Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis.
ABSTRACT: MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.
Project description:MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of processes in flowering plants ranging from root growth to flower and fruit development. However, studies of the tolerance-related functions of MADS-box genes are very limited, and to date no such studies have been conducted on Camellia sinensis. To gain insight into the functions of genes of this family and to elucidate the role they may play in tissue development and Al and F response, we identified 45 MADS-box genes through transcriptomic analysis of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analysis of these CsMADS-box genes, along with their homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled us to classify them into distinct groups, including: M-type (M?), MIKC* and MIKCc (which contains the SOC1, AGL12, AGL32, SEP, ANR1, SVP, and FLC subgroups). Conserved motif analysis of the CsMADS-box proteins revealed diverse motif compositions indicating a complex evolutionary relationship. Finally, we examined the expression patterns of CsMADS-box genes in various tissues and under different Al and F concentration treatments. Our qPCR results showed that these CsMADS-box genes were involved in Al and F accumulation and root growth in C. sinensis. These findings lay the foundation for future research on the function of CsMADS-box genes and their role in response to Al and F accumulation in root tissues.
Project description:MADS genes encode a family of transcription factors, some of which control the identities of floral organs in flowering plants. Most of the MADS-box genes in fern have been cloned and analyzed in model plants, such as Ceratopteris richardii and Ceratopteris pteridoides. In this study, a new MADS-box gene, DfMADS1(GU385475), was cloned from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott to better understand the role of MADS genes in the evolution of floral organs. The full-length DfMADS1 cDNA was 973 bp in length with a 75 bp 5'-UTR and a 169 bp 3'-UTR. The DfMADS1 protein was predicted to contain a typical MIKC-type domain structure consisting of a MADS domain, a short I region, a K domain, and a C-terminal region. The DfMADS1 protein showed high homology with MADS box proteins from other ferns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DfMADS1 belongs to the CRM1-like subfamily. RT-PCR analysis indicated that DfMADS1 is expressed in both the gametophytes and the sporophytes of D. fragrans.
Project description:In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKC(C) and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKC(C)); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKC(C), and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKC(C) genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKC(C) genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKC(C) genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>MADS-box genes encode a large family of transcription factors that play significant roles in plant growth and development. Bamboo is an important non-timber forest product worldwide, but previous studies on the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) MADS-box gene family were not accurate nor sufficiently detailed.<label>RESULTS</label>Here, a complete genome-wide identification and characterization of the MADS-box genes in moso bamboo was conducted. There was an unusual lack of type-I MADS-box genes in the bamboo genome database ( http://22.214.171.124/bamboo/index.php ), and some of the PeMADS sequences are fragmented and/or inaccurate. We performed several bioinformatics techniques to obtain more precise sequences using transcriptome assembly. In total, 42 MADS-box genes, including six new type-I MADS-box genes, were identified in bamboo, and their structures, phylogenetic relationships, predicted conserved motifs and promoter cis-elements were systematically investigated. An expression analysis of the bamboo MADS-box genes in floral organs and leaves revealed that several key members are involved in bamboo inflorescence development, like their orthologous genes in Oryza. The ectopic overexpression of one MADS-box gene, PeMADS5, in Arabidopsis triggered an earlier flowering time and the development of an aberrant flower phenotype, suggesting that PeMADS5 acts as a floral activator and is involved in bamboo flowering.<label>CONCLUSION</label>We produced the most comprehensive information on MADS-box genes in moso bamboo. Additionally, a critical PeMADS gene (PeMADS5) responsible for the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth was identified and shown to be related to bamboo floral development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes play crucial roles in plant floral organ formation and plant reproductive development. However, there is still no information on genome-wide identification and classification of MADS-box genes in some representative plant species. A comprehensive investigation of MIKC-type genes in the orchid Dendrobium officinale is still lacking. RESULTS:Here we conducted a genome-wide analysis of MADS-box proteins from 29 species. In total, 1689 MADS-box proteins were identified. Two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and II, were found in land plants, but not in liverwort. The SQUA, DEF/GLO, AG and SEP subfamilies existed in all the tested flowering plants, while SQUA was absent in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, and no genes of the four subfamilies were found in a charophyte, liverwort, mosses, or lycophyte. This strongly corroborates the notion that clades of floral organ identity genes led to the evolution of flower development in flowering plants. Nine subfamilies of MIKCC genes were present in two orchids, D. officinale and Phalaenopsis equestris, while the TM8, FLC, AGL15 and AGL12 subfamilies may be lost. In addition, the four clades of floral organ identity genes in both orchids displayed a conservative and divergent expression pattern. Only three MIKC-type genes were induced by cold stress in D. officinale while 15 MIKC-type genes showed different levels of expression during seed germination. CONCLUSIONS:MIKC-type genes were identified from streptophyte lineages, revealing new insights into their evolution and development relationships. Our results show a novel role of MIKC-type genes in seed germination and provide a useful clue for future research on seed germination in orchids.
