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Quantitative assessment of antibody internalization with novel monoclonal antibodies against Alexa fluorophores.
ABSTRACT: Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology.
Project description:The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.
Project description:Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 488 (A488), which is commonly used as FRET donor. Here, A488 is covalently attached to Cys69 of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. Although coupling of A488 slightly destabilizes apoflavodoxin, the three-state folding of this protein, which involves a molten globule intermediate, is unaffected. Upon folding of apoflavodoxin, fluorescence emission intensity of A488 changes significantly. To illuminate the molecular sources of this alteration, we applied steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The results obtained show that tryptophans cause folding-induced changes in quenching of Alexa dye. Compared to unfolded protein, static quenching of A488 is increased in the molten globule. Upon populating the native state both static and dynamic quenching of A488 decrease considerably. We show that fluorescence quenching of Alexa Fluor dyes is a sensitive reporter of conformational changes during protein folding.
Project description:Aim: The humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab depletes lymphocytes and is currently used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis. During treatment, anti-alemtuzumab antibodies may develop and reduce effective lymphocyte depletion in future treatment cycles. Results: Alemtuzumab-Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate binding to the CHO-CD52 cell surface was inhibited by anti-alemtuzumab antibodies. Conclusion: In this proof-of-concept study, a CHO-CD52 cell line has been developed and used to detect the presence of anti-alemtuzumab neutralizing antibodies. This platform provides the basis of an assay for routine screening of serum for neutralizing antibodies from patients treated with alemtuzumab.
Project description:Internalization of the NK1 receptor (NK1R) and substance P was observed in cells transfected with cDNA encoding the rat NK1R by using anti-receptor antibodies and cyanine 3-labelled substance P (cy3-substance P). After incubation at 4 degrees C, NK1R immunoreactivity and cy3-substance P were confined to the plasma membrane. Within 3 min of incubation at 37 degrees C, NK1R immunoreactivity and cy3-substance P were internalized into small intracellular vesicles located beneath the plasma membrane. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled transferrin and cy3-substance P were internalized into the same vesicles, identifying them as early endosomes. After 60 min at 37 degrees C, NK1R immunoreactivity was detected in larger, perinuclear vesicles. Internalization of 125I-labelled substance P was studied by using an acid wash to dissociate cell-surface label from that which has been internalized. Binding reached equilibrium after incubation for 60 min at 4 degrees C with no detectable internalization. After 10 min incubation at 37 degrees C, 83.5 +/- 1.0% of specifically bound counts were internalized. Hyperosmolar sucrose and phenylarsine oxide, which are inhibitors of endocytosis, prevented internalization of 125I-labelled substance P and accumulation of NK1R immunoreactivity into endosomes. Acidotropic agents caused retention of 125I-labelled substance P within the cell and inhibited degradation of the internalized peptide. Continuous incubation of cells with substance P at 37 degrees C reduced 125I-substance P binding at the cell surface. Therefore, substance P and its receptor are internalized into early endosomes within minutes of binding, and internalized substance P is degraded. Internalization depletes NK1Rs from the cell surface and may down-regulate the response of a cell to substance P.
Project description:Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface protein required for HIV-1 infection. It is important to detect the amount and observe the spatial distribution of the CCR5 receptors on the cell surfaces. In this report, we describes the metal nanoparticles which were specially designed as molecular fluorescent probes for imaging of CCR5 receptors on the T-lymphocytic PM1 cell surfaces. These CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) metal complexes were prepared by labeling mAbs with Alexa Fluor 680 followed by covalent binding the labeled mAbs on the 20 nm silver nanoparticles. Compared with the labeled mAbs without metal, the mAb-metal complexes were found to display enhanced emission intensity and shortened lifetime due to interactions between fluorophores and metal. The mAb-metal complexes were incubated with the PM1 cell lines. The confocal fluorescent intensity and lifetime cell images were recorded on single cells. It was observed that the mAb-metal complexes could be clearly distinguished from the cellular autofluorescence. By analyzing a pool of cell images, we observed that most CCR5 receptors appeared as clusters on the cell surfaces. The fluorophore-metal complexes developed in this report are generally useful for detection of cell surface receptors and provide a new class of probe to study the interaction between the CCR5 receptors with viral gp120 during HIV infections.
Project description:To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody assay.Consecutive sera (n = 1,109) sent for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing were screened for MOG antibodies (Abs) by cell-based assays using either full-length human MOG (FL-MOG) or the short-length form (SL-MOG). The Abs were initially detected by Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) and subsequently by Alexa Fluor mouse antibodies to human IgG1.When tested at 1:20 dilution, 40/1,109 sera were positive for AQP4-Abs, 21 for SL-MOG, and 180 for FL-MOG. Only one of the 40 AQP4-Ab-positive sera was positive for SL-MOG-Abs, but 10 (25%) were positive for FL-MOG-Abs (p = 0.0069). Of equal concern, 48% (42/88) of sera from controls (patients with epilepsy) were positive by FL-MOG assay. However, using an IgG1-specific secondary antibody, only 65/1,109 (5.8%) sera were positive on FL-MOG, and AQP4-Ab- positive and control sera were negative. IgM reactivity accounted for the remaining anti-human IgG (H + L) positivity toward FL-MOG. The clinical diagnoses were obtained in 33 FL-MOG-positive patients, blinded to the antibody data. IgG1-Abs to FL-MOG were associated with optic neuritis (n = 11), AQP4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 4), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). All 7 patients with probable multiple sclerosis (MS) were MOG-IgG1 negative.The limited disease specificity of FL-MOG-Abs identified using Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) is due in part to detection of IgM-Abs. Use of the FL-MOG and restricting to IgG1-Abs substantially improves specificity for non-MS demyelinating diseases.This study provides Class II evidence that the presence of serum IgG1- MOG-Abs in AQP4-Ab-negative patients distinguishes non-MS CNS demyelinating disorders from MS (sensitivity 24%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-45%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 88%-100%).
