Development and application of SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay for the separate detection of subgroup J Avian leukosis virus and multiplex detection of avian leukosis virus subgroups A and B.
ABSTRACT: Subgroup A, B, and J ALVs are the most prevalent avian leukosis virus (ALV). Our study attempted to develop two SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for specific detection of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) and multiplex detection of ALV subgroups A and B (ALV-A/B), respectively.The two assays showed high specificity for ALV-J and ALV-A/B and the sensitivity of the two assays was at least 100 times higher than that of the routine PCR assay. The minimum virus detection limit of virus culture, routine PCR and real-time PCR for detection of ALV-A strain was 10(3) TCID50 units, 10(2) TCID50 units and fewer than 10 TCID50 units, respectively. In addition, the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-assay were both less than 5%. Forty clinical plasma samples were evaluated by real-time PCR, routine PCR, and virus culture with positive rates of 80% (32/40), 72.5% (29/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively. When the assay for detection of ALV-J was used to quantify the viral load of various organ tissues in chicken inoculated by ALV-J strains CHN06 and NX0101, the results exhibited that ALV-J genes could be detected in all organ tissues examined and the highest copies of ALV-J were mainly in heart and kidney samples at 30 weeks post-infection. Except in lung, the virus copies of CHN06 group were higher than that of NX0101 group in various organ tissues.The SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay provides a powerful tool for the detection of ALV and study of virus replication and infection.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. The early identification and removal of virus-shedding birds are important to reduce the spread of congenital and contact infections. In this study, a TaqMan-based real-time PCR method for the rapid detection and quantification of ALV-J with proviral DNA was developed. This method exhibited a high specificity for ALV-J. Moreover, the detection limit was as low as 10 viral DNA copies. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of both interassay and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 1%. The growth curves of ALV-J in DF-1 cells were measured by real-time PCR, yielding a trend line similar to those determined by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) and p27 antigen detection. Tissue samples suspected of ALV infection were evaluated using real-time PCR, virus isolation, and routine PCR, and the positivity rates were 60.1%, 41.6% and 44.5%, respectively. Our data indicated that the real-time PCR method provides a sensitive, specific, and reproducible diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of ALV-J for clinical diagnosis and in laboratory research.
Project description:Infection of breeder flocks in China with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) has increased recently. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of ALV-J from culture isolates and clinical samples. The ALV-J-specific LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target gene within 45 min at 63 degrees C using only a simple laboratory water bath. To determine the specificity of the LAMP assay, various subgroup ALVs and other related viruses were detected. A ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed for ALV-J isolates but not for other viruses. To evaluate the sensitivities of the LAMP assay and conventional PCR, the NX0101 isolate plasmid DNA was amplified by them. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 5 target gene copies/reaction, which was up to 20 times higher than that of conventional PCR. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay for detection of ALV-J in clinical samples, 49 samples suspected of ALV infection from breeder flocks were tested by the LAMP assay and PCR. Moreover, virus isolation from these samples was also performed using cell culture. The positive-sample ratios were 21/49 (43%) by conventional PCR, 26/49 (53%) by the LAMP assay, and 19/46 (41%) by virus isolation. Additionally, a positive LAMP reaction can be visually ascertained by the observation of turbidity or a color change after addition of SYBR green I dye. Consequently, the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic method and can potentially be developed for rapid detection of ALV-J infection in the field.
Project description:The expression of env proteins that bind to viral cell receptors on avian leukosis virus (ALV)-susceptible cells can block ALV infection. In this study, we constructed a cell line (DF-1/B) by expressing the ALV-B env protein in DF-1 cells. PCR, immune fluorescence assay, Western blot, and immune electron microscopy results showed that the env gene can be stably expressed in DF-1cells and the env protein could be detected on the DF-1 cell membrane. An antiviral experiment concluded that the DF-1/B cell line could be resistant to 1 × 104 TCID50 ALV-B virus infection, but had no inhibitory effect on other subgroup ALV. This means that the DF-1/B cell line is specifically resistant to ALV-B and can be used as a tool for ALV-B diagnosis.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups A, B, and J are very common in poultry flocks and have caused serious economic losses in recent years. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) method for the detection of these three subgroups was developed and optimized in this study. We first designed a common forward primer, PF, and three downstream primers, AR, BR, and JR, which can amplify 715 bp for subgroup A, 515 bp for subgroup B, and 422 bp for subgroup J simultaneously in one reaction. The mPCR method produced neither cross-reactions with other subgroups of ALVs nor nonspecific reactions with other common avian viruses. The detection limit of the mPCR was as low as 1 × 10(3) viral DNA copies of each of the three subgroups. In animal experiments, the mPCR detected ALVs 2 to 4 days earlier than did virus isolation from whole-blood samples and cloaca swabs. Furthermore, a total of 346 clinical samples (including 127 tissue samples, 86 cloaca swabs, 59 albumen samples, and 74 whole-blood samples) from poultry flocks with suspected ALV infection were examined by mPCR, routine PCR, and virus isolation. The positive sample/total sample ratios for ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J were 48% (166/346) as detected by mPCR and 48% (166/346) as detected by routine PCR. However, the positive sample/total sample ratio detected by virus isolation was 40% (138/346). The results of the mPCR and routine PCR were confirmed by sequencing the specific fragments. These results indicate that the mPCR method is rapid, specific, sensitive, and convenient for use in epidemiological studies of ALV, clinical detection of ALV, and ALV eradication programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide pathogen in cattle and acts as a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus (HCV). One-step real-time fluorogenic quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on SYBR Green I dye has not been established for BVDV detection. This study aims to develop a quantitative one-step RT-PCR assay to detect BVDV type-1 in cell culture. RESULTS: One-step quantitative SYBR Green I RT-PCR was developed by amplifying cDNA template from viral RNA and using in vitro transcribed BVDV RNA to establish a standard curve. The assay had a detection limit as low as 100 copies/ml of BVDV RNA, a reaction efficiency of 103.2%, a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.995, and a maximum intra-assay CV of 2.63%. It was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and can quantitatively detect BVDV RNA levels from 10-fold serial dilutions of titrated viruses containing a titer from 10(-1) to 10(-5) TCID50, without non-specific amplification. Melting curve analysis showed no primer-dimers and non-specific products. CONCLUSIONS: The one-step SYBR Green I RT-PCR is specific, sensitive and reproducible for the quantification of BVDV in cell culture. This one-step SYBR Green I RT-PCR strategy may be further optimized as a reliable assay for diagnosing and monitoring BVDV infection in animals. It may also be applied to evaluate candidate agents against HCV using BVDV cell culture model.