Project description:Gene duplication is a substrate of evolution. However, the relative importance of positive selection versus relaxation of constraints in the functional divergence of gene copies is still under debate. Plant MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators key in various aspects of development and have undergone extensive duplications to form a large family. We recovered 104 MADS sequences from the Arabidopsis genome. Bayesian phylogenetic trees recover type II lineage as a monophyletic group and resolve a branching sequence of monophyletic groups within this lineage. The type I lineage is comprised of several divergent groups. However, contrasting gene structure and patterns of chromosomal distribution between type I and II sequences suggest that they had different evolutionary histories and support the placement of the root of the gene family between these two groups. Site-specific and site-branch analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) suggest that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these lineages. We found evidence for PDS along the branch leading to flowering time genes that have a direct impact on plant fitness. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in the MADS and K domains, suggesting that these played important roles in the acquisition of novel functions during MADS-box diversification. Detected sites are targets for further experimental analyses. We argue that adaptive changes in MADS-domain protein sequences have been important for their functional divergence, suggesting that changes within coding regions of transcriptional regulators have influenced phenotypic evolution of plants.
Project description:MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms.The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes.Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11-14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14-16 Type II MADS-box genes.The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS-box genes for the development of gymnosperms. This study is the first that provides a comprehensive overview of MADS-box genes in conifers and thus will provide a framework for future work on MADS-box genes in seed plants.
Project description:Changes in genes encoding transcriptional regulators can alter development and are important components of the molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution. MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators of diverse and important biological functions. In plants, MADS-box genes regulate flower, fruit, leaf, and root development. Recent sequencing efforts in Arabidopsis have allowed a nearly complete sampling of the MADS-box gene family from a single plant, something that was lacking in previous phylogenetic studies. To test the long-suspected parallel between the evolution of the MADS-box gene family and the evolution of plant form, a polarized gene phylogeny is necessary. Here we suggest that a gene duplication ancestral to the divergence of plants and animals gave rise to two main lineages of MADS-box genes: TypeI and TypeII. We locate the root of the eukaryotic MADS-box gene family between these two lineages. A novel monophyletic group of plant MADS domains (AGL34 like) seems to be more closely related to previously identified animal SRF-like MADS domains to form TypeI lineage. Most other plant sequences form a clear monophyletic group with animal MEF2-like domains to form TypeII lineage. Only plant TypeII members have a K domain that is downstream of the MADS domain in most plant members previously identified. This suggests that the K domain evolved after the duplication that gave rise to the two lineages. Finally, a group of intermediate plant sequences could be the result of recombination events. These analyses may guide the search for MADS-box sequences in basal eukaryotes and the phylogenetic placement of new genes from other plant species.
Project description:MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1, a Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING (MAF), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1-overexpressing Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1-silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2. These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pineapple is the most important crop with CAM photosynthesis, but its molecular biology is underexplored. MADS-box genes are crucial transcription factors involving in plant development and several biological processes. However, there is no systematic analysis of MADS-box family genes in pineapple (Ananas comosus). RESULTS:Forty-eight MADS-box genes were identified in the pineapple genome. Based on the phylogenetic studies, pineapple MADS-box genes can be divided into type I and type II MADS-box genes. Thirty-four pineapple genes were classified as type II MADS-box genes including 32 MIKC-type and 2 M?-type, while 14 type I MADS-box genes were further divided into M?, M? and M? subgroups. A majority of pineapple MADS-box genes were randomly distributed across 19 chromosomes. RNA-seq expression patterns of MADS-box genes in four different tissues revealed that more genes were highly expressed in flowers, which was confirmed by our quantitative RT-PCR results. There is no FLC and CO orthologs in pineapple. The loss of FLC and CO orthologs in pineapple indicated that modified flowering genes network in this tropical plant compared with Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of MADS-box genes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic leaf tissues indicated the potential roles of some MADS-box genes in pineapple CAM photosynthesis. The 23% of pineapple MADS-box genes showed diurnal rhythm, indicating that these MADS-box genes are regulated by circadian clock. CONCLUSIONS:MADS-box genes identified in pineapple are closely related to flowering development. Some MADS-box genes are involved in CAM photosynthesis and regulated by the circadian clock. These findings will facilitate research on the development of unusual spiral inflorescences on pineapple fruit and CAM photosynthesis.