Taxonomic Identification of Ruminal Epithelial Bacterial Diversity during Rumen Development in Goats.
ABSTRACT: Understanding of the colonization process of epithelial bacteria attached to the rumen tissue during rumen development is very limited. Ruminal epithelial bacterial colonization is of great significance for the relationship between the microbiota and the host and can influence the early development and health of the host. MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were applied to characterize ruminal epithelial bacterial diversity during rumen development in this study. Seventeen goat kids were selected to reflect the no-rumination (0 and 7 days), transition (28 and 42 days), and rumination (70 days) phases of animal development. Alpha diversity indices (operational taxonomic unit [OTU] numbers, Chao estimate, and Shannon index) increased (P < 0.01) with age, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that the samples clustered together according to age group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were detected as the dominant phyla regardless of the age group, and the abundance of Proteobacteria declined quadratically with age (P < 0.001), while the abundances of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.088) and Firmicutes (P = 0.009) increased with age. At the genus level, Escherichia (80.79%) dominated at day zero, while Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Campylobacter surged (linearly; P < 0.01) in abundance at 42 and 70 days. qPCR showed that the total copy number of epithelial bacteria increased linearly (P = 0.013) with age. In addition, the abundances of the genera Butyrivibrio, Campylobacter, and Desulfobulbus were positively correlated with rumen weight, rumen papilla length, ruminal ammonia and total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and activities of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase. Taking the data together, colonization by ruminal epithelial bacteria is age related (achieved at 2 months) and might participate in the anatomic and functional development of the rumen.
Project description:Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination) and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S) vs. Grazing (G)] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa. Results showed that higher (P < 0.05) relative abundances of Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter.gottschalkii, Neocallimastix, Anoplodinium-Diplodinium, and Polyplastron, and lower relative abundance of Methanosphaera (P = 0.042) were detected in the rumen of S kids when compared to those in G kids. The expression of genes encoding TLRs, IL1?, IL1? and TICAM2 was down-regulated (P < 0.01), while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins was up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the ruminal mucosa of S kids when compared to that in G kids. Moreover, irrespective of feeding type, relative abundances of ruminal Prevotella, Fibrobacter, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Methanobrevibacter, Neocallimastix, and Entodinium increased with age. The expression of most genes encoding TLRs and cytokines increased (P < 0.05) from day 0 to 7, while expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins declined with age (P < 0.05). This study revealed that the composition of each microbial domain changed as animals grew, and these changes might be associated with variations in host mucosal innate immune function. Moreover, supplementing goat kids with concentrate could modulate ruminal microbial composition, enhance barrier function and decrease local inflammation. The findings provide useful information in interpreting microbiota and host interactions, and developing nutritional strategies to improve the productivity and health of rumen during early life.
Project description:Optimization of the fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Dietary supplementation of algae was previously shown to inhibit rumen biohydrogenation, resulting in an altered milk fatty acid profile. Bacteria involved in biohydrogenation belong to the Butyrivibrio group. This study was aimed at relating accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates with shifts in Butyrivibrio spp. in the rumen of dairy cows. Therefore, an experiment was performed with three rumen-fistulated dairy cows receiving a concentrate containing algae (9.35 g/kg total dry matter [DM] intake) for 20 days. Supplementation of the diet with algae inhibited biohydrogenation of C(18:2) omega 6 (n-6) and C(18:3) n-3, resulting in increased concentrations of biohydrogenation intermediates, whereas C(18:0) decreased. Addition of algae increased ruminal C(18:1) trans fatty acid concentrations, mainly due to 6- and 20-fold increases in C(18:1) trans 11 (t11) and C(18:1) t10. The number of ciliates (5.37 log copies/g rumen digesta) and the composition of the ciliate community were unaffected by dietary algae. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with algae changed the composition of the bacterial community. Primers for the Butyrivibrio group, including the genera Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio, were specifically designed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed community changes upon addition of algae without affecting the total amount of Butyrivibrio bacteria (7.06 log copies/g rumen DM). Clone libraries showed that algae affected noncultivated species, which cluster taxonomically between the genera Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio and might play a role in biohydrogenation. In addition, 20% of the clones from a randomly selected rumen sample were related to the C(18:0)-producing branch, although the associated C(18:0) concentration decreased through supplementation of the diet with algae.
