The ability of TRIM3 to induce growth arrest depends on RING-dependent E3 ligase activity.
ABSTRACT: Mutation of the TRIM (tripartite motif)-NHL family members brat and mei-P26 perturb the differentiation of transit-amplifying progenitor cells resulting in tumour-like phenotypes. The NHL (named after the NCL1, HT2A and LIN41 repeat) domain is essential for their growth suppressive activity, and they can induce cell-cycle exit in a RING-independent manner. TRIM3 is the only bona fide tumour suppressor in the mammalian TRIM-NHL subfamily and similar to the other members of this family, its ability to inhibit cell proliferation depends on the NHL domain. However, whether the RING domain was required for TRIM3-dependent cell-cycle exit had not been investigated. In the present study, we establish that the RING domain is required for TRIM3-induced growth suppression. Furthermore, we show that this domain is necessary to promote ubiquitination of p21 in a reconstituted in vitro system where UbcH5a is the preferred E2. Thus the ability of TRIM3 to suppress growth is associated with its ability to ubiquitinate proteins.
Project description:Lin41/Trim71 is a heterochronic gene encoding a member of the Trim-NHL protein family, and is the original, genetically defined target of the microRNA let-7 in C. elegans. Both the LIN41 protein and multiple regulatory microRNA binding sites in the 3' UTR of the mRNA are highly conserved from nematodes to humans. Functional studies have described essential roles for mouse LIN41 in embryonic stem cells, cellular reprogramming and the timing of embryonic neurogenesis. We have used a new gene trap mouse line deficient in Lin41 to characterize Lin41 expression during embryonic development and in the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). In the embryo, Lin41 is required for embryonic viability and neural tube closure. Nevertheless, neurosphere assays suggest that Lin41 is not required for adult neurogenesis. Instead, we show that Lin41 promoter activity and protein expression in the postnatal CNS is restricted to ependymal cells lining the walls of the four ventricles. We use ependymal cell culture to confirm reestablishment of Lin41 expression during differentiation of ependymal progenitors to post-mitotic cells possessing motile cilia. Our results reveal that terminally differentiated ependymal cells express Lin41, a gene to date associated with self-renewing stem cells.
Project description:Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function.
Project description:Rapidity and specificity are characteristic features of proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore, the UPS is ideally suited for the remodeling of the embryonic stem cell proteome during the transition from pluripotent to differentiated states and its inverse, the generation of inducible pluripotent stem cells. The Trim-NHL family member LIN41 is among the first E3 ubiquitin ligases to be linked to stem cell pluripotency and reprogramming. Initially discovered in C. elegans as a downstream target of the let-7 miRNA, LIN41 is now recognized as a critical regulator of stem cell fates as well as the timing of neurogenesis. Despite being indispensable for embryonic development and neural tube closure in mice, the underlying mechanisms for LIN41 function in these processes are poorly understood. To better understand the specific contributions of the E3 ligase activity for the stem cell functions of LIN41, we characterized global changes in ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifications using Lin41-inducible mouse embryonic stem cells. The tumor suppressor protein p53 was among the five most strongly affected proteins in cells undergoing neural differentiation in response to LIN41 induction. We show that LIN41 interacts with p53, controls its abundance by ubiquitination and antagonizes p53-dependent pro-apoptotic and pro-differentiation responses. In vivo, the lack of LIN41 is associated with upregulation of Grhl3 and widespread caspase-3 activation, two downstream effectors of p53 with essential roles in neural tube closure. As Lin41-deficient mice display neural tube closure defects, we conclude that LIN41 is critical for the regulation of p53 functions in cell fate specification and survival during early brain development.
Project description:TRIM-NHL proteins are conserved regulators of development and differentiation but their molecular function has remained largely elusive. Here, we report an as yet unrecognized activity for the mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71 as a repressor of mRNAs. We show that TRIM71 is associated with mRNAs and that it promotes translational repression and mRNA decay. We have identified Rbl1 and Rbl2, two transcription factors whose down-regulation is important for stem cell function, as TRIM71 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, one of the defining features of TRIM-NHL proteins, the NHL domain, is necessary and sufficient to target TRIM71 to RNA, while the RING domain that confers ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for repression. Our results reveal strong similarities between TRIM71 and Drosophila BRAT, the best-studied TRIM-NHL protein and a well-documented translational repressor, suggesting that BRAT and TRIM71 are part of a family of mRNA repressors regulating proliferation and differentiation.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression.Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5.Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3.Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene.
