Hsp90 regulates the dynamics of its cochaperone Sti1 and the transfer of Hsp70 between modules.
ABSTRACT: The cochaperone Sti1/Hop physically links Hsp70 and Hsp90. The protein exhibits one binding site for Hsp90 (TPR2A) and two binding sites for Hsp70 (TPR1 and TPR2B). How these sites are used remained enigmatic. Here we show that Sti1 is a dynamic, elongated protein that consists of a flexible N-terminal module, a long linker and a rigid C-terminal module. Binding of Hsp90 and Hsp70 regulates the Sti1 conformation with Hsp90 binding determining with which site Hsp70 interacts. Without Hsp90, Sti1 is more compact and TPR2B is the high-affinity interaction site for Hsp70. In the presence of Hsp90, Hsp70 shifts its preference. The linker connecting the two modules is crucial for the interaction with Hsp70 and for client activation in vivo. Our results suggest that the interaction of Hsp70 with Sti1 is tightly regulated by Hsp90 to assure transfer of Hsp70 between the modules, as a prerequisite for the efficient client handover.
Project description:Sti1/Hop is a modular protein required for the transfer of client proteins from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone system in eukaryotes. It binds Hsp70 and Hsp90 simultaneously via TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains. Sti1/Hop contains three TPR domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two domains of unknown structure (DP1 and DP2). We show that TPR2A is the high affinity Hsp90-binding site and TPR1 and TPR2B bind Hsp70 with moderate affinity. The DP domains exhibit highly homologous ?-helical folds as determined by NMR. These, and especially DP2, are important for client activation in vivo. The core module of Sti1 for Hsp90 inhibition is the TPR2A-TPR2B segment. In the crystal structure, the two TPR domains are connected via a rigid linker orienting their peptide-binding sites in opposite directions and allowing the simultaneous binding of TPR2A to the Hsp90 C-terminal domain and of TPR2B to Hsp70. Both domains also interact with the Hsp90 middle domain. The accessory TPR1-DP1 module may serve as an Hsp70-client delivery system for the TPR2A-TPR2B-DP2 segment, which is required for client activation in vivo.
Project description:The molecular chaperone Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90 is critical for the activity of diverse cellular client proteins. In a current model, client proteins are transferred from Hsp70 to Hsp90 in a process mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop, which may simultaneously interact with Hsp70 and Hsp90 via separate TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, but the mechanism and in vivo importance of this function is unclear. In the present study, we used truncated forms of Sti1 to determine the minimal regions required for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. We found that both TPR1 and TPR2B contribute to the Hsp70 interaction in vivo and that mutations in both TPR1 and TPR2B were required to disrupt the in vitro interaction of Sti1 with the C-terminus of the Hsp70 Ssa1. The TPR2A domain was required for the Hsp90 interaction in vivo, but the isolated TPR2A domain was not sufficient for the Hsp90 interaction unless combined with the TPR2B domain. However, isolated TPR2A was both necessary and sufficient for purified Sti1 to migrate as a dimer in solution. The DP2 domain, which is essential for in vivo function, was dispensable for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. As evidence for the role of Sti1 in mediating the interaction between Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vivo, we identified Sti1 mutants that result in reduced recovery of Hsp70 in Hsp90 complexes. We also identified two Hsp90 mutants that exhibit a reduced Hsp70 interaction, which may help clarify the mechanism of client transfer between the two molecular chaperones.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, Hsp90 chaperones assist late folding steps of many regulatory protein clients by a complex ATPase cycle. Binding of clients to Hsp90 requires prior interaction with Hsp70 and a transfer reaction that is mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop. Sti1 furthers client transfer by inhibiting Hsp90's ATPase activity. To better understand how Sti1 prepares Hsp90 for client acceptance, we characterized the interacting domains and analysed how Hsp90 and Sti1 mutually influence their conformational dynamics using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry. Sti1 stabilizes several regions in all three domains of Hsp90 and slows down dissociation of the Hsp90 dimer. Our data suggest that Sti1 inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by preventing N-terminal dimerization and docking of the N-terminal domain with the middle domain. Using crosslinking and mass spectrometry we identified Sti1 segments, which are in close vicinity of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90. We found that the length of the linker between C-terminal dimerization domain and the C-terminal MEEVD motif is important for Sti1 association rates and propose a kinetic model for Sti1 binding to Hsp90.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the molecular chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 are connected via the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop, which allows transfer of clients. Here, we show that the basic functions of yeast Sti1 and human Hop are conserved. These include the simultaneous binding of Hsp90 and Hsp70, the inhibition of the ATPase activity of Hsp90, and the ability to support client activation in vivo. Importantly, we reveal that both Hop and Sti1 are subject to inhibitory phosphorylation, although the sites modified and the influence of regulatory phosphorylation is species specific. Phospho-mimetic variants have a reduced ability to activate clients in vivo and different affinity for Hsp70. Hop is more tightly regulated, as phosphorylation affects also the interaction with Hsp90 and induces structural rearrangements in the core part of the protein.
