; PSD, r = 0.84). A1AR availability increased up to 26% in several brain regions with ethanol infusion. Our studies revealed individual trait characteristics for being either vulnerable or resilient to both alcohol and to sleep deprivation. Both interventions induce gradual increases in cerebral A1AR availability, pointing to a potential common molecular response mechanism.
Project description:Prolonged wakefulness impairs sustained vigilant attention, measured with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and induces a compensatory increase in sleep intensity in recovery sleep, quantified by slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). These effects of sleep deprivation are counteracted by the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, implying involvement of the adenosine neuromodulator/receptor system. To examine a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors, we investigated whether variation of the A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) modified effects of caffeine on PVT and SWA after sleep deprivation.A haplotype analysis of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ADORA2A was performed in 82 volunteers. In 45 young men carrying five different allele combinations, we investigated the effects of prolonged waking and 2 × 200 mg caffeine or 2 × 100 mg modafinil on psychomotor vigilance, sleepiness, and the waking and sleep EEG.Throughout extended wakefulness, the carriers of haplotype HT4 performed faster on the PVT than carriers of non-HT4 haplotype alleles. In haplotype HT4, caffeine failed to counteract the waking-induced impairment of PVT performance and the rebound of SWA in recovery sleep. However, caffeine was effective in non-HT4 allele carriers, and modafinil reduced the consequences of prolonged waking, independently of ADORA2A haplotype.Common genetic variation of ADORA2A is an important determinant of psychomotor vigilance in rested and sleep-deprived state. It also modulates individual responses to caffeine after sleep deprivation. These findings demonstrate a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors in the effects of prolonged wakefulness on vigilant attention and the sleep EEG.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD.<h4>Design</h4>Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects.<h4>Setting</h4>Sleep laboratory.<h4>Participants</h4>There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT.<h4>Measurements and results</h4>Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable participants also rely more on automatic processes.
Project description:Cytokines such as TNF? play an integral role in sleep/wake regulation and have recently been hypothesized to be involved in cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation. We examined the effect of a guanine to adenine substitution at position 308 in the TNF? gene (TNF? G308A) on psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation. A total of 88 healthy women and men (ages 22-40) participated in one of five laboratory total sleep deprivation experiments. Performance on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was measured every 2-3h. The TNF? 308A allele, which is less common than the 308G allele, was associated with greater resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation (regardless of time of day), and also provided a small performance benefit at baseline. The effect of genotype on resilience persisted when controlling for between-subjects differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline sleep duration. The TNF? G308A polymorphism predicted less than 10% of the overall between-subjects variance in performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Nonetheless, the differential effect of the polymorphism at the peak of performance impairment was more than 50% of median performance impairment at that time, which is sizeable compared to the effects of other genotypes reported in the literature. Our findings provided evidence for a role of TNF? in the effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor vigilance performance. Furthermore, the TNF? G308A polymorphism may have predictive potential in a biomarker panel for the assessment of resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment due to sleep deprivation.