Project description:Many common management practices used to raise dairy calves while on milk and during weaning can cause rumen acidosis. Ruminal pH has long been used to identify ruminal acidosis. However, few attempts were undertaken to understand the role of prolonged ruminal acidosis on rumen microbial community or host health in young calves long after weaning. Thus, the molecular changes associated with prolonged rumen acidosis in post weaning young calves are largely unknown. In this study, we induced ruminal acidosis by feeding a highly processed, starch-rich diet to calves starting from one week of age through 16 weeks. Rumen epithelial tissues were collected at necropsy at 17 weeks of age. Transcriptome analyses on the rumen epithelium and meta-transcriptome analysis of rumen epimural microbial communities were carried out. Calves with induced ruminal acidosis showed significantly less weight gain over the course of the experiment, in addition to substantially lower ruminal pH in comparison to the control group. For rumen epithelial transcriptome, a total of 672 genes (fold-change, FC ≥ 1.5; adjusted-p ≤ 0.05) showed significant differential expression in comparison to control. Biological pathways impacted by these differentially expressed genes included cell signaling and morphogenesis, indicating the impact of ruminal acidosis on rumen epithelium development. rRNA read-based microbial classification indicated significant increase in abundance of several genera in calves with induced acidosis. Our study provides insight into host rumen transcriptome changes associated with prolonged acidosis in post weaning calves. Shifts in microbial species abundance are promising for microbial species-based biomarker development and artificial manipulation. Such knowledge provides a foundation for future more precise diagnosis and preventative management of rumen acidosis in dairy calves.
Project description:During the peripartal period, proper acclimatization of rumen microorganisms to variations in nutritional management can facilitate the transition into lactation. This study characterized the temporal shifts in the composition and functional properties of ruminal microbiota during the periparturient period in dairy cows subjected to a typical two-tiered feeding management approach. Ruminal digesta samples from eight multiparous fistulated Holstein cows were collected on days -14, -7, 10, 20, and 28 relative to parturition. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed distinct clustering patterns between pre- and postpartal ruminal microbiota. During the prepartal period, when the voluntary dry matter intake was lower, we observed strikingly lower inter-animal variations in the composition of the ruminal microbiota. Genera Ruminococcus and Butyrivibrio, which are considered major fibrolytic rumen dwellers, were overrepresented in the prepartal rumen ecosystem. In contrast, increased postpartal voluntary DMI was associated with enrichment of bacterial genera mainly consisting of proteolytic, amylolytic, and lactate-producer species (including Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus). These, together with the postpartal enrichment of energy metabolism pathways, suggested a degree of acclimatization of the ruminal microbiota to harvest energy from the carbohydrate-dense lactation diet. In addition, correlations between ruminal microbiota and parameters such as milk yield and milk composition underscored the metabolic contribution of this microbial community to the cow's performance and production.
Project description:Four Luxi beef cattle (400±10 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square to assess the effects of soybean small peptide (SSP) infusion on rumen fermentation, diet digestion and flow of nutrient in the gastrointestinal tract. The ruminal infusion of SSP was 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/d. Ruminal SSP infusion linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased microbial protein synthesis and rumen ammonia-N concentration. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acid were linearly increased (p = 0.029) by infusion SSP. Rumen samples were obtained for analysis of microbial ecology by real-time PCR. Populations of rumen Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Streptococcus bovis, Ciliate protozoa, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Prevotella ruminicola were expressed as a proportion of total Rumen bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations which related to total bacterial 16S rDNA were increased (p<0.05), while Streptococcus bovis populations were linearly (p = 0.049) and quadratically (p = 0.020) decreased by infusion of SSP. Apparent rumen digestibility of DM and NDF were (Q, p<0.05; L, p<0.05) increased with infusion SSP. Total tract digestion of DM, OM and NDF were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased by infusing SSP. The flow of total amino acids (AA), essential amino acids (EAA) and individual amino acids were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased with infusion SSP. The digestibility of Lysine was quadratically (p = 0.033) increased and apparent degradability of Arginine was linearly (p = 0.032) and quadratically (p = 0.042) increased with infusion SSP. The results indicated that infusion SSP could improve nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and AA availability.