Project description:The heat shock protein 90 plays a pivotal role in the life cycle control of Leishmania donovani promoting the fast-growing insect stage of this parasite. Equally important for insect stage growth is the co-chaperone Sti1. We show that replacement of Sti1 is only feasible in the presence of additional Sti1 transgenes indicating an essential role. To better understand the impact of Sti1 and its interaction with Hsp90, we performed a mutational analysis of Hsp90. We established that a single amino acid exchange in the Leishmania?Hsp90 renders that protein resistant to the inhibitor radicicol (RAD), yet does not interfere with its functionality. Based on this RAD-resistant Hsp90, we established a combined chemical knockout/gene complementation (CKC) approach. We can show that Hsp90 function is required in both insect and mammalian life stages and that the Sti1-binding motif of Hsp90 is crucial for proliferation of insect and mammalian stages of the parasite. The Sti1-binding motif in Leishmania?Hsp90 is suboptimal - optimizing the motif increased initial intracellular proliferation underscoring the importance of the Hsp90-Sti1 interaction for this important parasitic protozoan. The CKC strategy we developed will allow the future analysis of more Hsp90 domains and motifs in parasite viability and infectivity.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of more than 200 client proteins, including many kinases and steroid hormone receptors involved in cell-signaling pathways. Hsp90 chaperone activity requires collaboration with a subset of the many Hsp90 cochaperones, including the Hsp70 chaperone. In higher eukaryotes, the collaboration between Hsp90 and Hsp70 is indirect and involves Hop, a cochaperone that interacts with both Hsp90 and Hsp70. Here we show that yeast Hsp90 (Hsp82) and yeast Hsp70 (Ssa1), directly interact in vitro in the absence of the yeast Hop homolog (Sti1), and identify a region in the middle domain of yeast Hsp90 that is required for the interaction. In vivo results using Hsp90 substitution mutants showed that several residues in this region were important or essential for growth at high temperature. Moreover, mutants in this region were defective in interaction with Hsp70 in cell lysates. In vitro, the purified Hsp82 mutant proteins were defective in direct physical interaction with Ssa1 and in protein remodeling in collaboration with Ssa1 and cochaperones. This region of Hsp90 is also important for interactions with several Hsp90 cochaperones and client proteins, suggesting that collaboration between Hsp70 and Hsp90 in protein remodeling may be modulated through competition between Hsp70 and Hsp90 cochaperones for the interaction surface.
Project description:The Hsp-organizing protein (HOP) binds to the C termini of the chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, thus bringing them together so that substrate proteins can be passed from Hsp70 to Hsp90. Because Hsp90 is essential for the correct folding and maturation of many oncogenic proteins, it has become a significant target for anti-cancer drug design. HOP binds to Hsp70 and Hsp90 via two independent tetratricopeptide (TPR) domains, TPR1 and TPR2A, respectively. We have analyzed ligand binding using Poisson-Boltzmann continuum electrostatic calculations, free energy perturbation, molecular dynamics simulations, and site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the contribution of different interactions to the affinity and specificity of the TPR-peptide interactions. We found that continuum electrostatic calculations could be used to guide protein design by removing unfavorable interactions to increase binding affinity, with an 80-fold increase in affinity for TPR2A. Contributions at buried charged residues, however, were better predicted by free energy perturbation calculations. We suggest using a combination of the two approaches for increasing the accuracy of results, with free energy perturbation calculations used only at selected buried residues of the ligand binding pocket. Finally we present the crystal structure of TPR2A in complex with its non-cognate Hsp70 ligand, which provides insight on the origins of specificity in TPR domain-peptide recognition.
Project description:Perception of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or R proteins is a prerequisite to promote successful immune responses. The Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein Hop/Sti1, a multifunctional cochaperone, has been implicated in the maturation of a receptor-like kinase (RLK) necessary for chitin sensing. However, it remains unknown whether Hop/Sti1 is generally participating in PRR genesis. Using RNA-interference (RNAi), we silenced Hop/Sti1 expression in Nicotiana tabacum to gain further insight into the role of the cochaperone in plant defense responses. As expected, transgenic plants do not respond to chitin treatment anymore. In contrast to this, trafficking and functionality of the flagellin PRR FLS2 were unaltered, suggesting a selective involvement of Hop/Sti1 during PRR maturation. Furthermore, Hop/Sti1 was identified as a cellular determinant of Potato virus Y (PVY) symptom development in tobacco, since PVY was able to accumulate to near wild-type level without provoking the usual veinal necrosis phenotype. In addition, typical antiviral host defense responses were suppressed in the transgenic plants. These data suggest that perception of PVY is dependent on Hop/Sti1-mediated receptor maturation, while viral symptoms represent a failing attempt to restrict PVY spread. In addition, Hop/Sti1 colocalized with virus-induced membrane aggregates in wild-type plants. The retention of Hop/Sti1 in potential viral replication complexes suggests a role during viral translation/replication, explaining why RNAi-lines do not exhibit increased susceptibility to PVY. This study provides evidence for a dual role of Hop/Sti1 in PRR maturation and pathogen perception as well as in promoting viral proliferation.
Project description:Tah1 [TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat)-containing protein associated with Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90] has been identified as a TPR-domain protein. TPR-domain proteins are involved in protein-protein interactions and a number have been characterized that interact either with Hsp70 or Hsp90, but a few can bind both chaperones. Independent studies suggest that Tah1 interacts with Hsp90, but whether it can also interact with Hsp70/Ssa1 has not been investigated. Amino-acid-sequence alignments suggest that Tah1 is most similar to the TPR2b domain of Hop (Hsp-organizing protein) which when mutated reduces binding to both Hsp90 and Hsp70. Our alignments suggest that there are three TPR-domain motifs in Tah1, which is consistent with the architecture of the TPR2b domain. In the present study we find that Tah1 is specific for Hsp90, and is able to bind tightly the yeast Hsp90, and the human Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta proteins, but not the yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 isoform. Tah1 acheives ligand discrimination by favourably binding the methionine residue in the conserved MEEVD motif (Hsp90) and positively discriminating against the first valine residue in the VEEVD motif (Ssa1). In the present study we also show that Tah1 can affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90, in common with some other TPR-domain proteins.
Project description:Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14?-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents.