Molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for the biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase: identification of the biotin carboxylase and biotin-carrier domains.
ABSTRACT: Soybean genomic clones were isolated based on hybridization to probes that code for the conserved biotinylation domain of biotin-containing enzymes. The corresponding cDNA was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli through fusion to the bacterial trpE gene. The resulting chimeric protein was biotinylated in E. coli. Antibodies raised against the chimeric protein reacted specifically with an 85-kDa biotin-containing polypeptide from soybean and inhibited 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity in cell-free extracts of soybean leaves. Thus, the isolated soybean gene and corresponding cDNA code for the 85-kDa biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA and portions of the genomic clones was determined. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase with sequences of other biotin enzymes suggests that this subunit contains the functional domains for the first half-reaction catalyzed by all biotin-dependent carboxylases--namely, the carboxylation of biotin. These domains are arranged serially on the polypeptide, with the biotin carboxylase domain at the amino terminus and the biotin-carboxyl carrier domain at the carboxyl terminus.
Project description:Human holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes linkage of the vitamin biotin to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domain of five biotin-dependent carboxylases. In the two-step reaction, the activated intermediate, bio-5'-AMP, is first synthesized from biotin and ATP, followed by covalent linkage of the biotin moiety to a specific lysine residue of each carboxylase BCCP domain. Selectivity in HCS-catalyzed biotinylation to the carboxylases was investigated in single turnover stopped flow and quench flow measurements of biotin transfer to the minimal biotin acceptor BCCP fragments of the carboxylases. The results demonstrate that biotinylation of the BCCP fragments of the mitochondrial carboxylases propionyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase is fast and limited by the bimolecular association rate of the enzyme with substrate. By contrast, biotinylation of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) fragments, both of which are accessible to HCS in the cytoplasm, is slow and displays a hyperbolic dependence on substrate concentration. The correlation between HCS accessibility to biotin acceptor substrates and the kinetics of biotinylation suggests that mitochondrial carboxylase sequences evolved to produce fast association rates with HCS in order to ensure biotinylation prior to mitochondrial import. In addition, the results are consistent with a role for HCS specificity in dictating biotin distribution among carboxylases.
Project description:Bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that consists of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase (CT). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a potentially attractive target for novel antibiotics because it catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the first half-reaction, BC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of BCCP. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from carboxybiotinylated BCCP to acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. A series of structures of BC from several bacteria crystallized in the presence of various ATP analogs is described that addresses three major questions concerning the catalytic mechanism. The structure of BC bound to AMPPNP and the two catalytically essential magnesium ions resolves inconsistencies between the kinetics of active-site BC mutants and previously reported BC structures. Another structure of AMPPNP bound to BC shows the polyphosphate chain folded back on itself, and not in the correct (i.e., extended) conformation for catalysis. This provides the first structural evidence for the hypothesis of substrate-induced synergism, which posits that ATP binds nonproductively to BC in the absence of biotin. The BC homodimer has been proposed to exhibit half-sites reactivity where the active sites alternate or "flip-flop" their catalytic cycles. A crystal structure of BC showed the ATP analog AMPPCF(2)P bound to one subunit while the other subunit was unliganded. The liganded subunit was in the closed or catalytic conformation while the unliganded subunit was in the open conformation. This provides the first structural evidence for half-sites reactivity in BC.
Project description:Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase is a biotin-dependent, multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. The Escherichia coli enzyme is composed of a homodimeric biotin carboxylase (BC), biotinylated biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and an ?2?2 heterotetrameric carboxyltransferase. This enzyme complex catalyzes two half-reactions to form malonyl-coenzyme A. BC and BCCP participate in the first half-reaction, whereas carboxyltransferase and BCCP are involved in the second. Three-dimensional structures have been reported for the individual subunits; however, the structural basis for how BCCP reacts with the carboxylase or transferase is unknown. Therefore, we report here the crystal structure of E. coli BCCP complexed with BC to a resolution of 2.49 Å. The protein-protein complex shows a unique quaternary structure and two distinct interfaces for each BCCP monomer. These BCCP binding sites are unique compared to phylogenetically related biotin-dependent carboxylases and therefore provide novel targets for developing antibiotics against bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Project description:Biotin carboxylase catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin and is one component of the multienzyme complex acetyl-CoA carboxylase that catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis in all organisms. Biotin carboxylase from Escherichia coli, whose crystal structures with and without ATP bound have been determined, has served as a model system for this component of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex. The two crystal structures revealed a large conformational change of one domain relative to the other domains when ATP is bound. Unfortunately, the crystal structure with ATP bound was obtained with an inactive site-directed mutant of the enzyme. As a consequence the structure with ATP bound lacked key structural information such as for the Mg2+ ions and contained altered conformations of key active-site residues. Therefore, nanosecond molecular dynamics studies of the wild-type biotin carboxylase were undertaken to supplant and amend the results of the crystal structures. Specifically, the protein-metal interactions of the two catalytically critical Mg2+ ions bound in the active site are presented along with a reevaluation of the conformations of active-site residues bound to ATP. In addition, the regions of the polypeptide chain that serve as hinges for the large conformational change were identified. The results of the hinge analysis complemented a covariance analysis that identified the individual structural elements of biotin carboxylase that change their conformation in response to ATP binding.
Project description:Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1'-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO? from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin.