Project description:To increase intramuscular fat accumulation, Japanese Black cattle are commonly fed a high-grain diet from 10 to 30 months of age although it can result in the abnormal accumulation of organic acids in the rumen. We explored the effect of long-term high-concentrate diet feeding on ruminal pH and fermentation, and its effect on the rumen bacterial community in Japanese Black beef cattle during a 20-month fattening period. Nine castrated and fistulated Japanese Black beef cattle were housed with free access to food and water throughout the study period (10-30 months of age). The fattening stages included Early, Middle, and Late stages (10-14, 15-22, and 23-30 months of age, respectively). Cattle were fed high-concentrate diets for the experimental cattle during fattening. The body weight of the cattle was 439 ± 7.6, 561 ± 11.6, and 712 ± 18.5 kg (mean ± SE) during the Early, Middle, and Late stages, respectively. Ruminal pH was measured continuously during the final 7 days of each stage, and rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on day 4 (fourth day during the final 7 days of the pH measurements). The 24-h mean ruminal pH during the Late stage was significantly lower than that during the Early stage. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) during the Late stage was significantly lower than during the Early and Middle stages, but no changes were noted in individual VFA components. The lactic acid concentration during the Late stage was significantly higher than that during the Early and Middle stages. The bacterial richness indices decreased significantly during the Late stage in accordance with the 24-h mean ruminal pH. Among the 35 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared by all samples, the relative abundances of OTU8 (Family Ruminococcaceae) and OTU26 (Genus Butyrivibrio) were positively correlated with the 24-h mean ruminal pH. Total VFA concentration was negatively correlated with OTU167 (Genus Intestinimonas), and lactic acid concentration was correlated positively with OTU167 and OTU238 (Family Lachnospiraceae). These results suggested that long-term high-grain diet feeding gradually lowers ruminal pH and total VFA production during the Late fattening stage. However, the ruminal bacterial community adapted to feeding management and the lower pH during the Late stage by preserving their diversity or altering their richness, composition, and function, to enhance lactic acid production in Japanese Black beef cattle.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the diversity of the Butyrivibrio group bacteria in goat rumen and its response to garlic oil (GO) supplementation as revealed by molecular analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes. Six wethers fitted with ruminal fistulas were assigned to two groups for a cross-over design with 28-d experimental period and 14-d interval. Goats were fed a basal diet without (control) or with GO ruminal infusion (0.8 g/d). Ruminal contents were used for DNA extraction collected before morning feeding on d 28. A total bacterial clone library was firstly constructed by nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene cloned sequences using universal primers. The resulting plasmids selected by Butyrivibrio-specific primers were used to construct a Butyrivibrio group-specific bacterial clone library. Butyrivibrio group represented 12.98% and 10.95% of total bacteria in control and GO group, respectively. In libraries, clones were classified to the genus Pseudobutyrivibrio, Butyrivibrio and others within the family Lachnospiraceae. Additionally, some specific clones were observed in GO group, being classified to the genus Ruminococcus and others within the family Ruminococcaceae. Based on the criterion that the similarity was 97% or greater with database sequences, there were 29.73% and 18.42% of clones identified as known isolates (i.e. B. proteoclasticus and Ps. ruminis) in control and GO groups, respectively. Further clones identified as B. fibrisolvens (5.41%) and R. flavefaciens (7.89%) were specifically found in control and GO groups, respectively. The majority of clones resembled Ps. ruminis (98% to 99% similarity), except for Lachnospiraceae bacteria (87% to 92% similarity) in the two libraries. The two clone libraries also appeared different in Shannon diversity index (control 2.47 and GO group 2.91). Our results indicated that the Butyrivibrio group bacteria had a complex community with considerable unknown species in the goat rumen.
