Oxygen-sensing PHDs regulate bone homeostasis through the modulation of osteoprotegerin.
ABSTRACT: The bone microenvironment is composed of niches that house cells across variable oxygen tensions. However, the contribution of oxygen gradients in regulating bone and blood homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we generated mice with either single or combined genetic inactivation of the critical oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes (PHD1-3) in osteoprogenitors. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activation associated with Phd2 and Phd3 inactivation drove bone accumulation by modulating osteoblastic/osteoclastic cross-talk through the direct regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, combined inactivation of Phd1, Phd2, and Phd3 resulted in extreme HIF signaling, leading to polycythemia and excessive bone accumulation by overstimulating angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. We also demonstrate that genetic ablation of Phd2 and Phd3 was sufficient to protect ovariectomized mice against bone loss without disrupting hematopoietic homeostasis. Importantly, we identify OPG as a HIF target gene capable of directing osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis to regulate bone homeostasis. Here, we show that coordinated activation of specific PHD isoforms fine-tunes the osteoblastic response to hypoxia, thereby directing two important aspects of bone physiology: cross-talk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and angiogenic-osteogenic coupling.
Project description:Renal peritubular interstitial fibroblast-like cells are critical for adult erythropoiesis, as they are the main source of erythropoietin (EPO). Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) controls EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and is regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, which function as cellular oxygen sensors. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity are poorly characterized, and the role of the PHD/HIF-2 axis in renal EPO-producing cell (REPC) plasticity is unclear. Here we targeted the PHD/HIF-2/EPO axis in FOXD1 stroma-derived renal interstitial cells and examined the role of individual PHDs in REPC pool size regulation and renal EPO output. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity were entirely derived from FOXD1-expressing stroma, and Phd2 inactivation alone induced renal Epo in a limited number of renal interstitial cells. EPO induction was submaximal, as hypoxia or pharmacologic PHD inhibition further increased the REPC fraction among Phd2-/- renal interstitial cells. Moreover, Phd1 and Phd3 were differentially expressed in renal interstitium, and heterozygous deficiency for Phd1 and Phd3 increased REPC numbers in Phd2-/- mice. We propose that FOXD1 lineage renal interstitial cells consist of distinct subpopulations that differ in their responsiveness to Phd2 inactivation and thus regulation of HIF-2 activity and EPO production under hypoxia or conditions of pharmacologic or genetic PHD inactivation.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1?-modifying enzymes prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)1, PHD2 and PHD3 to response of tumours and survival in breast cancer patients enrolled in a phase II trial of neoadjuvant anthracycline and tamoxifen therapy.The expression of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 together with HIF-1? and the HIF-inducible genes vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX were assessed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach in 211 patients with T2-4 N0-1 breast cancer enrolled in a randomised trial comparing single-agent epirubicin versus epirubicin and tamoxifen as the primary systemic treatment.PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 were detected in 47/179 (26.7%), 85/163 (52.2%) and 69/177 (39%) of tumours at baseline. PHD2 and PHD3 expression was moderate/strong whereas PHD1 expression was generally weak. There was a significant positive correlation between HIF-1? and PHD1 (P = 0.002) and PHD3 (P < 0.05) but not PHD2 (P = 0.41). There was a significant positive relationship between VEGF and PHD1 (P < 0.008) and PHD3 (P = 0.001) but not PHD2 (P = 0.09). PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 expression was significantly increased after epirubicin therapy (all P < 0.000) with no significant difference in PHD changes between the treatment arms. There was no significant difference in response in tumours that expressed PHDs and PHD expression was not associated with survival.Although expression of the PHDs was not related to response or survival in patients receiving neoadjuvant epirubicin, our data provide the first evidence that these enzymes are upregulated on therapy in breast cancer and that the biological effects independent of HIF make them therapeutic targets.
Project description:Polycythemia is often associated with erythropoietin (EPO) overexpression and defective oxygen sensing. In normal cells, intracellular oxygen concentrations are directly sensed by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins, which tag hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha subunits for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation. Here we show that different PHD isoforms differentially regulate HIF-alpha stability in the adult liver and kidney and suppress Epo expression and erythropoiesis through distinct mechanisms. Although Phd1(-/-) or Phd3(-/-) mice had no apparent defects, double knockout of Phd1 and Phd3 led to moderate erythrocytosis. HIF-2alpha, which is known to activate Epo expression, accumulated in the liver. In adult mice deficient for PHD2, the prototypic Epo transcriptional activator HIF-1alpha accumulated in both the kidney and liver. Elevated HIF-1alpha levels were associated with dramatically increased concentrations of both Epo mRNA in the kidney and Epo protein in the serum, which led to severe erythrocytosis. In contrast, heterozygous mutation of Phd2 had no detectable effects on blood homeostasis. These findings suggest that PHD1/3 double deficiency leads to erythrocytosis partly by activating the hepatic HIF-2alpha/Epo pathway, whereas PHD2 deficiency leads to erythrocytosis by activating the renal Epo pathway.