Project description:Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a cellular drug delivery method based on the generation of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to the endosomal membrane and thereby resulting in drug release to the cytoplasm. In our study a series of antisense fluorophore octaarginine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates were investigated in terms of PCI assisted cellular activity. It is found that tetramethylrhodamine and Alexa Fluor 555 conjugated octaarginine PNA upon irradiation exhibit more than ten-fold increase in antisense activity in the HeLa pLuc705 luciferase splice correction assay. An analogous fluorescein conjugate did not show any significant enhancement due to photobleaching, and neither did an Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate. Using fluorescence microscopy a correlation between endosomal escape and antisense activity was demonstrated, and in parallel a correlation to localized formation of ROS assigned primarily to singlet oxygen was also observed. The results show that tetramethylrhodamine (and to lesser extent Alexa Fluor 555) conjugated octaarginine PNAs are as effectively delivered to the cytosol compartment by PCI as by chloroquine assisted delivery and also indicate that efficient photodynamic endosomal escape is strongly dependent on the quantum yield for photochemical singlet oxygen formation, photostability as well as the lipophilicity of the chromophore.
Project description:The emergence of fluorescently labeled therapeutic antibodies has given rise to molecular probes for image-guided surgery. However, the extraneous interstitial presence of an unbound and nonspecifically accumulated probe gives rise to false-positive detection of tumor tissue and margins. Thus, the concept of tumor-cell activation of smart probes provides a potentially superior mechanism of delineating tumor margins as well as small tumor deposits. The combination of molecular targeting with intracellular activation circumvents the presence of extracellular, nonspecific signals of targeted probe accumulation. Here, we present a demonstration of the clinical antibodies cetuximab (cet, anti-EGFR mAb) and trastuzumab (trast, anti-HER-2 mAb) conjugated to Alexa Fluor molecules and IRDye QC-1 quencher optimized at the ratio of 1?2?6 to provide the greatest degree of proteolytic fluorescence activation, synonymous with intracellular lysosomal degradation. The cet-AF-Q-C1 conjugate (1?2?6) provides up to 9.8-fold proteolytic fluorescence activation. By preparing a spectrally distinct, irrelevant sham IgG-AF-QC-1 conjugate, a dual-activatable probe approach is shown to enhance the specificity of imaging within an orthotopic AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. The dual-activatable approach warrants expedited clinical translation to improve the specificity of image-guided surgery by spectrally decomposing specific from nonspecific probe accumulation, binding, and internalization.
Project description:Metal nanoparticle probes were used as molecular imaging agents to detect the expression levels and spatial distributions of the CCR5 receptors on the cell surfaces. Alexa Fluor 647-labeled anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were covalently bound to 20 nm silver nanoparticles to synthesize the mAb-metal complexes. We measured the single nanoparticle emission of the mAb-metal complexes, showing that the complexes displayed enhanced intensities and reduced lifetimes in comparison with the metal-free mAbs. Six HeLa cell lines with various CCR5 expressions were incubated with the mAb-metal complexes for the target-specific binding to the cell surfaces. Fluorescence cell images were recorded on a time-resolved confocal microscope. The collected images expressed clear CCR5 expression-dependent optical properties. Two regression curves were obtained on the basis of the emission intensity and lifetime over the entire cell images against the number of the CCR5 expression on the cells. The emission from the single mAb-metal complexes could be distinctly identified from the cellular autofluorescence on the cell images. The CCR5 spatial distributions on the cells were analyzed on the cell images and showed that the low-expression cells have the CCR5 receptors as individuals or small clusters but the high expression cells have them as the dense and discrete clusters on the cell surfaces.
Project description:Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The polymorphic 44-kDa major outer membrane proteins of A. phagocytophilum are dominant antigens recognized by patients and infected animals. However, the ability of anti-P44 antibody to neutralize the infection has been unclear due to a mixture of P44 proteins with diverse hypervariable region amino acid sequences expressed by a given bacterial population and lack of epitope-defined antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 5C11 and 3E65 are directed to different domains of P44 proteins, the N-terminal conserved region and P44-18 central hypervariable region, respectively. Passive immunization with either MAb 5C11 or 3E65 partially protects mice from infection with A. phagocytophilum. In the present study, we demonstrated that the two monoclonal antibodies recognize bacterial surface-exposed epitopes of naturally folded P44 proteins and mapped these epitopes to specific peptide sequences. The two MAbs almost completely blocked the infection of the A. phagocytophilum population that predominantly expressed P44-18 in HL-60 cells by distinct mechanisms: MAb 5C11 blocked the binding, but MAb 3E65 did not block binding or internalization. Instead, MAb 3E65 inhibited internalized A. phagocytophilum to develop into microcolonies called morulae. Some plasma from experimentally infected horses and mice reacted with these two epitopes. Taken together, these data indicate the presence of at least two distinct bacterial surface-exposed neutralization epitopes in P44 proteins. The results indicate that antibodies directed to certain epitopes of P44 proteins have a critical role in inhibiting A. phagocytophilum infection of host cells.