Project description:High-grain (HG) feeding used in intensive goat production can affect the physiology of the rumen wall, but the changes induced in the epimural bacterial community and host Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are not well understood. In this study, 10 male goats were randomly allocated to two groups and fed either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 5). The changes in the ruminal epithelial bacterial community and expression of TLRs during long-term (7 weeks) HG feeding were determined using pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed that HG feeding caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure. At the genus level, our data revealed that it increased the relative abundance of taxa Butyrivibrio, unclassified Clostridiales, Mogibacterium, unclassified Anaerolineaceae, and Succiniclasticum, and decreased the proportion of unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Rikenellaceae, unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae, Howardella, and unclassified Neisseriaceae. The HG-fed goats also exhibited upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 in the rumen epithelium (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that the increase in TLR expression was associated with changes in the relative abundance of ruminal epithelial bacteria. This study provides a first insight into the adaptive response of ruminal epithelial bacterial populations to HG feeding in goats and shows that these changes were associated with alterations in TLR expression. These findings provide new insight into understanding of host-microbial relationships in ruminants.
Project description:At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days). Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea, and Succinivribrio). Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides). In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces. Relative anaerobic fungal abundances did not change significantly in response to diet or age, likely due to high inter-animal variation and the low fiber content of starter concentrate. This study provides new insights into the colonization of archaea, bacteria, and anaerobic fungi communities in pre-ruminant calves that may be useful in designing strategies to promote colonization of target communities to improve functional development.
Project description:The common management practices of dairy calves leads to increased starch concentration in feed, which subsequently may cause rumen acidosis while on milk and during weaning. Until recently, few attempts were undertaken to understand the health risks of prolonged ruminal acidosis in post weaning calves. Resultantly, the molecular changes in the digestive tracts in post-weaning calves with ruminal acidosis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the liver transcriptome changes along with its correlation with the rumen microbial rRNA expression changes in young calves using our model of feed induced ruminal acidosis. In this model, new born calves were fed a highly processed, starch-rich diet starting from one week of age through 16 weeks. A total of eight calves were involved in this study. Four of them were fed the acidosis-inducing diet (Treated) and the rest of the four were fed a standard starter diet (Control). Liver and rumen epithelial tissues were collected at necropsy at 17 weeks of age. Transcriptome analyses were carried out in the liver tissues and rRNA meta-transcriptome analysis were done using the rumen epithelial tissues. The correlation analysis was performed by comparing the liver mRNA expression with the rumen epithelial rRNA abundance at genus level. Calves with induced ruminal acidosis had significantly lower ruminal pH in comparison to the control group, in addition to significantly less weight-gain over the course of the experiment. In liver tissues, a total of 428 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold-change, FC ? 1.5; adjusted P???0.1) were identified in treated group in comparison to control. Biological pathways enriched by these DEGs included cellular component organization, indicating the impact of ruminal acidosis on liver development in young calves. Specifically, the up-regulated genes were enriched in acute phase response (P?<?0.01), pyruvate metabolic process (P?<?0.01) and proton-acceptors (P???0.001), indicating the liver's response to feed induced acidosis at the transcriptome level. Twelve transferase activity related genes had significant correlation with rumen microbial rRNA expression changes. Among these genes, two up-regulated genes were reported with involvement in lipid metabolism in the liver, implying the direct effect of feed-induced acidosis on both the rumen microbial community and liver metabolism. Our study provides insight into the physiological remodeling in the liver resultant from the prolonged acidosis in post weaning calves, which may facilitate future RNA-seq based diagnosis and precision management of rumen acidosis in dairy calves.