Project description:Biotin carboxylase [biotin-carboxyl-carrier-protein:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 220.127.116.11] is the enzyme mediating the first step of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase [acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 18.104.22.168] reaction. We screened an Escherichia coli DNA library and a DNA fragment carrying the biotin carboxylase gene fabG, and its flanking regions were cloned. The gene for biotin carboxyl carrier protein was found 13 base pairs upstream of the fabG gene. Nucleotide sequencing of the recombinant plasmids revealed that the fabG codes for a 449-amino acid residue protein with a calculated molecular weight of 49,320, a value in good agreement with that of 51,000 determined by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme. The deduced amino acid sequence of biotin carboxylase is also consistent with the partial amino acid sequence determined by Edman degradation. The primary structure of this enzyme exhibits a high homology with those of other biotin-dependent enzymes and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase [carbon-dioxide:L-glutamine amino-ligase (ADP-forming, carbamate-phosphorylating), EC 22.214.171.124]; therefore, all these enzymes probably function through the same mechanism of reaction.
Project description:Acyl coenzyme A carboxylase (acyl-CoA carboxylase) was purified from Acidianus brierleyi. The purified enzyme showed a unique subunit structure (three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 62, 59, and 20 kDa) and a molecular mass of approximately 540 kDa, indicating an alpha(4)beta(4)gamma(4) subunit structure. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 60 to 70 degrees C, and the optimum pH was around 6.4 to 6.9. Interestingly, the purified enzyme also had propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity. The apparent K(m) for acetyl-CoA was 0.17 +/- 0.03 mM, with a V(max) of 43.3 +/- 2.8 U mg(-1), and the K(m) for propionyl-CoA was 0.10 +/- 0.008 mM, with a V(max) of 40.8 +/- 1.0 U mg(-1). This result showed that A. brierleyi acyl-CoA carboxylase is a bifunctional enzyme in the modified 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Both enzymatic activities were inhibited by malonyl-CoA, methymalonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, or CoA but not by palmitoyl-CoA. The gene encoding acyl-CoA carboxylase was cloned and characterized. Homology searches of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 62-, 59-, and 20-kDa subunits indicated the presence of functional domains for carboxyltransferase, biotin carboxylase, and biotin carboxyl carrier protein, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of acetyl-CoA carboxylases revealed that archaeal acyl-CoA carboxylases are closer to those of Bacteria than to those of Eucarya. The substrate-binding motifs of the enzymes are highly conserved among the three domains. The ATP-binding residues were found in the biotin carboxylase subunit, whereas the conserved biotin-binding site was located on the biotin carboxyl carrier protein. The acyl-CoA-binding site and the carboxybiotin-binding site were found in the carboxyltransferase subunit.
Project description:The genes encoding two subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and biotin carboxylase have been cloned from Bacillus subtilis. DNA sequencing and RNA blot hybridization studies indicated that the B. subtilis accB homolog which encodes biotin carboxyl carrier protein, is part of an operon that includes accC, the gene encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.
Project description:The process leading to the rise of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in rat mammary tissue after the onset of lactation was investigated. The kinetics of change in enzyme activity and enzyme immunotitratable with antibody against avian liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase were determined during the course of lactogenic differentiation. The antibody inactivates and specifically precipitates acetyl-CoA carboxylase from rat mammary tissue as well as that from chicken liver cytosol. Characterization of the immunoprecipitate of the mammary tissue carboxylase by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis reveals a single biotin-containing polypeptide of about 230000mol.wt. This molecular weight is approximately twice that reported for the avian liver enzyme. However, chicken liver cytosol prepared in the presence of trypsin inhibitor and subjected to immunoprecipitation gives rise to a biotin-containing subunit of 230000mol.wt. as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis; omission of proteinase inhibitor leads to a subunit(s) approximately one-half this size. Throughout gestation both carboxylase activity and amounts of immunotitratable enzyme remained low; however, after parturition both parameters rose concomitantly to values 30-40 times the initial values. Therefore the elevated concentration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase appears to result from an increased rate of synthesis of enzyme relative to degradation rather than to activation of a pre-existing form of the enzyme.
Project description:We have cloned a DNA fragment from a genomic library of Myxococcus xanthus using an oligonucleotide probe representing conserved regions of biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases. The fragment contained two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), designated the accB and accA genes, capable of encoding a 538-amino-acid protein of 58.1 kDa and a 573-amino-acid protein of 61.5 kDa, respectively. The protein (AccA) encoded by the accA gene was strikingly similar to biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of pyruvate carboxylase. The putative motifs for ATP binding, CO(2) fixation, and biotin binding were found in AccA. The accB gene was located upstream of the accA gene, and they formed a two-gene operon. The protein (AccB) encoded by the accB gene showed high degrees of sequence similarity with carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Carboxybiotin-binding and acyl-CoA-binding domains, which are conserved in several carboxyltransferase subunits of acyl-CoA carboxylases, were found in AccB. An accA disruption mutant showed a reduced growth rate and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity compared with the wild-type strain. Western blot analysis indicated that the product of the accA gene was a biotinylated protein that was expressed during the exponential growth phase. Based on these results, we propose that this M. xanthus acetyl-CoA carboxylase consists of two subunits, which are encoded by the accB and accA genes, and occupies a position between prokaryotic and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in terms of evolution.