Project description:Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A total of 184 sera that were confirmed using NS1 and/or IgM and IgG ELISA were examined. Using conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, we detected DENV in 53 (28.8%) and 81 (44.0%) out of 184 sera, respectively. When the Simplexa Dengue assay was employed, the detection rate was increased to 76.6% (141 out of 184 samples). When tested in 40 sera that were confirmed by virus isolation as the gold standard, the conventional RT-PCR yielded 95% sensitivity while the sensitivity of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR and Simplexa Dengue assay reached 97.5% and 100%, respectively. The specificities of all methods were 100% when tested in 43 non-dengue illness and 20 healthy human samples. Altogether, our data showed the higher detection rate of Simplexa Dengue compared to conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR in field/surveillance setting. In conclusion, Simplexa Dengue offers rapid and accurate detection and typing of dengue infection and is suitable for both routine diagnostic and surveillance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular method for the diagnosis of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is important in curbing infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco and other countries. METHODS:In this study, an easy-to-perform SYBR green I real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the nucleocapsid gene of IBV was developed and compared with conventional agarose gel-based RT-PCR for the detection of IBV infection. RESULTS:We found that the SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR was at least 10 times more sensitive than the agarose gel electrophoresis detection method. The assay exhibited high specificity for IBV infection. All negative controls, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian influenza virus, were not detected. CONCLUSION:The SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR test described herein can be used to rapidly distinguish IBV from other respiratory pathogens, which is important for diagnosis and control of infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco. The test is a valuable and useful method as a routine assay for diagnosis of clinical IBV infection in commercial chickens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are caused by dengue virus. Dengue infection remains a burning problem of many countries. To diagnose acute dengue in the early phase we improve the low cost, rapid SYBR green real time assay and compared the sensitivity and specificity with real time Taqman(®) assay and conventional nested PCR assay. AIMS:To develop low cost, rapid and reliable real time SYBR green diagnostic dengue assay and compare with Taqman real-time assay and conventional nested PCR (modified Lanciotti). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eight cultured virus strains were diluted in tenth dilution down to undetectable level by the PCR to optimize the primer, temperature (annealing, and extension and to detect the limit of detection of the assay. Hundred and ninety three ELISA and PCR proved dengue clinical samples were tested with real time SYBR(®) Green assay, real time Taqman(®) assay to compare the sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS:Sensitivity and specificity of real time SYBR® green dengue assay (84% and 66%, respectively) was almost comparable to those (81% and 74%) of Taqman real time PCR dengue assay. Real time SYBR(®) green RT-PCR was equally sensitive in primary and secondary infection while real time Taqman was less sensitive in the secondary infection. Sensitivity of real time Taqman on DENV3 (87%) was equal to SYBR green real time PCR dengue assay. CONCLUSION:We developed low cost rapid diagnostic SYBR green dengue assay. Further study is needed to make duplex primer assay for the serotyping of dengue virus.
Project description:Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are widely distributed among chickens. Detection of FAdVs is mainly accomplished by virus isolation, serological assays, various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). To increase the diagnostic capacity of currently applied techniques, cross-priming amplification (CPA) for the detection of the FAdV hexon gene was developed. The single CPA assay was optimised to detect all serotypes 1-8a-8b-11 representing the species Fowl aviadenovirus A-E. The optimal temperature and incubation time were determined to be 68 °C for 2 h. Using different incubation temperatures, it was possible to differentiate some FAdV serotypes. The results were recorded after addition of SYBR Green I(®) dye, which produced a greenish fluorescence under UV light. The CPA products separated by gel electrophoresis showed different "ladder-like" patterns for the different serotypes. The assay was specific for all serotypes of FAdV, and no cross-reactivity was observed with members of the genus Atadenovirus, duck atadenovirus A (egg drop syndrome virus EDS-76 [EDSV]) or control samples containing Marek's disease virus (MDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or chicken anaemia virus (CAV). The results of the newly developed FAdV-CPA were compared with those of real-time PCR. The sensitivity of CPA was equal to that of real-time PCR and reached 10(-2.0) TCID50, but the CPA method was more rapid and cheaper than the PCR systems. CPA is a highly specific, sensitive, efficient, and rapid tool for detection of all FAdV serotypes. This is the first report on the application of CPA for detection of FAdV strains.