Project description:Adaptive response to hypoxia in nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc is regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Moreover, oxygen-dependent turnover of HIF-1? in these cells is controlled by the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) family of proteins. Whether HIF homologues control expression of PHDs and whether PHDs control hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) turnover and/or activity under hypoxia is not known. Here, we show that in nucleus pulposus cells, hypoxia robustly induces PHD3 expression and, to a lesser extent, of PHD2 and PHD1. Reporter analysis shows that the hypoxic induction of the PHD2 promoter is HIF-1? dependent, whereas PHD3 promoter/enhancer activity is dependent on both HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Lentiviral delivery of HIF-1?, ShHIF-1?, and ShHIF-1? confirmed these observations. Noteworthy, HIF-1? maintains basal expression of PHD1 in hypoxia at the posttranscriptional level. Finally, loss of function studies using lentiviral transduction of ShPHDs clearly shows that even at 1% O(2), PHD2 selectively degrades HIF-1?. In contrast, in hypoxia, PHD3 enhances HIF-1? transcriptional activity without affecting protein levels. To correlate these observations with disc disease, a condition characterized by tissue vascularization, we analyzed human tissues. Increased PHD1 mRNA expression but decreased PHD2 and PHD3 expression is observed in degenerate tissues. Interestingly, the hypoxic responsiveness of all the PHDs is maintained in isolated nucleus pulposus cells regardless of the disease state. We propose that PHD2 and PHD3 can be used as a biomarker of tissue oxygenation in the disc and that, as such, it may have important clinical implications.
Project description:The kidney controls erythropoietin production in adults, and the anemia that can accompany renal failure is a major medical problem. The liver controls erythropoietin production during fetal life but is silenced shortly after birth. Erythropoietin transcription is controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is inhibited by three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3). Systemic PHD2 inactivation has been found to increase renal, but not hepatic, erythropoietin production. In contrast, we show here that simultaneous genetic inactivation of all three PHD paralogs in mice reactivates hepatic erythropoietin production and stimulates red blood synthesis, suggesting that pan-PHD inhibitory drugs might be useful for the treatment of anemia caused by chronic kidney disease.
Project description:PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3 are prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins that regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits (HIF-alpha). To determine the roles of individual PHDs during mouse development, we disrupted all three Phd genes and found that Phd2(-/-) embryos died between embryonic days 12.5 and 14.5 whereas Phd1(-/-) or Phd3(-/-) mice were apparently normal. In Phd2(-/-) mice, severe placental and heart defects preceded embryonic death. Placental defects included significantly reduced labyrinthine branching morphogenesis, widespread penetration of the labyrinth by spongiotrophoblasts, and abnormal distribution of trophoblast giant cells. The expression of several trophoblast markers was also altered, including an increase in the spongiotrophoblast marker Mash2 and decreases in the labyrinthine markers Tfeb and Gcm1. In the heart, trabeculae were poorly developed, the myocardium was remarkably thinner, and interventricular septum was incompletely formed. Surprisingly, while there were significant global increases in HIF-alpha protein levels in the placenta and the embryo proper, there was no specific HIF-alpha increase in the heart. Taken together, these data indicate that among all three PHD proteins, PHD2 is uniquely essential during mouse embryogenesis.