Project description:Changes in neuronal activity modify the structure of dendritic spines and alter the function and protein composition of synapses. Regulated degradation of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is believed to play an important role in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling. Stimulating neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo induces the ubiquitination and degradation of GKAP/SAPAP and Shank, major scaffold proteins of the PSD. However, the specific ubiquitin ligases that regulate postsynaptic protein composition have not been identified. Here we identify the RING finger-containing protein TRIM3 as a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase for the PSD scaffold GKAP/SAPAP1. Present in PSD fractions from rat brain, TRIM3 stimulates ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of GKAP, and induces the loss of GKAP and associated scaffold Shank1 from postsynaptic sites. Suppression of endogenous TRIM3 by RNA interference (RNAi) results in increased accumulation of GKAP and Shank1 at synapses, as well as enlargement of dendritic spine heads. RNAi of TRIM3 also prevented the loss of GKAP induced by synaptic activity. Thus, TRIM3 is a novel E3 ligase that mediates activity-dependent turnover of PSD scaffold proteins and is a negative regulator of dendritic spine morphology.
Project description:Exosomes are critically involved in cancer development and progression. The exosomal contents have been suggested as ideal cancer biomarkers. In this study, we investigated the expression of exosomal proteins in the serum of gastric cancer patients and their roles in gastric cancer.The proteomic profile of exosomes from the serum of gastric cancer patients was detected by using LC-MS/MS. The expression of TRIM3 in exosomes from the serum of gastric cancer patients and healthy controls was assessed by ELISA and western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect TRIM3 expression in gastric cancer tissues and their matching adjacent tissues. The growth and migration abilities of gastric cancer cells with TRIM3 overexpression or knockdown in vitro were evaluated by colony formation assay and transwell migration assay. The effects of TRIM3 overexpression or knockdown on gastric cancer growth and metastasis in vivo were investigated by using subcutaneous xenograft tumor and peritoneal metastasis mouse model. The effects of TRIM3-overexpressing exosomes on gastric cancer growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo were also evaluated.We found that the expression levels of TRIM3 mRNA and protein were decreased in gastric cancer tissues compared to the matched control tissues. In addition, the levels of TRIM3 protein in the serum exosomes of gastric cancer patients were lower than that in healthy controls. We demonstrated that TRIM3 overexpression reduced while TRIM3 knockdown promoted the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo through the regulation of stem cell factors and EMT regulators. Moreover, exosomes-mediated delivery of TRIM3 protein could suppress gastric cancer growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.Taken together, our findings suggest that exosomal TRIM3 may serve as a biomarker for gastric cancer diagnosis and the delivery of TRIM3 by exosomes may provide a new avenue for gastric cancer therapy.
Project description:Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, ?- and ?-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of ?-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic ?-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates ?-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3(-/-) mice consequently have increased levels of ?-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of ?-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic ?-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.
Project description:RNA-binding proteins regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism. Their association with RNA is mediated by RNA-binding domains, of which many remain uncharacterized. A recently reported example is the NHL domain, found in prominent regulators of cellular plasticity like the C. elegans LIN-41. Here we employ an integrative approach to dissect the RNA specificity of LIN-41. Using computational analysis, structural biology, and in vivo studies in worms and human cells, we find that a positively charged pocket, specific to the NHL domain of LIN-41 and its homologs (collectively LIN41), recognizes a stem-loop RNA element, whose shape determines the binding specificity. Surprisingly, the mechanism of RNA recognition by LIN41 is drastically different from that of its more distant relative, the fly Brat. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that this reflects a rapid evolution of the domain, presenting an interesting example of a conserved protein fold that acquired completely different solutions to RNA recognition.