Project description:The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases are oxygen sensors that hydroxylate the HIF alpha-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation in normoxia. Three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, encoded by independent genes, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, occur in mammals. PHD2, the longest PHD isoform includes a MYND domain, whose biochemical function is unclear. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are induced in hypoxia to shut down HIF dependent transcription upon reoxygenation, while expression of PHD1 is oxygen-independent. The physiologic significance of the diversity of the PHD oxygen sensors is intriguing.We have analyzed the Drosophila PHD locus, fatiga, which encodes 3 isoforms, FgaA, FgaB and FgaC that are originated through a combination of alternative initiation of transcription and alternative splicing. FgaA includes a MYND domain and is homologous to PHD2, while FgaB and FgaC are shorter isoforms most similar to PHD3. Through a combination of genetic experiments in vivo and molecular analyses in cell culture, we show that fgaB but not fgaA is induced in hypoxia, in a Sima-dependent manner, through a HIF-Responsive Element localized in the first intron of fgaA. The regulatory capacity of FgaB is stronger than that of FgaA, as complete reversion of fga loss-of-function phenotypes is observed upon transgenic expression of the former, and only partial rescue occurs after expression of the latter.Diversity of PHD isoforms is a conserved feature in evolution. As in mammals, there are hypoxia-inducible and non-inducible Drosophila PHDs, and a fly isoform including a MYND domain co-exists with isoforms lacking this domain. Our results suggest that the isoform devoid of a MYND domain has stronger regulatory capacity than that including this domain.
Project description:Hypoxia in the embryo is a frequent cause of intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and multiple organ defects. In the kidney, this can lead to low nephron endowment, predisposing to chronic kidney disease and arterial hypertension. A key component in cellular adaptation to hypoxia is the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, which is regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3. In the adult kidney, PHD oxygen sensors are differentially expressed in a cell type-dependent manner and control the production of erythropoietin in interstitial cells. However, the role of interstitial cell PHDs in renal development has not been examined. Here we used a genetic approach in mice to interrogate PHD function in FOXD1-expressing stroma during nephrogenesis. We demonstrate that PHD2 and PHD3 are essential for normal kidney development as the combined inactivation of stromal PHD2 and PHD3 resulted in renal failure that was associated with reduced kidney size, decreased numbers of glomeruli, and abnormal postnatal nephron formation. In contrast, nephrogenesis was normal in animals with individual PHD inactivation. We furthermore demonstrate that the defect in nephron formation in PHD2/PHD3 double mutants required intact hypoxia-inducible factor-2 signaling and was dependent on the extent of stromal hypoxia-inducible factor activation. Thus, hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylation in renal interstitial cells is critical for normal nephron formation.
Project description:The heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are central regulators of the response to low oxygenation. HIF-alpha subunits are constitutively expressed but rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) targets HIF-alpha for proteasomal destruction. We identified the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) as a novel interactor of PHD2. Yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, and mammalian two-hybrid studies confirmed specific FKBP38 interaction with PHD2, but not with PHD1 or PHD3. PHD2 and FKBP38 associated with their N-terminal regions, which contain no known interaction motifs. Neither FKBP38 mRNA nor protein levels were regulated under hypoxic conditions or after PHD inhibition, suggesting that FKBP38 is not a HIF/PHD target. Stable RNA interference-mediated depletion of FKBP38 resulted in increased PHD hydroxylation activity and decreased HIF protein levels and transcriptional activity. Reconstitution of FKBP38 expression abolished these effects, which were independent of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Downregulation of FKBP38 did not affect PHD2 mRNA levels but prolonged PHD2 protein stability, suggesting that FKBP38 is involved in PHD2 protein regulation.
Project description:Erythropoietin (Epo) is produced by renal Epo-producing cells (REPs) in a hypoxia-inducible manner. The conversion of REPs into myofibroblasts and coincident loss of Epo-producing ability are the major cause of renal fibrosis and anemia. However, the hypoxic response of these transformed myofibroblasts remains unclear. Here, we used complementary in vivo transgenic and live imaging approaches to better understand the importance of hypoxia signaling in Epo production. Live imaging of REPs in transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein from a modified Epo-gene locus revealed that healthy REPs tightly associated with endothelium by wrapping processes around capillaries. However, this association was hampered in states of renal injury-induced inflammation previously shown to correlate with the transition to myofibroblast-transformed renal Epo-producing cells (MF-REPs). Furthermore, activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) by genetic inactivation of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) selectively in Epo-producing cells reactivated Epo production in MF-REPs. Loss of PHD2 in REPs restored Epo-gene expression in injured kidneys but caused polycythemia. Notably, combined deletions of PHD1 and PHD3 prevented loss of Epo expression without provoking polycythemia. Mice with PHD-deficient REPs also showed resistance to LPS-induced Epo repression in kidneys, suggesting that augmented HIF signaling counterbalances inflammatory stimuli in regulation of Epo production. Thus, augmentation of HIF signaling may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating renal anemia by reactivating Epo synthesis in MF-REPs.